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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926414

ABSTRACT

The Korean Society of Radiology and Medical Guidelines Committee amended the existing 2016 guidelines to publish the “Korean Clinical Practice Guidelines for Adverse Reactions to Iodide Contrast for Injection and Gadolinium Contrast for MRI: The Revised Clinical Consensus and Recommendations (2022 Third Edition).” Expert members recommended and approved by the Korean Society of Radiology, the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, and the Korean Nephrology Society participated together. According to the expert consensus or systematic literature review, the description of the autoinjector and connection line for the infection control while using contrast medium, the acute adverse reaction, and renal toxicity to iodized contrast medium were modified and added. We would like to introduce the revised contents.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811063

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Anaphylaxis is an immediate allergic reaction characterized by potentially life-threatening, severe, systemic manifestations. While studies have evaluated links between serious illness and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), few have investigated PTSD after anaphylaxis in adults. We sought to investigate the psychosocial burden of recent anaphylaxis in Korean adults.METHODS: A total of 203 (mean age of 44 years, 120 females) patients with anaphylaxis were recruited from 15 university hospitals in Korea. Questionnaires, including the Impact of Event Scale-Revised-Korean version (IES-R-K), the Korean version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (K-BAI), and the Korean version of the Beck Depression Inventory (K-BDI), were administered. Demographic characteristics, causes and clinical features of anaphylaxis, and serum inflammatory markers, including tryptase, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and C-reactive protein, were evaluated.RESULTS: PTSD (IES-R-K ≥ 25) was noted in 84 (41.4%) patients with anaphylaxis. Of them, 56.0% had severe PTSD (IES-R-K ≥ 40). Additionally, 23.2% and 28.1% of the patients had anxiety (K-BAI ≥ 22) and depression (K-BDI ≥ 17), respectively. IES-R-K was significantly correlated with both K-BAI (r = 0.609, P < 0.0001) and K-BDI (r = 0.550, P < 0.0001). Among the inflammatory mediators, tryptase levels were lower in patients exhibiting PTSD; meanwhile, platelet-activating factor levels were lower in patients exhibiting anxiety and depression while recovering from anaphylaxis. In multivariate analysis, K-BAI and K-BDI were identified as major predictive variables of PTSD in patients with anaphylaxis.CONCLUSIONS: In patients with anaphylaxis, we found a remarkably high prevalence of PTSD and associated psychological distresses, including anxiety and depression. Physicians ought to be aware of the potential for psychological distress in anaphylactic patients and to consider psychological evaluation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anaphylaxis , Anxiety , C-Reactive Protein , Depression , Hospitals, University , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Interleukin-6 , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , Necrosis , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Tryptases
3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831804

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Asthma is not a single disease but, rather, a heterogeneous inf lammatory disorder with various pathogenic mechanisms. We analyzed the associations between the cellular profile of sputum and the serum levels of inflammatory mediators/cytokines in a cohort of adult asthmatics. @*Methods@#We recruited 421 adult asthmatic patients. All subjects were classified into four groups according to their sputum cellular profiles: G1, eosinophilic; G2, mixed granulocytic; G3, neutrophilic; and G4, paucigranulocytic. Serum levels of cytokines and mediators including periostin, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), S100A9, and folliculin were quantified. @*Results@#Among 421 patients, G1 accounted for 149 (35.4%), G2 for 71 (16.9%), G3 for 155 (36.8%), and G4 for 46 (10.9%). Serum periostin and EDN levels were significantly higher in G1 (p = 0.004, and p = 0.031) than in the others. Serum S100A9 levels were elevated in G2 and G3 (p = 0.008). Serum folliculin levels differed significantly among the four groups, with the highest level in G4 (p = 0.042). To identify G1 from G1 plus G2 groups, the optimal serum cut-off levels were 1.71 ng/mL for periostin, and 1.61 ng/mL for EDN. When these two parameters were combined, the sensitivity was 76.0% and the specificity was 64.3% (area under the curve, 0.701; p = 0.004). @*Conclusions@#The serum periostin and EDN levels may be used as predictors to discriminate the eosinophilic asthma group from patients having eosinophilic or mixed granulocytic asthma, and the serum folliculin level is significantly elevated in patients with paucigranulocytic asthma compared to those with different inflammatory cell profile.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896615

