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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1281-1290, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999809

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Despite numerous studies on the optimal treatments for oligometastatic disease (OMD), there is no established interdisciplinary consensus on its diagnosis or classification. This survey-based study aimed to analyze the differential opinions of colorectal surgeons and radiation oncologists regarding the definition and treatment of OMD from the colorectal primary. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 141 participants were included in this study, consisting of 63 radiation oncologists (44.7%) and 78 colorectal surgeons (55.3%). The survey consisted of 19 questions related to OMD, and the responses were analyzed using the chi-square test to determine statistical differences between the specialties. @*Results@#The radiation oncologists chose “bone” more frequently compared to the colorectal surgeons (19.2% vs. 36.5%, p=0.022), while colorectal surgeons favored “peritoneal seeding” (26.9% vs. 9.5%, p=0.009). Regarding the number of metastatic tumors, 48.3% of colorectal surgeons responded that “irrelevant, if all metastatic lesions are amendable to local therapy”, while only 21.8% of radiation oncologist chose same answer. When asked about molecular diagnosis, most surgeons (74.8%) said it was important, but only 35.8% of radiation oncologists agreed. @*Conclusion@#This study demonstrates that although radiation oncologists and colorectal surgeons agreed on a majority of aspects such as diagnostic imaging, biomarker, systemic therapy, and optimal timing of OMD, they also had quite different perspectives on several aspects of OMD. Understanding these differences is crucial to achieving multidisciplinary consensus on the definition and optimal management of OMD.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 707-719, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999775

ABSTRACT

Introduction of the concept for oligometastasis led to wide application of metastasis-directed local ablative therapies for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). By application of the metastasis-directed local ablative therapies including surgical resection, radiofrequency ablation (RFA), and stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR), the survival outcomes of patients with metastatic CRC have improved. The liver is the most common distant metastatic site in CRC patients, and recently various metastasis-directed local therapies for hepatic oligometastasis from CRC (HOCRC) are widely used. Surgical resection is the first line of metastatic-directed local therapy for HOCRC, but its eligibility is very limited. Alternatively, RFA can be applied to patients who are ineligible for surgical resection of liver metastasis. However, there are some limitations such as inferior local control (LC) compared with surgical resection and technical feasibility based on location, size, and visibility on ultrasonography of the liver metastasis. Recent advances in radiation therapy technology have led to an increase in the use of SABR for liver tumors. SABR is considered complementary to RFA for patients with HOCRC who are ineligible for RFA. Furthermore, SABR can potentially result in better LC for liver metastases > 2-3 cm compared with RFA. In this article, the previous studies regarding curative metastasis-directed local therapies for HOCRC based on the radiation oncologist’s and surgeon’s perspective are reviewed and discussed. In addition, future perspectives regarding SABR in the treatment of HOCRC are suggested.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 218-225, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913835

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to investigate the risk factors and patterns of locoregional recurrence (LRR) after radical nephrectomy (RN) in patients with locally advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 245 patients who underwent RN for non-metastatic pT3-4 RCC from January 2006 to January 2016. We analyzed the risk factors associated with poor locoregional control using Cox regression. Anatomical mapping was performed on reference computed tomography scans showing intact kidneys. @*Results@#The median follow-up duration was 56 months (range, 1 to 128 months). Tumor extension to renal vessels or the inferior vena cava (IVC) and Fuhrman’s nuclear grade IV were identified as independent risk factors of LRR. The 5-year actuarial LRR rates in groups with no risk factor, one risk factor, and two risk factors were 2.3%, 19.8%, and 30.8%, respectively (p < 0.001). The locations of LRR were distributed as follows: aortocaval area (n=2), paraaortic area (n=4), retrocaval area (n=5), and tumor bed (n=11). No LRR was observed above the celiac axis (CA) or under the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA). @*Conclusion@#Tumor extension to renal vessels or the IVC and Fuhrman’s nuclear grade IV were the independent risk factors associated with LRR after RN for pT3-4 RCC. The locations of LRR after RN for RCC were distributed in the tumor bed and regional lymphatic area from the bifurcation of the CA to that of the IMA.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 935-943, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913791

