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1.
Journal of Stroke ; : 113-123, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874951

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose To evaluate the outcome events and bleeding complications of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guideline-matched oral anticoagulant therapy for patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation (AF). @*Methods@#Patients with acute ischemic stroke and AF from a nationwide multicenter registry (Korean ATrial fibrillaTion EvaluatioN regisTry in Ischemic strOke patieNts [K-ATTENTION]) between January 2013 and December 2015 were included in the study. Patients were divided into the ESC guideline-matched and the non-matched groups. The primary outcome was recurrence of any stroke during the 90-day follow-up period. Secondary outcomes were major adverse cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events, ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, acute coronary syndrome, allcause mortality, and major hemorrhage. Propensity score matching and logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the effect of the treatments administered. @*Results@#Among 2,321 eligible patients, 1,126 patients were 1:1 matched to the ESC guidelinematched and the non-matched groups. As compared with the non-matched group, the ESC guideline-matched group had a lower risk of any recurrent stroke (1.4% vs. 3.4%; odds ratio [OR], 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18 to 0.95). The risk of recurrent ischemic stroke was lower in the ESC guideline-matched group than in the non-matched group (0.9% vs. 2.7%; OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.88). There was no significant difference in the other secondary outcomes between the two groups. @*Conclusions@#ESC guideline-matched oral anticoagulant therapy was associated with reduced risks of any stroke and ischemic stroke as compared with the non-matched therapy.

2.
Journal of Stroke ; : 1-10, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834647

ABSTRACT

Systemic cancer and ischemic stroke are common conditions and two of the most frequent causes of death among the elderly. The association between cancer and stroke has been reported worldwide. Stroke causes severe disability for cancer patients, while cancer increases the risk of stroke. Moreover, cancer-related stroke is expected to increase due to advances in cancer treatment and an aging population worldwide. Because cancer and stroke share risk factors (such as smoking and obesity) and treatment of cancer can increase the risk of stroke (e.g., accelerated atherosclerosis after radiation therapy), cancer may accelerate conventional stroke mechanisms (i.e., atherosclerosis, small vessel disease, and cardiac thrombus). In addition, active cancer and chemotherapy may enhance thrombin generation causing stroke related to coagulopathy. Patients with stroke due to cancer-related coagulopathy showed the characteristics findings of etiologic work ups, D-dimer levels, and infarct patterns. In this review, we summarized the frequency of cancer-related stroke among patients with ischemic stroke, mechanisms of stroke with in cancer patients, and evaluation and treatment of cancer-related stroke. We discussed the possibility of cancer-related stroke as a stroke subtype, and presented the most recent discoveries in the pathomechanisms and treatment of stroke due to cancer-related coagulopathy.

