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1.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 164-175, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832437

ABSTRACT

The activation of neurotrophic signaling pathways following the upregulation of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a member of the transforming growth factor-β family, has a potential neuroprotective effect in the adult brain. Herein, we report that hippocampal transduction of adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (AAV1) with a constitutively active form of ras homolog enriched in brain [Rheb(S16H)], which can stimulate the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampal neurons, induces the increases in expression of GDNF and GDNF family receptor α-1 (GFRα-1), in neurons and astrocytes in the hippocampus of rat brain in vivo . Moreover, upregulation of GDNF and GFRα-1 contributes to neuroprotection against thrombin-induced neurotoxicity in the hippocampus. These results suggest that AAV1-Rheb(S16H) transduction of hippocampal neurons, resulting in neurotrophic interactions between neurons and astrocytes, may be useful for neuroprotection in the adult hippocampus.

2.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 226-237, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714905

ABSTRACT

An abnormal reorganization of the dentate gyrus and neurotoxic events are important phenotypes in the hippocampus of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The effects of morin, a bioflavonoid constituent of many herbs and fruits, on epileptic seizures have not yet been elucidated, though its beneficial effects, such as its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties, are well-described in various neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated whether treatment with morin hydrate (MH) can reduce the susceptibility to seizures, granule cell dispersion (GCD), mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity, and the increases in the levels of apoptotic molecules and inflammatory cytokines in the kainic acid (KA)-induced seizure mouse model. Our results showed that oral administration of MH could reduce susceptibility to seizures and lead to the inhibition of GCD and mTORC1 activity in the KA-treated hippocampus. Moreover, treatment with MH significantly reduced the increased levels of apoptotic signaling molecules and pro-inflammatory mediators in the KA-treated hippocampus compared with control mice, suggesting a neuroprotective role. Therefore, these results suggest that morin has a therapeutic potential against epilepsy through its abilities to inhibit GCD and neurotoxic events in the in vivo hippocampus.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Cytokines , Dentate Gyrus , Epilepsy , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe , Fruit , Hippocampus , Humans , Kainic Acid , Mice , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuroprotection , Phenotype , Seizures , Sirolimus
3.
Journal of Stroke ; : 256-266, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193778

ABSTRACT

Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and physical disability among adults. It has been 15 years since clinical trials of stem cell therapy in patients with stroke have been conducted using adult stem cells like mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow mononuclear cells. Results of randomized controlled trials showed that adult stem cell therapy was safe but its efficacy was modest, underscoring the need for new stem cell therapy strategies. The primary limitations of current stem cell therapies include (a) the limited source of engraftable stem cells, (b) the presence of optimal time window for stem cell therapies, (c) inherited limitation of stem cells in terms of growth, trophic support, and differentiation potential, and (d) possible transplanted cell-mediated adverse effects, such as tumor formation. Here, we discuss recent advances that overcome these hurdles in adult stem cell therapy for stroke.


Subject(s)
Adult Stem Cells , Adult , Biocompatible Materials , Bone Marrow , Cause of Death , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Stem Cells , Stroke
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-123048

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is a rare disorder and is often difficult to diagnose due to the lack of a confirmatory test. PACNS can generally be diagnosed based on typical angiographic findings. We describe herein a patient diagnosed with PACNS despite the presence of normal findings on conventional angiography. CASE REPORT: A 44-year-old man with a recent history of ischemic stroke in the right posterior cerebral artery territory developed acute-onset vertigo. Diffusion-weighted imaging revealed an acute infarction within the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery. His medical history was unremarkable except for hyperlipidemia; the initial examination revealed mild gait imbalance. During the 10 days of hospital admission, the patient experienced four recurrent ischemic strokes within the posterior circulation territory (occipital lobe, pons, and cerebellum). He was diagnosed with recurrent cerebral infarctions due to PACNS. The basilar artery exhibited no demonstrable luminal stenosis, but there were direct imaging signs of central nervous system angiitis including wall thickening and contrast enhancement. High-dose intravenous steroid therapy followed by oral prednisolone was administered. There was no further stroke recurrence and follow-up imaging of the arterial walls showed normalization of their characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: The present case emphasizes the importance of wall imaging in the diagnosis and treatment of PACNS.