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Proton beam therapy (PBT) is a state-of-the-art technology employed in radiotherapy (RT) for cancer patients. This study characterized how PBT has been used in clinical practice in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients who received any type of RT between 2007 and 2019 were identified from the radiation oncology registry of the two PBT facilities operating in Korea (National Cancer Center and Samsung Medical Center). The chi-square test was used to identify patient- and treatment-related characteristics associated with the receipt of PBT. @*Results@#A total of 54,035 patients had been treated with some form of RT in the two institutions, of whom 5,398 received PBT (10.0%). The number of patients who receive PBT has gradually increased since PBT first started, from 162 patients in 2007 to 1,304 patients in 2019. Among all types of cancer, PBT use in liver cancer has been steadily increasing from 20% in 2008-2009 to 32% in 2018-2019. In contrast, that in prostate cancer has been continuously decreasing from 20% in 2008-2009 to < 10% in 2018-2019. Male sex, very young or old age, stage I-II disease, residency in non-capital areas, a definitive setting, a curative treatment aim, enrollment in a clinical trial, re-irradiation and insurance coverage were significantly associated with the receipt of PBT (all p < 0.05). @*Conclusion@#Since PBT started in Korea, the number of patients receiving PBT has increased to more than 1,000 per year and treatment indications have expanded. Liver cancer is the most common primary tumor among all PBT cases in Korea.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 611-620, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897447

ABSTRACT

Particle therapy is a promising and evolving modality of radiotherapy that can be used to treat tumors that are radioresistant to conventional photon beam radiotherapy. It has unique biological and physical advantages compared with conventional radiotherapy. The characteristic feature of particle therapy is the “Bragg peak,” a steep and localized peak of dose, that enables precise delivery of the radiation dose to the tumor while effectively sparing normal organs. Especially, the charged particles (e.g., proton, helium, carbon) cause a high rate of energy loss along the track, thereby leading to high biological effectiveness, which makes particle therapy attractive. Using this property, the particle beam induces more severe DNA double-strand breaks than the photon beam, which is less influenced by the oxygen level. This review describes the general biological and physical aspects of particle therapy for oncologists, including non-radiation oncologists and beginners in the field.

6.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 144-156, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874437

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The abscopal effect, a rare phenomenon induced by radiation, can be reinforced by immunotherapy. Although radiation therapy and immunotherapy are increasingly being utilized for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), whether immunotherapy could boost the abscopal effect remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the immunological mechanisms underlying the abscopal effect induced by the combination of irradiation and immunotherapy in a murine HCC model. @*Methods@#A syngeneic HCC mouse model was established by transplanting murine Hepa 1–6 HCC cells into both hind legs of immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice. The tumors on the right hind legs were irradiated, and abscopal effects were observed in the non-irradiated tumors on the left hind leg with or without the coadministration of anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) antibodies. Flow cytometric analyses were performed to analyze the distributions of immune cells infiltrating both irradiated and non-irradiated tumors and the tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs). @*Results@#Administration of 16 Gy in two fractions more effectively inhibited the growth of both irradiated and nonirradiated tumors with higher tumor infiltration of cytotoxic T cells than 8 Gy did in a single fraction. The higher dose also increased activated dendritic cells in TDLNs, which had higher expression of the programmed cell death ligand 1. Coadministration of anti-PD-1 antibodies significantly enhanced the abscopal effect and increased infiltration of activated cytotoxic T cells in both irradiated and non-irradiated tumors. @*Conclusions@#Our findings show that adding anti-PD-1 therapy to radiation enhanced the abscopal effect in a syngeneic murine model of HCC.

7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 611-620, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889743

ABSTRACT

Particle therapy is a promising and evolving modality of radiotherapy that can be used to treat tumors that are radioresistant to conventional photon beam radiotherapy. It has unique biological and physical advantages compared with conventional radiotherapy. The characteristic feature of particle therapy is the “Bragg peak,” a steep and localized peak of dose, that enables precise delivery of the radiation dose to the tumor while effectively sparing normal organs. Especially, the charged particles (e.g., proton, helium, carbon) cause a high rate of energy loss along the track, thereby leading to high biological effectiveness, which makes particle therapy attractive. Using this property, the particle beam induces more severe DNA double-strand breaks than the photon beam, which is less influenced by the oxygen level. This review describes the general biological and physical aspects of particle therapy for oncologists, including non-radiation oncologists and beginners in the field.

8.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 622-634, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898954

ABSTRACT

Methods@#In the breast cancer registry of our institution, 18,790 patients received curative surgery for stage I–III breast cancer between January 1995 and June 2016. Of those patients, only 87 (0.5%)underwent salvage local treatment for isolated nodal recurrence on the axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) (n = 58), supraclavicular lymph nodes (SCNs) (n = 17), or internal mammary lymph nodes (IMNs) (n = 12). @*Results@#The median follow-up duration after regional oligo-recurrence was 49 months (range: 6–194 months). For patients with recurrence of ALN, SCN, or IMN, the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 40.0%, 32.1%, and 25.0%, respectively (p = 0.3) and 62.7%, 70.0%, and 58.3%, respectively(p = 0.97). In the multivariable analysis for PFS, age at recurrence ≥ 65 years, disease-free interval 1 RF (p 1 RF, the 5-year PFS rates were 7.3% in the ALN group and 7.1% in the SCN/IMN group (p = 1.00). @*Conclusion@#In breast cancer patients with regional oligo-recurrence, clinical outcomes after salvage treatment were favorable in patients with ≤ 1 RF, while patients with > 1 RF had poor prognoses irrespective of the location of recurrence.