ABSTRACT

Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is defined as the occurrence of spontaneous wheals, angioedema, or both for >6 weeks in the absence of specific causes. It is a common condition associated with substantial disease burden both for affected individuals and societies in many countries, including Korea. CSU frequently persists for several years and requires high-intensity treatment; therefore, patients experience deteriorations in quality of life and medication-associated complications. During the last decade, there have been major advances in the pharmacological treatment of CSU and there is an outstanding need for evidence-based guidelines that reflect clinical practice in Korea. The guidelines reported here represent a joint initiative of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the Korean Dermatological Association, and aim to provide evidence-based guidance for the management of CSU in Korean adults and children. In Part 1, disease definition, guideline scope and development methodology as well as evidence-based recommendations on the use of antihistamines and corticosteroids are summarized.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888911

ABSTRACT

Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is defined as the occurrence of spontaneous wheals, angioedema, or both for >6 weeks in the absence of specific causes. It is a common condition associated with substantial disease burden both for affected individuals and societies in many countries, including Korea. CSU frequently persists for several years and requires high-intensity treatment; therefore, patients experience deteriorations in quality of life and medication-associated complications. During the last decade, there have been major advances in the pharmacological treatment of CSU and there is an outstanding need for evidence-based guidelines that reflect clinical practice in Korea. The guidelines reported here represent a joint initiative of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the Korean Dermatological Association, and aim to provide evidence-based guidance for the management of CSU in Korean adults and children. In Part 1, disease definition, guideline scope and development methodology as well as evidence-based recommendations on the use of antihistamines and corticosteroids are summarized.

6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 216-222, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742516

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The most common cause of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is respiratory infection. Most studies of bacterial or viral cause in AECOPD have been conducted in Western countries. We investigated bacterial and viral identification rates in AECOPD in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed and analyzed medical records of 736 cases of AECOPD at the Korea University Guro Hospital. We analyzed bacterial and viral identification rates and classified infections according to epidemiological factors, such as Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage, mortality, and seasonal variation. RESULTS: The numbers of AECOPD events involving only bacterial identification, only viral identification, bacterial-viral co-identification, and no identification were 200 (27.2%), 159 (21.6%), 107 (14.5%), and 270 (36.7%), respectively. The most common infectious bacteria identified were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13.0%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (11.4%), and Haemophilus influenzae (5.3%); the most common viruses identified were influenza virus (12.4%), rhinovirus (9.4%), parainfluenza virus (5.2%), and metapneumovirus (4.9%). The bacterial identification rate tended to be higher at more advanced stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p=0.020 overall, p=0.011 for P. aeruginosa, p=0.048 for S. pneumoniae). Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae were identified more in mortality group (p=0.003 for S. aureus, p=0.009 for K. pneumoniae). All viruses were seasonal (i.e., greater prevalence in a particular season; p < 0.050). Influenza virus and rhinovirus were mainly identified in the winter, parainfluenza virus in the summer, and metapneumovirus in the spring. CONCLUSION: This information on the epidemiology of respiratory infections in AECOPD will improve the management of AECOPD using antibiotics and other treatments in Korea.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteria , Epidemiology , Haemophilus influenzae , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Korea , Medical Records , Metapneumovirus , Mortality , Orthomyxoviridae , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Prevalence , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Respiratory Tract Infections , Rhinovirus , Seasons , Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739400