3.
Journal of Stroke ; : 332-339, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766258

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate the number and characteristics of patients eligible for endovascular treatment (EVT) determined using three different selection methods: clinical-core mismatch, target mismatch, and collateral status. METHODS: Using the data of consecutive patients from two prospectively maintained registries of university medical centers, the number and characteristics of patients according to the three selection methods were investigated and their correlation was analyzed. Patients with anterior circulation stroke due to occlusion of the middle cerebral and/or internal carotid artery and a National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of ≥6 points, who arrived within 8 hours or between 6 and 12 hours of symptom onset and underwent magnetic resonance imaging prior to EVT, were included. Collateral status was assessed using magnetic resonance perfusion-derived collateral flow maps. RESULTS: Three hundred thirty-five patients were investigated; the proportions of patients who were eligible and ineligible for EVT in all three selection methods were both small (n=85, 25.4%; n=54, 16.1%, respectively). The intercorrelation among the three selection methods was low (κ=0.235). The baseline NIHSS score and onset-to-selection time interval were associated with the presence of clinical-core mismatch, while the penumbra/core volume ratio and onset-to-selection time interval were related to target mismatch; none of these variables were associated with collateral status. The infarct core volume was associated with favorable profiles in all three selection methods. CONCLUSIONS: Although the application of individual selection methods resulted in favorable outcomes after EVT in clinical trials, there is a significant discrepancy in EVT eligibility depending on the selection method used.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , Carotid Artery, Internal , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Prospective Studies , Registries , Stroke
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The clinical implications of echocardiography findings for long-term outcomes in atrial fibrillation (AF)-related stroke patients are unknown. METHODS: This was a substudy of the Korean ATrial fibrillaTion EvaluatioN regisTry in Ischemic strOke patieNts (K-ATTENTION), which is a multicenter-based cohort comprising prospective stroke registries from 11 tertiary centers. Stroke survivors who underwent two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography during hospitalization were enrolled. Echocardiography markers included the left-ventricle (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF), the left atrium diameter, and the ratio of the peak transmitral filling velocity to the mean mitral annular velocity during early diastole (E/e′ ratio). LVEF was categorized into normal (≥55%), mildly decreased (>40% and <55%), and severely decreased (≤40%). The E/e′ ratio associated with the LV filling pressure was categorized into normal (<8), borderline (≥8 and <15), and elevated (≥15). Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed for recurrent stroke, major adverse cardiac events, and all-cause death. RESULTS: This study finally included 1,947 patients. Over a median follow-up of 1.65 years (interquartile range, 0.42–2.87 years), the rates of recurrent stroke, major adverse cardiac events, and all-cause death were 35.1, 10.8, and 69.6 cases per 1,000 person-years, respectively. Multivariable analyses demonstrated that severely decreased LVEF was associated with a higher risks of major adverse cardiac events [hazard ratio (HR), 3.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.58–9.69] and all-cause death (HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.23–3.10). The multivariable fractional polynomial plot indicated that recurrent stroke might be associated with a lower LVEF. CONCLUSIONS: Severe LV systolic dysfunction could be a determinant of long-term outcomes in AF-related stroke.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Cohort Studies , Diastole , Echocardiography , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Atria , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , Registries , Stroke , Survivors
5.
Journal of Stroke ; : 77-87, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121540

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with active cancer are at an increased risk for stroke. Hypercoagulability plays an important role in cancer-related stroke. We aimed to test whether 1) hypercoagulability is a predictor of survival, and 2) correction of the hypercoagulable state leads to better survival in patients with stroke and active cancer. METHODS: We recruited consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and active systemic cancer between January 2006 and July 2015. Hypercoagulability was assessed using plasma D-dimer levels before and after 7 days of anticoagulation treatment. The study outcomes included overall and 1-year survival. Plasma D-dimer levels before and after treatment were tested in univariate and multivariate Cox regression models. We controlled for systemic metastasis, stroke mechanism, age, stroke severity, primary cancer type, histology, and atrial fibrillation using the forward stepwise method. RESULTS: A total of 268 patients were included in the analysis. Patients with high (3rd–4th quartiles) pre-treatment plasma D-dimer levels showed decreased overall and 1-year survival (adjusted HR, 2.19 [95% CI, 1.46–3.31] and 2.70 [1.68–4.35], respectively). After anticoagulation treatment, post-treatment D-dimer level was significantly reduced and independently associated with poor 1-year survival (adjusted HR, 1.03 [95% CI, 1.01–1.05] per 1 μg/mL increase, P=0.015). The successful correction of hypercoagulability was a protective factor for 1-year survival (adjusted HR 0.26 [CI 0.10–0.68], P=0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Hypercoagulability is associated with poor survival after stroke in patients with active cancer. Effective correction of hypercoagulability may play a protective role for survival in these patients.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Humans , Methods , Mortality , Neoplasm Metastasis , Plasma , Prognosis , Protective Factors , Stroke , Thrombophilia
6.
Journal of Stroke ; : 88-96, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Perfusion-diffusion mismatch has been evaluated to determine whether the presence of a target mismatch helps to identify patients who respond favorably to recanalization therapies. We compared the impact on infarct growth of collateral status and the presence of a penumbra, using magnetic resonance perfusion (MRP) techniques. METHODS: Consecutive patients who were candidates for recanalization therapy and underwent serial diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and MRP were enrolled. A collateral flow map derived from MRP source data was generated by automatic post-processing. The impact of a target mismatch (Tmax>6 s/apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) volume≥1.8, ADC volume10 s for ADC volume<100 mL) on infarct growth was compared with MR-based collateral grading on day 7 DWI, using multivariate linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 73 patients, 55 (75%) showed a target mismatch, whereas collaterals were poor in 14 (19.2%), intermediate in 36 (49.3%), and good in 23 (31.5%) patients. After adjusting for initial severity of stroke, early recanalization (P<0.001) and the MR-based collateral grading (P=0.001), but not the presence of a target mismatch, were independently associated with infarct growth. Even in patients with a target mismatch and successful recanalization, the degree of infarct growth depended on the collateral status. Perfusion status at later Tmax time points (beyond the arterial phase) was more closely correlated with collateral status. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with good collaterals show a favorable outcome in terms of infarct growth, regardless of the presence of a target mismatch pattern. The presence of slow blood filling predicts collateral status and infarct growth.