9.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 622-634, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891250

ABSTRACT

Methods@#In the breast cancer registry of our institution, 18,790 patients received curative surgery for stage I–III breast cancer between January 1995 and June 2016. Of those patients, only 87 (0.5%)underwent salvage local treatment for isolated nodal recurrence on the axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) (n = 58), supraclavicular lymph nodes (SCNs) (n = 17), or internal mammary lymph nodes (IMNs) (n = 12). @*Results@#The median follow-up duration after regional oligo-recurrence was 49 months (range: 6–194 months). For patients with recurrence of ALN, SCN, or IMN, the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 40.0%, 32.1%, and 25.0%, respectively (p = 0.3) and 62.7%, 70.0%, and 58.3%, respectively(p = 0.97). In the multivariable analysis for PFS, age at recurrence ≥ 65 years, disease-free interval 1 RF (p 1 RF, the 5-year PFS rates were 7.3% in the ALN group and 7.1% in the SCN/IMN group (p = 1.00). @*Conclusion@#In breast cancer patients with regional oligo-recurrence, clinical outcomes after salvage treatment were favorable in patients with ≤ 1 RF, while patients with > 1 RF had poor prognoses irrespective of the location of recurrence.

10.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 446-454, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831053

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levelsin improving the performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the predictionof pathologic response after the neoadjuvant chemoradiation (NCRT) for patients with rectalcancer. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 524 rectal cancer patients who underwentNCRT and total mesorectal excision between January 2009 and December 2014. Theperformances of MRI with or without CEA parameters (initial CEA and CEA dynamics) forprediction of pathologic tumor response grade (pTRG) were compared by receiver-operatingcharacteristic analysis with DeLong’s method. Cox regression was used to identify the independentfactors associated to pTRG and disease-free survival (DFS) after NCRT. @*Results@#The median follow-up was 64.0 months (range, 3.0 to 113.0 months). On multivariate analysis,poor tumor regression grade on MRI (mrTRG; p < 0.001), initial CEA (p < 0.001) andthe mesorectal fascia involvement on MRI before NCRT (mrMFI; p=0.054) showed associationwith poor pTRG. The mrTRG plus CEA parameters showed significantly improved performancesin the prediction of pTRG than mrTRG alone. All of mrTRG, mrMFI, and initial CEAwere also identified as independent factors associated with DFS. The initial CEA further discriminatedDFS in the subgroups with good mrTRG or that without mrMFI. @*Conclusion@#The CEA parameters significantly improved the performance of MRI in the prediction ofpTRG after NCRT for patients with rectal cancer. The DFS was further discriminated by initialCEA level in the groups with favorable MRI parameters.

11.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 136-142, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765716

ABSTRACT

Proton beam therapy (PBT) is one of the advances in radiotherapy techniques, which enables dose escalation with lower probability of radiation-induced liver or gastrointestinal injuries. However, the chest wall proximal to the tumor can be affected by high dose irradiation. Here, we report on a 58-year-old male patient who presented with huge hepatocellular carcinoma, received treatment with transarterial chemoembolization and PBT, and developed severe chest wall pain due to radiation-induced myositis. The patient's symptoms were controlled by oral steroids.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver , Myositis , Proton Therapy , Protons , Radiotherapy , Steroids , Thoracic Wall
12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1041-1051, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763175

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We compared the oncologic outcomes of breast-conserving surgery plus radiation therapy (BCS+RT) and modified radical mastectomy (MRM) under anthracycline plus taxane-based (AT) regimens and investigated the role of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) in patients with pathologic N1 (pN1) breast cancer treated by mastectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 2,011 patients with pN1 breast cancer who underwent BCS+RT or MRM alone at 12 institutions between January 2006 and December 2010. Two-to-one propensity score matching was performed for balances in variables between the groups. RESULTS: The median follow-up duration for the total cohort was 69 months (range, 1 to 114 months). After propensity score matching, 1,074 patients (676 in the BCS+RT group and 398 in the MRM-alone group) were analyzed finally. The overall survival, disease-free survival, locoregional failure-free survival, and regional failure-free survival (RFFS) curves of the BCS+RT group vs. MRM-alone group were not significantly different. The subgroup analysis revealed that in the group with both lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and histologic grade (HG) III, the BCS+RT showed significantly superior RFFS (p=0.008). Lymphedema (p=0.007) and radiation pneumonitis (p=0.031) occurred more frequently in the BCS+RT group than in the MRM-alone group, significantly. CONCLUSION: There are no differences in oncologic outcomes between BCS+RT and MRM-alone groups under the AT chemotherapy regimens for pN1 breast cancer. However, BCS+RT group showed superior RFFS to MRM-alone group in the patients with LVI and HG III. Adjuvant RT might be considerable for pN1 breast cancer patients with LVI and HG III.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anthracyclines , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cohort Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Lymphedema , Mastectomy , Mastectomy, Modified Radical , Mastectomy, Segmental , Medical Records , Propensity Score , Radiation Pneumonitis , Retrospective Studies
13.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 110-116, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761000