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are common cause of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs). The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of SCARs induced by NSAIDs in the Korean SCAR registry. METHODS: A retrospective survey of NSAID-induced SCARs recorded between 2010 and 2015 at 27 university hospitals in Korea was conducted. Clinical phenotypes of SCARs were classified into Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), SJS-TEN overlap syndrome and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). Causative NSAIDs were classified into 7 groups according to their chemical properties: acetaminophen, and propionic, acetic, salicylic, fenamic and enolic acids. RESULTS: A total of 170 SCARs, consisting of 85 SJS, 32 TEN, 17 SJS-TEN overlap syndrome and 36 DRESS reactions, were induced by NSAIDs: propionic acids (n=68), acetaminophen (n=38), acetic acids (n=23), salicylic acids (n=16), coxibs (n=8), fenamic acids (n=7), enolic acids (n=5) and unclassified (n=5). Acetic acids (22%) and coxibs (14%) accounted for higher portions of DRESS than other SCARs. The phenotypes of SCARs induced by both propionic and salicylic acids were similar (SJS, TEN and DRESS, in order). Acetaminophen was primarily associated with SJS (27%) and was less involved in TEN (10%). DRESS occurred more readily among subjects experiencing coxib-induced SCARs than other NSAID-induced SCARs (62.5% vs. 19.7%, P = 0.013). The mean time to symptom onset was longer in DRESS than in SJS or TEN (19.1 ± 4.1 vs. 6.8 ±1.5 vs. 12.1 ± 3.8 days). SCARs caused by propionic salicylic acids showed longer latency, whereas acetaminophen- and acetic acid-induced SCARs appeared within shorter intervals. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicates that the phenotypes of SCARs may differ according to the chemical classifications of NSAIDs. To establish the mechanisms and incidences of NSAID-induced SCARs, further prospective studies are needed.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , Acetates , Acetic Acid , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Cicatrix , Classification , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors , Diethylpropion , Drug Hypersensitivity , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome , Hospitals, University , Incidence , Korea , Phenotype , Propionates , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Salicylates , Salicylic Acid , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bronchoscopy is a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool. However, the clinical use of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in adults with acute respiratory failure for diagnostic and invasive procedures has not been well evaluated. We present our experiences of well-tolerated diagnostic bronchoscopy as well as cases of improved saturation in hypoxaemic patients after a therapeutic bronchoscopic procedure. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data of hypoxaemic patients who had undergone bronchoscopy for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes from October 2015 to February 2017. RESULTS: Ten patients (44–75 years of age) were enrolled. The clinical purposes of bronchoscopy were for diagnosis in seven patients and for intervention in three patients. For the diagnoses, we performed bronchoalveolar lavage in six patients. One patient underwent endobronchial ultrasonography with transbronchial needle aspiration of a lymph node to investigate tumour involvement. Patients who underwent bronchoscopy for therapeutic interventions had endobronchial mass or blood clot removal with cryotherapy for bleeding control. The mean saturation (SpO2) of pre-bronchoscopy in room air was 84.1%. The lowest and highest mean saturation with HFNC during the procedure was 95% and 99.4, respectively. The mean saturation in room air post-bronchoscopy was 87.4%, which was 3.3% higher than the mean room air SpO2 pre-bronchoscopy. Seven patients with diagnostic bronchoscopy had no hypoxic event. Three patients with interventional bronchoscopy showed improvement in saturation after the procedure. Bronchoscopy was well tolerated in all 10 cases. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the use of HFNC in hypoxaemic patients during diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy procedures has clinical effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Adult , Hypoxia , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Bronchoscopy , Catheters , Cryotherapy , Diagnosis , Hemorrhage , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Needles , Oxygen , Respiratory Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762160