Subject(s)
Collateral Circulation , Diffusion , Humans , Linear Models , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Perfusion , Stroke
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65867

ABSTRACT

Arterial dissection is an important cause of stroke. We report two cases of isolated posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) dissection diagnosed by high-resolution vessel-wall MRI (HRVW-MRI). One subject complained of abrupt-onset vertigo and headache, and the other subject had headache, vertigo, and Horner syndrome. Conventional MRA showed only focal dilatation of the PICA, but HRVW-MRI revealed intramural hematoma and double-lumen contour in the PICA, suggesting arterial dissection. We suggest that the use of HRVW-MRI should be considered when diagnosing isolated PICA dissection in a PICA infarct with an unknown cause.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Dilatation , Headache , Hematoma , Horner Syndrome , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pica , Stroke , Vertigo
8.
Journal of Stroke ; : 304-311, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Left atrial dysfunction has been reported in patients with patent foramen ovale (PFO). Here we investigated the role of left atrial dysfunction in the development of embolic stroke in patients with PFO. METHODS: We identified consecutive patients with embolic stroke of undetermined sources except for PFO (PFO+ESUS). Healthy subjects with PFO served as controls (PFO+control). A stratified analysis by 10-year age group and an age- and sex- matching analysis were performed to compare echocardiographic markers between groups. In the PFO+ESUS group, infarct patterns of PFO-related stroke were determined (cortical vs. cortico-subcortical) and analyzed in correlation with left atrial function parameters. RESULTS: A total of 118 patients and 231 controls were included. The left atrial volume indices (LAVIs) of the PFO+ESUS patients were higher than those of the PFO+controls in age groups of 40–49, 50–59, and 60–69 years (P28 mL/m2) LAVI was more associated with the cortical infarct pattern (P=0.043 for an acute infarction and P=0.024 for a chronic infarction, both adjusted for age and shunt amount). The degree of right-to-left shunting was not associated with infarct patterns, but with the posterior location of acute infarcts (P=0.028). CONCLUSIONS: Left atrial enlargement was associated with embolic stroke in subjects with PFO. Left atrial physiology might contribute to the development of PFO-related stroke and need to be taken into consideration for optimal prevention of PFO-related stroke.