Subject(s)
Adult , Angiography , Arteries , Basilar Artery , Central Nervous System , Cerebral Infarction , Constriction, Pathologic , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Gait , Humans , Hyperlipidemias , Infarction , Inflammation , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Phenobarbital , Pons , Posterior Cerebral Artery , Prednisolone , Recurrence , Stroke , Vasculitis , Vasculitis, Central Nervous System , Vertigo
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-84610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of stroke (e.g., atherosclerosis) and brain injury after ischemic stroke. Statins, which inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, have both pleiotropic and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-lowering properties. Recent trials have shown that high-dose statins reduce the risk of cerebrovascular events. However, there is a paucity of data regarding the changes in the oxidative stress markers in patients with atherosclerotic stroke after statin use. This study evaluated changes in oxidative stress markers after short-term use of a high-dose statin in patients with atherosclerotic stroke. METHODS: Rosuvastatin was administered at a dose of 20 mg/day to 99 patients who had suffered an atherosclerotic stroke and no prior statin use. Blood samples were collected before and 1 month after dosing, and the serum levels of four oxidative stress markers-malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidized LDL (oxLDL), protein carbonyl content (PCO), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)-were evaluated to determine the oxidation of MDA and lipids, proteins, and DNA, respectively, at both of those time points. RESULTS: The baseline levels and the degrees of reduction after statin use differed among the oxidative stress markers measured. MDA and PCO levels were associated with infarct volumes on diffusion-weighted imaging (r=0.551, p<0.05, and r=0.444, p=0.05, respectively). Statin use decreased MDA and oxLDL levels (both p<0.05) but not the PCO or 8-OHdG level. While the reduction in MDA levels after statin use was not associated with changes in cholesterol, that in oxLDL levels was proportional to the reductions in cholesterol (r=0.479, p<0.01), LDL (r=0.459, p<0.01), and apolipoprotein B (r=0.444, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The impact of individual oxidative stress markers differs with time after ischemic stroke, suggesting that different oxidative markers reflect different aspects of oxidative stress. In addition, short-term use of a statin exerts antioxidant effects against lipid peroxidation via lipid-lowering-dependent and -independent mechanisms, but not against protein or DNA oxidation in atherosclerotic stroke patients.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Apolipoproteins , Atherosclerosis , Brain Injuries , Cholesterol , Coenzyme A , DNA , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Lipid Peroxidation , Lipoproteins , Oxidative Stress , Oxidoreductases , Stroke , Rosuvastatin Calcium
6.
Journal of Stroke ; : 27-37, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-214100

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Major stroke clinical trials have failed during the past decades. The failures suggest the presence of heterogeneity among stroke patients. Biomarkers refer to indicators found in the blood, other body fluids or tissues that predicts physiologic or disease states, increased disease risk, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. Stroke biomarkers could be used as a guiding tool for more effective personalized therapy. MAIN CONTENTS: Three aspects of stroke biomarkers are explored in detail. First, the possible role of biomarkers in patients with stroke is discussed. Second, the limitations of conventional biomarkers (especially protein biomarkers) in the area of stroke research are presented with the reasons. Lastly, various types of biomarkers including traditional and novel genetic, microvesicle, and metabolomics-associated biomarkers are introduced with their advantages and disadvantages. We especially focus on the importance of comprehensive approaches using a variety of stroke biomarkers. CONCLUSION: Although biomarkers are not recommended in practice guidelines for use in the diagnosis or treatment of stroke, many efforts have been made to overcome the limitations of biomarkers. The studies reviewed herein suggest that comprehensive analysis of different types of stroke biomarkers will improve the understanding of individual pathophysiologies and further promote the development of screening tools for of high-risk patients, and predicting models of stroke outcome and rational stroke therapy tailored to the characteristics of each case.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Body Fluids , Humans , Precision Medicine , Mass Screening , Population Characteristics , Risk Factors , Stroke
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-94335

ABSTRACT

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress results from disrupted protein folding triggered by protein mutation or oxidation, reduced proteasome activity, and altered Ca2+ homeostasis. ER stress is accompanied by activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and cell death pathway. We examined if the UPR and cell death pathway would be activated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). RT-PCR experiments revealed increased splicing of X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1), an UPR transcription factor, in AD compared with age-matched control. Among target genes of XBP-1, expression of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), but not glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), was increased in AD, suggesting disturbed activation of the UPR in AD. C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), caspase-3, caspase-4, and caspase-12, downstream mediators of cell death pathway, were activated in AD. Neither the UPR nor cell death pathway was induced in aged Tg2576 mice, a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease that reveals both plaque pathology and some cognitive deficits. The present study suggests that disturbed induction of the UPR and activation of the pro-apoptotic proteins contribute to neuropathological process in AD irrespective of amyloid beta and senile plaque.

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