ABSTRACT

Asthma is a common disorder of the airways characterized by airway inflammation and by decline in lung function and airway remodeling in a subset of asthmatics. Airway remodeling is characterized by structural changes which include airway smooth muscle hypertrophy/hyperplasia, subepithelial fibrosis due to thickening of the reticular basement membrane, mucus metaplasia of the epithelium, and angiogenesis. Epidemiologic studies suggest that both genetic and environmental factors may contribute to decline in lung function and airway remodeling in a subset of asthmatics. Environmental factors include respiratory viral infection-triggered asthma exacerbations, and tobacco smoke. There is also evidence that several asthma candidate genes may contribute to decline in lung function, including ADAM33, PLAUR, VEGF, IL13, CHI3L1, TSLP, GSDMB, TGFB1, POSTN, ESR1 and ARG2. In addition, mediators or cytokines, including cysteinyl leukotrienes, matrix metallopeptidase-9, interleukin-33 and eosinophil expression of transforming growth factor-β, may contribute to airway remodeling in asthma. Although increased airway smooth muscle is associated with reduced lung function (i.e. forced expiratory volume in 1 second) in asthma, there have been few long-term studies to determine how individual pathologic features of airway remodeling contribute to decline in lung function in asthma. Clinical studies with inhibitors of individual gene products, cytokines or mediators are needed in asthmatic patients to identify their individual role in decline in lung function and/or airway remodeling.


Subject(s)
Airway Remodeling , Asthma , Basement Membrane , Cytokines , Eosinophils , Epidemiologic Studies , Epithelium , Fibrosis , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-33 , Leukotrienes , Lung , Metaplasia , Mucus , Muscle, Smooth , Respiratory Function Tests , Smoke , Tobacco , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761950

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Docetaxel is one of the standard treatments for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Docetaxel is usually administered in a 3-week schedule, but there is significant toxicity. In this phase II clinical study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of a 4-weekly schedule of docetaxel monotherapy, as first-line chemotherapy for advanced squamous cell carcinoma in elderly lung cancer patients. METHODS: Patients with stage IIIB/ IV lung squamous-cell carcinoma age 70 or older, that had not undergone cytotoxic chemotherapy were enrolled. Patients received docetaxel 25 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15, every 4 weeks. Primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity profiles. RESULTS: A total of 19 patients were enrolled. Among 19 patients, 17 were for evaluated efficacy and safety. In the intent-to-treat population, ORR and disease control rate (DCR) were 11.8% and 47.1%, respectively. In the response evaluable population, ORR was 16.7% and DCR was 66.7%. Median PFS and OS were 3.1 months and 3.3 months, respectively. There were three adverse grade 3/4 events. Grade 1 neutropenia was reported in one patient. CONCLUSION: Our data failed to demonstrate efficacy of a 4-weekly docetaxel regimen, in elderly patients with a poor performance status. However, incidence of side effects, including neutropenia, was lower than with a 3-week docetaxel regimen, as previously reported.


Subject(s)
Aged , Appointments and Schedules , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Clinical Study , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Incidence , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Neutropenia , Treatment Outcome
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919445

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Docetaxel is one of the standard treatments for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Docetaxel is usually administered in a 3-week schedule, but there is significant toxicity. In this phase II clinical study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of a 4-weekly schedule of docetaxel monotherapy, as first-line chemotherapy for advanced squamous cell carcinoma in elderly lung cancer patients.@*METHODS@#Patients with stage IIIB/ IV lung squamous-cell carcinoma age 70 or older, that had not undergone cytotoxic chemotherapy were enrolled. Patients received docetaxel 25 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15, every 4 weeks. Primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity profiles.@*RESULTS@#A total of 19 patients were enrolled. Among 19 patients, 17 were for evaluated efficacy and safety. In the intent-to-treat population, ORR and disease control rate (DCR) were 11.8% and 47.1%, respectively. In the response evaluable population, ORR was 16.7% and DCR was 66.7%. Median PFS and OS were 3.1 months and 3.3 months, respectively. There were three adverse grade 3/4 events. Grade 1 neutropenia was reported in one patient.@*CONCLUSION@#Our data failed to demonstrate efficacy of a 4-weekly docetaxel regimen, in elderly patients with a poor performance status. However, incidence of side effects, including neutropenia, was lower than with a 3-week docetaxel regimen, as previously reported.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742433