Subject(s)
Atrial Function, Left , Echocardiography , Embolism , Embolism, Paradoxical , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Healthy Volunteers , Heart Atria , Humans , Infarction , Physiology , Stroke
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-85353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to use brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to identify the mechanism of stroke in patients with Takayasu's arteritis (TA). METHODS: Among a retrospective cohort of 190 TA patients, 21 (3 males and 18 females) with a mean age of 39.9 years (range 15-68 years) who had acute cerebral infarctions were included in lesion pattern analyses. The patients' characteristics were reviewed, and infarction patterns and the degree of cerebral artery stenosis were evaluated. Ischemic lesions were categorized into five subgroups: cortical border-zone, internal border-zone, large lobar, large deep, and small subcortical infarctions. RESULTS: In total, 21 ischemic stroke events with relevant ischemic lesions on MRI were observed. The frequencies of the lesion types were as follows: large lobar (n=7, 33.3%), cortical border zone (n=6, 28.6%), internal border zone (n=1, 4.8%), small cortical (n=0, 0%), and large deep (n=7, 33.3%). MRA revealed that 11 patients had intracranial artery stenosis. CONCLUSIONS: Hemodynamic compromise in large-artery stenosis and thromboembolic mechanisms play significant roles in ischemic stroke associated with TA.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Brain , Cerebral Arteries , Cerebral Infarction , Cohort Studies , Constriction, Pathologic , Hemodynamics , Humans , Infarction , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Retrospective Studies , Stroke , Takayasu Arteritis , Thromboembolism , Vasculitis
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-211526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cancer and ischemic stroke are two of the most common causes of death among the elderly, and associations between them have been reported. However, the main pathomechanisms of stroke in cancer patients are not well known, and can only be established based on accurate knowledge of the characteristics of cancer-related strokes. We review herein recent studies concerning the clinical, laboratory, and radiological features of patients with cancer-related stroke. MAIN CONTENTS: This review covers the epidemiology, underlying mechanisms, and acute and preventive treatments for cancer-related stroke. First, the characteristics of stroke (clinical and radiological features) and systemic cancer (type and extent) in patients with cancer-specific stroke are discussed. Second, the role of laboratory tests in the early identification of patients with cancer-specific stroke is discussed. Specifically, serum D-dimer levels (as a marker of a hypercoagulable state) and embolic signals on transcranial Doppler (suggestive of embolic origin) may provide clues regarding changes in the levels of coagulopathy related to cancer and anticoagulation. Finally, strategies for stroke treatment in cancer patients are discussed, emphasizing the importance of preventive strategies (i.e., the use of anticoagulants) over acute revascularization therapy in cancer-related stroke. CONCLUSION: Recent studies have revealed that the characteristics of cancer-related stroke are distinct from those of conventional stroke. Our understanding of the characteristics of cancer-related stroke is essential to the correct management of these patients. The studies presented in this review highlight the importance of a personalized approach in treating stroke patients with cancer.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anticoagulants , Cause of Death , Embolism , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , Stroke
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-119679

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Between combined and staged operations of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for patients with concurrent coronary and carotid disease, each treatment strategy has its own advantages and disadvantages. We attempted to compare early surgical results between the two operations. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 71 patients who underwent either combined CEA & CABG (n=37) or staged CABG & CEA (n=34) in a single institute between January 2001 and March 2010. After comparing patients' demographics and preoperative neurologic and cardiac status, we compared early (<1 month) postoperative cardiac or neurologic complications and surgical mortality between the 2 groups. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in patients' demographics and indications for operation the between 2 groups. There were 2 (5.4%) cases of postoperative stroke in combined groups and 1 (2.9%) in staged group. However, there was no myocardial infarction or death. In staged operation group, during the interval time between the two operations, 5 cases (14.7%) of stroke developed, of which, all patients recovered without any sequelae by anticoagulation. CONCLUSION: After experiencing low postoperative cardiac or neurologic morbidity or mortality after combined CABG and CEA, we conclude that combined CABG and CEA was a safe and feasible treatment option for patients with neurologic symptoms and in stable cardiac status. In the staged operation group of patients, we observed development of neurologic events during the interval period between CABG and CEA. To attain optimal treatment strategy in asymptomatic patients, further prospective study would be required.


Subject(s)
Carotid Arteries , Coronary Artery Bypass , Coronary Vessels , Demography , Endarterectomy , Endarterectomy, Carotid , Humans , Medical Records , Myocardial Infarction , Neurologic Manifestations , Retrospective Studies , Stroke
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-35369

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the short and long-term outcomes following carotid endarterectomy (CEA) with either primary closure (PC) or patch angioplasty (PAT) performed by single center vascular surgeons. METHODS: Between November 1994 and March 2008, a total of 366 patients underwent 401 consecutive primary CEA procedures at our institution. We retrospectively reviewed patients' medical records. Two vascular surgeons prefer routine PC and one vascular surgeon prefer routine patch closure using bovine pericardial patch. Postoperative neurologic complications were determined by clinical neurologists. Restenosis was defined as >50% stenosis on follow-up duplex scan. Data was analyzed to compare the early (< or =30 days) and late results of CEA between PC group and PAT group. RESULTS: The mean follow-up duration was significantly longer in the PC group than that in the PAT group (61.7 months vs. 41.2 months, P<0.001). Coronary artery disease and combined CEA with coronary artery bypass were more common in the PAT group (39% vs. 55%, P<0.002; 4% vs. 12%, P<0.004). Perioperative ipsilateral TIA/stroke rates in the PC and PAT groups were 1.5% and 0.7% (PC=4/270 vs. PAT=1/131, P=0.564). Regarding late outcomes, Kaplan-Meier analysis failed to show any difference between 2 groups on freedom from ipsilateral transient ischemic attack (TIA)/stroke, freedom from restenosis and TIA/stroke-free survival (P=0.851, P=0.232, P=0.103, log-rank test). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that PC following CEA is not necessarily inferior to PAT for experienced surgeons.