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify prognostic factors for locoregional recurrence (LRR) in pT3N0 rectal cancer patients who were treated with surgery alone and had negative resection margin including circumferential resection margin (CRM) for optimal indication of adjuvant radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed patients with pT3N0 rectal cancer who were treated via upfront surgery and had no other adjuvant treatment from January 2003 to December 2012. In total, 122 patients who had negative resection margin including negative CRM were included in the analysis. RESULTS: The median follow-up period after surgery was 60 months (range, 3 to 161 months). During this time, 6 patients (4.9%) experienced LRR at the anastomotic site (4 patients), and regional lymphatic area (2 patients). The estimated 5-year rates of overall survival, recurrence-free survival, and LRR-free survival were 96.7%, 84.6%, and 94.0%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that level of tumor ≤5 cm was a significant prognostic factor for LRR-free survival (LRRFS) (p = 0.04; hazard ratio = 7.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–47.30). Patients with level of tumor ≤5 cm had an estimated 5-year LRRFS of 66.8%, which was much higher than 2.3% in patients with level of tumor >5 cm. There was no significant factor for recurrence-free survival or overall survival. CONCLUSION: In T3N0 rectal cancer, adjuvant chemoradiotherapy should be recommended in patients with level of tumor ≤5 cm for better local control. However, in patients with pT3N0 disease, negative resection margin, and level of tumor >5 cm, adjuvant chemoradiotherapy should be carefully suggested.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Follow-Up Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Rectal Neoplasms , Recurrence , Risk Factors
14.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 25-34, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741931

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the initial outcomes of proton beam therapy (PBT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in terms of tumor response and safety. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HCC patients who were not indicated for standard curative local modalities and who were treated with PBT at Samsung Medical Center from January 2016 to February 2017 were enrolled. Toxicity was scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.0. Tumor response was evaluated using modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST). RESULTS: A total of 101 HCC patients treated with PBT were included. Patients were treated with an equivalent dose of 62–92 GyE10. Liver function status was not significantly affected after PBT. Greater than 80% of patients had Child-Pugh class A and albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade 1 up to 3-months after PBT. Of 78 patients followed for three months after PBT, infield complete and partial responses were achieved in 54 (69.2%) and 14 (17.9%) patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: PBT treatment of HCC patients showed a favorable infield complete response rate of 69.2% with acceptable acute toxicity. An additional follow-up study of these patients will be conducted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Follow-Up Studies , Liver , Proton Therapy , Protons , Radiotherapy , Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors
15.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 301-309, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70163

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To identify prognostic factors for disease progression and survival of patients with extracranial oligometastatic breast cancer (EOMBC), and to investigate the role of radiation therapy (RT) for metastatic lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 50 patients who had been diagnosed with EOMBC following standard treatment for primary breast cancer initially, and received RT for metastatic lesions, with or without other systemic therapy between January 2004 and December 2008. EOMBC was defined as breast cancer with five or less metastases involving any organs except the brain. All patients had bone metastasis (BM) and seven patients had pulmonary, hepatic, or lymph node metastasis. Median RT dose applied to metastatic lesions was 30 Gy (range, 20 to 60 Gy). RESULTS: The 5-year tumor local control (LC) and 3-year distant progression-free survival (DPFS) rate were 66.1% and 36.8%, respectively. High RT dose (> or =50 Gy10) was significantly associated with improved LC. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 49%. Positive hormone receptor status, pathologic nodal stage of primary cancer, solitary BM, and whole-lesion RT (WLRT), defined as RT whose field encompassed entire extent of disease, were associated with better survival. On analysis for subgroup of solitary BM, high RT dose was significantly associated with improved LC and DPFS, shorter metastasis-to-RT interval (< or =1 month) with improved DPFS, and WLRT with improved DPFS and OS, respectively. CONCLUSION: High-dose RT in solitary BM status and WLRT have the potential to improve the progression-free survival and OS of patients with EOMBC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Lymph Nodes , Medical Records , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies
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