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a common disease that occurs comorbidly in patients with chronic inflammatory airway diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). However, the prevalence of osteoporosis in patients with ACOS has not widely been evaluated. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of osteoporosis and its relationship with the clinical parameters of patients with asthma, COPD, and ACOS. METHODS: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study. Bone mineral density (BMD), lung function tests, and disease status evaluations were conducted. RESULTS: A total of 321 patients were enrolled: 138 with asthma, 46 with ACOS, and 137 with COPD. One hundred and ninety-three patients (60.1%) were diagnosed with osteoporosis (53.6% of asthma, 65.2% of ACOS, and 65.0% of COPD). Patients with ACOS showed a significantly lower BMD and T-score than did those with asthma. In addition to age, sex, and body mass index (BMI), which were previously reported to be associated with BMD, BMD also had a negative correlation with the diagnosis of ACOS, as compared to a diagnosis of asthma, after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, smoking, and inhaled corticosteroid use (p=0.001). Among those patients with COPD and ACOS, BMD was negatively associated with the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) after adjustment (p < 0.001). Inhaled corticosteroid was not associated with the prevalence of osteoporosis and BMD. CONCLUSION: Patients with ACOS, particularly aged and lean women, should be more carefully monitored for osteoporosis as compared to patients with asthma.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Body Mass Index , Bone Density , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases, Obstructive , Osteoporosis , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Respiratory Function Tests , Retrospective Studies , Smoke , Smoking
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718135

ABSTRACT

Chronic cough is common in the community and causes significant morbidity. Several factors may underlie this problem, but comorbid conditions located at sensory nerve endings that regulate the cough reflex, including rhinitis, rhinosinusitis, asthma, eosinophilic bronchitis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease, are considered important. However, chronic cough is frequently non-specific and accompanied by not easily identifiable causes during the initial evaluation. Therefore, there are unmet needs for developing empirical treatment and practical diagnostic approaches that can be applied in primary clinics. Meanwhile, in referral clinics, a considerable proportion of adult patients with chronic cough are unexplained or refractory to conventional treatment. The present clinical practice guidelines aim to address major clinical questions regarding empirical treatment, practical diagnostic tools for non-specific chronic cough, and available therapeutic options for chronic wet cough in children and unexplained chronic cough in adults in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asthma , Bronchitis , Child , Cough , Eosinophils , Evidence-Based Medicine , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Humans , Korea , Referral and Consultation , Reflex , Rhinitis , Sensory Receptor Cells
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718071