Subject(s)
Angioplasty , Constriction, Pathologic , Coronary Artery Bypass , Coronary Artery Disease , Endarterectomy, Carotid , Follow-Up Studies , Freedom , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Microembolic signals (MES) are associated with the pathogenic mechanism of ischemic stroke with large-artery atherosclerotic disease. We examined the relationship between MES on a transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) and lesion patterns on diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in acute ischemic strokes associated with atherosclerotic diseases of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and internal carotid artery (ICA). METHODS: A total of 405 consecutive patients were monitored for MES within 48 hours of symptom onset. Patients with MES and DWI lesions in the territory of the MCA or ICA and corresponding MCA/ICA stenosis or occlusion on MR angiography (MRA) were included. MCA velocities and lesion patterns on DWI were compared. RESULTS: MES were detected in 25 patients (MCA: 13, ICA: 12). The mean number of MES during 30 minutes of monitoring was 14.2+/-17.3 (range: 1-64, MCA: 13.9+/-13.6, ICA: 14.5+/-21.6, p-value=0.098). The mean flow velocity in the ipsilateral MCA in patients with MCA disease was higher than in patients with ICA disease (129.9+/-74.4 cm/s vs 61.1+/-28.2 cm/s, p=0.006). The frequency of multiple lesions on DWI was higher inpatients with ICA disease than in those with MCA disease (46.1% vs 100%, p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Multiple lesions on DWI were more frequent in ICA disease with MES than in MCA disease. Artery-to-artery embolism may be a more important stroke mechanism in acute ischemic stroke with ICA disease.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Arteries , Carotid Artery, Internal , Carotid Stenosis , Constriction, Pathologic , Embolism , Humans , Inpatients , Middle Cerebral Artery , Stroke , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30336

ABSTRACT

Schilder's disease or myelinoclastic diffuse sclerosis (MDS) is a rare variant of multiple sclerosis. We report a 66-year-old woman with progressive motor weakness and diffuse white matter degeneration on MRI, which satisfies the Poser's restrictive criteria of MDS. As previously reported cases of probable Schilder's disease did not meet the criteria correctly, we consider our patient is the first pathology-proven case of MDS in Korea.


Subject(s)
Aged , Demyelinating Diseases , Diffuse Cerebral Sclerosis of Schilder , Female , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-211226

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of ischemia during protected carotid artery stenting (CAS) as well as to compare the protective efficacy of the balloon and filter devices on diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-one consecutive protected CAS procedures in 70 patients with a severe (> 70%) or symptomatic moderate (> 50%) carotid artery stenosis were examined. A balloon device (PercuSurge GuardWire) and a filter device (FilterWire EX/EZ, Emboshield) was used in 33 cases (CAS-B group) and 38 cases (CAS-F group) to prevent distal embolization, respectively. All the patients underwent DWI within seven days before and after the procedures. The number of new cerebral ischemic lesions on the post-procedural DWI were counted and divided into ipsilateral and contralateral lesions according to the relationship with the stenting side. RESULTS: New cerebral ischemic lesions were detected in 13 (39.4%) out of the 33 CAS-Bs and in 15 (39.5%) out of the 38 CAS-Fs. The mean number of total, ipsilateral and contralateral new cerebral ischemic lesion was 2.39, 1.67 and 0.73 in the CAS-B group and 2.11, 1.32 and 0.79 in the CAS-F group, respectively. No statistical differences were found between the two groups (p = 0.96, 0.74 and 0.65, respectively). The embolic complications encountered included two retinal infarctions and one hemiparesis in the CAS-B group (9.09%), and one retinal infarction, one hemiparesis and one ataxia in the CAS-F group (7.89%). There was a similar incidence of embolic complications in the two groups (p = 1.00). CONCLUSION: The type of distal protection device used such as a balloon and filter does not affect the incidence of cerebral embolization after protected CAS.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Balloon Occlusion , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation/instrumentation , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Intracranial Embolism/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Paresis/etiology , Retinal Artery Occlusion/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Stents
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192279