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aims to determine the efficacy and safety of house dust mite (HDM)-sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in elderly patients with AR. METHODS: A total of 45 patients aged ≥ 60 years with HDM-induced AR who had ≥ 3 A/H ratio on skin prick test and/or ≥ 0.35 IU/L to both Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus by ImmunoCAP were enrolled in 4 university hospitals. To evaluate additional effects of HDM-SLIT, they were randomized to the SLIT-treated group (n = 30) or control group (n = 15). Rhinoconjunctivitis total symptom score (RTSS), rhinoscopy score, Korean rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire, rhinitis control assessment test, asthma control test scores, and adverse reactions, were assessed at the first visit (V1) and after 1 year of treatment (V5); for immunological evaluation, serum levels of HDM-specific immunoglobulin A/IgE/IgG1/IgG4 antibodies and basophil response to HDMs were compared between V1 and V5 in both groups. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in demographics, RTSS, skin reactivity to HDMs, or serum total/specific IgE levels to HDMs (P < 0.05, respectively) between the 2 groups. Nasal symptom score and RTSS decreased significantly at year 1 in the 2 groups (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in percent decrease in nasal symptom score and RTSS at year 1 between the 2 groups (P < 0.05); however, rhinoscopic nasal symptom score decreased significantly in the SLIT-treated group (P < 0.05). Immunological studies showed that serum specific IgA levels (not specific IgE/IgG) and CD203c expression on basophils decreased significantly at V5 in the SLIT-treated group (P = 0.011 and P = 0.001, respectively), not in the control group. The control group required more medications compared to the treatment group, but there were no differences in adverse reactions. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that HDM-SLIT for 1 year could induce symptom improvement and may induce immunomodulation in elderly rhinitis patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Antibodies , Asthma , Basophils , Demography , Dermatophagoides farinae , Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , Dust , Hospitals, University , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Immunomodulation , Immunotherapy , Pyroglyphidae , Quality of Life , Rhinitis , Rhinitis, Allergic , Skin , Sublingual Immunotherapy
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Osteoporosis is a common disease that occurs comorbidly in patients with chronic inflammatory airway diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). However, the prevalence of osteoporosis in patients with ACOS has not widely been evaluated. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of osteoporosis and its relationship with the clinical parameters of patients with asthma, COPD, and ACOS.@*METHODS@#This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study. Bone mineral density (BMD), lung function tests, and disease status evaluations were conducted.@*RESULTS@#A total of 321 patients were enrolled: 138 with asthma, 46 with ACOS, and 137 with COPD. One hundred and ninety-three patients (60.1%) were diagnosed with osteoporosis (53.6% of asthma, 65.2% of ACOS, and 65.0% of COPD). Patients with ACOS showed a significantly lower BMD and T-score than did those with asthma. In addition to age, sex, and body mass index (BMI), which were previously reported to be associated with BMD, BMD also had a negative correlation with the diagnosis of ACOS, as compared to a diagnosis of asthma, after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, smoking, and inhaled corticosteroid use (p=0.001). Among those patients with COPD and ACOS, BMD was negatively associated with the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) after adjustment (p < 0.001). Inhaled corticosteroid was not associated with the prevalence of osteoporosis and BMD.@*CONCLUSION@#Patients with ACOS, particularly aged and lean women, should be more carefully monitored for osteoporosis as compared to patients with asthma.

16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713208

ABSTRACT

Hypereosinophilia, defined as an absolute eosinophil count of >1,500/μL, can be caused by a number of allergic, infectious, paraneoplastic and neoplastic disorders. In cases of hypereosinophilia with lymphoid proliferation, pathological confirmation is essential to exclude either myeloid or lymphoid malignancy. A 38-year-old woman with both cervical lymphadenopathies and peripheral blood eosinophilia visited our clinic. She had already performed core biopsy of lymph nodes and diagnosed as Kimura disease at a regional hospital. At the time of our clinic visit, there were no palpable cervical lymph nodes. The blood test showed hypereosinophilia with a high total IgE level. There was no evidence of tissue infiltration of eosinophils except for duodenitis with eosinophilic infiltration. Based on these findings, she was diagnosed as Kimura disease. She treated with high-dose systemic corticosteroid (1 mg/kg) and additional immunosuppressants sequentially used cyclophosphamide and cyclosporine. However, her eosinophilia waxed and waned, and a left inguinal mass was newly found. Excisional biopsy findings showed large atypical lymphoid cells with numerous eosinophilis, and immunohistochemistry showed CD3+, CD20−, CD30+ and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). The final diagnosis was ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma. We report a case of anaplastic large cell lymphoma with marked peripheral eosinophilia misdiagnosed as Kimura disease. In the case of hypereosinophilia with lymphadenopathy, it is necessary to differentiate hematologic diseases through immunochemical staining.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ambulatory Care , Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia , Biopsy , Cyclophosphamide , Cyclosporine , Diagnosis , Duodenitis , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Female , Hematologic Diseases , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Immunohistochemistry , Immunosuppressive Agents , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Diseases , Lymphocytes , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic , Phosphotransferases
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC) is a poorly differentiated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that contains components of spindle or giant cells. Owing to its low prevalence, there are insufficient data regarding its clinical features, therapeutic strategies and prognosis. METHODS: The medical records of 26 patients diagnosed with PSC from January 2009 to June 2015 were reviewed and analyzed for clinicopathological characteristics, treatment modality, and outcomes. RESULTS: The median age was 69.5 years. Twenty-three patients (88%) were male. Twenty-four patients (92%) were smokers. The median time from symptom onset to diagnosis was one month. Eighteen patients (69%) were diagnosed at an advanced stage. Pleomorphic carcinoma was the most common subtype, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation was positive in two of 11 patients. Among 13 patients tested for programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunohistochemistry assay, eight showed high expression of PD-L1. The median overall survival (OS) of all patients was 9.5 months. In total, 12 patients were treated with chemotherapy: nine with platinum-based doublet therapy, two with tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and one with docetaxel. Seven patients showed partial response or stable disease. The median OS and progression-free survival of patients who received chemotherapy were 8.7 and 2.8 months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PSC was more common in males, smokers, and the elderly, with worse prognosis than ordinary NSCLC; chemotherapy response was favorable, and EGFR mutation status and PD-L1 expression may offer more therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
Aged , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Giant Cells , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Medical Records , Prevalence , Prognosis , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors , Treatment Outcome
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189595