ABSTRACT

The retrosplenial cortex is a cytoarchitecturally distinct brain structure located in the posterior cingulate gyrus and bordering the splenium, precuneus, and calcarine fissure. Functional imaging suggests that the retrosplenium is involved in memory, visuospatial processing, proprioception, and emotion. We report on a patient who developed reversible verbal and visual memory deficits following a stroke. Neuropsychological testing revealed both anterograde and retrograde memory deficits in verbal and visual modalities. Brain diffusion-weighted and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated an acute infarction of the left retrosplenium.


Subject(s)
Brain , Gyrus Cinguli , Humans , Infarction , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Memory Disorders , Memory , Neuropsychological Tests , Proprioception , Stroke
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65018

ABSTRACT

Reflex movements have been reported to occur in up to 75% of brain-dead patients, but this issue has not been addressed in Korea. The patients admitted to our hospital who met the criteria for brain death were enrolled between March 2003 and February 2005. The frequency and type of reflex movements in these patients were evaluated prospectively using a standardized protocol. Brain death was determined according to the guideline of Korean Medical Association. Of 26 patients who were included, five (19.2%) exhibited reflex movements such as the pronation-extension reflex, abdominal reflex, flexion reflex, the Lazarus sign, and periodic leg movements. This finding suggests that the frequency of spinal reflex movements is not rare and the awareness of these movements may prevent delays in brain-dead diagnosis and misinterpretations.


Subject(s)
Spinal Cord/physiopathology , Reflex , Prospective Studies , Physical Stimulation , Organ Transplantation , Movement , Middle Aged , Male , Humans , Female , Extremities/physiopathology , Brain Death/pathology , Adult
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67798

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Microembolic signals (MES) have been implicated as an important mechanism of acute ischemic stroke in middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis. We conducted a prospective study to correlate MES and patterns of diffusion-weighted MR images (DWI). METHODS: A total of 211 consecutive patients with MCA territory ischemic symptoms within 24 hours of symptom onset were monitored for MES. Among them patients with acute ischemic lesion in MCA territory on DWI were included. MCA velocities on transcranial Doppler (TCD) examination, patterns and multiplicity of DWI lesions, and the degree of stenosis on MR angiography (MRA) were compared between MES positive and negative groups. RESULTS: MES were detected in 9 patients (17.3%) among 52 patients who fulfilled our inclusion criteria. The mean number of MES per 30 minutes was 9.11+/-5.94 (range, 1-19). Mean flow velocity of insonated ipsilateral MCA in MES positive group was higher than that of MES negative group (115.67+/-81.9 cm/s vs 58.07+/-23.5 cm/s, p= 0.032). The degree of MCA stenosis on MRA and the presence of MES had significant relationship (p=0.039), but there was no significant relationship between lesion multiplicity on DWI and the presence of MES (p=0.431). The frequency of symptom recurrence in the corresponding MCA territory during 90 days from the index stroke did not show statistical significance between two groups (p=0.681). CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not support the idea of direct causal relationship between MES and the mechanism of atherothrombotic MCA stroke. Further study is needed to identify whether the appearance of MES implicates a predictor for further ischemic events or a sign of recanalization.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Constriction, Pathologic , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Cerebral Artery , Prospective Studies , Recurrence , Stroke
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-196869

ABSTRACT

We report a 32-year-old woman who developed an altered consciousness and quadriparesis three days after ingesting an ergot alkaloid derivative to suppress lactation. Brain MRI showed extensive cerebral infarction in the posterior circulation territory with multifocal vasoconstriction in the intracranial vessels including both the middle cerebral arteries. Extensive studies for stroke etiology are negative. Follow-up MRA and serial TCD studies revealed that reVersible vasospasm was the mechanism. This case is additional evidence that ergot derivatives may lead to postpartum cerebral angiopathy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brain , Cerebral Infarction , Consciousness , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lactation , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Cerebral Artery , Postpartum Period , Quadriplegia , Stroke , Vasoconstriction , Vasospasm, Intracranial
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