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Assessment of the severity and clinical course of asthma is important for effective disease control. Cognitive and physical impairments occur due to the aging process, which may impact on asthma control. We aimed to evaluate the impact of cognitive function on the assessment of asthma control in older asthmatics as a prospective interventional trial. METHODS: A total of 50 mild to moderate asthmatics over 60 years of age were enrolled. Three questionnaires were used: the asthma control test (ACT), the asthma-specific quality of life, and the Korean version of the Short Form of the Geriatric Depression Scale. The Seoul neuropsychological screening battery-dementia version (SNSB-D), Korean version of the Mini-Mental Status Examination, and the Seoul instrumental activities of daily living scale were applied for neuropsychological assessment. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 67.0±4.9 years, and 30 patients (60.0%) were female. The sensitivity and specificity of the ACT for determining well-controlled asthma were 91.7% and 39.5%, respectively. Regarding neuropsychological assessment, 22 patients (44%) had mild cognitive impairment, 4 (8.7%) had dementia, and 17 (34%) had depression. Total SNSB-D score was significantly higher in patients with an ACT score of ≥20 (P=0.015). The ACT scores were significantly associated with SNSB-D results in analyses adjusted for age, sex, education duration, lung function, and depression (P=0.004). CONCLUSION: We found significant positive correlations between cognitive functions, as measured by SNSB-D, and asthma control status, as measured by ACT scores, in older patients with asthma. Therefore, cognitive impairment may be associated with poor asthma control in older asthmatics.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Aging , Asthma , Cognition , Cognition Disorders , Dementia , Depression , Education , Female , Humans , Lung , Mass Screening , Cognitive Dysfunction , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seoul
19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 592-597, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-188810

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the social and clinical characteristics of immigrants with tuberculosis (TB) in South Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The registered adult TB patients who were diagnosed and treated in Korea Medical Centers from January 2013 to December 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 105 immigrants with TB were compared to 932 native Korean TB patients. RESULTS: Among these 105 immigrants with TB, 86 (82%) were Korean-Chinese. The rate of drug-susceptible TB were lower in the immigrants group than in the native Korean group [odds ratio (OR): 0.46; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.22–0.96, p=0.035]. Cure rate was higher in the immigrant group than in the native Korean group (OR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.26–3.28, p=0.003). Treatment completion rate was lower in the immigrant group than in the native Korean group (OR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.33–0.74, p=0.001). However, treatment success rate showed no significant difference between two groups (p=0.141). Lost to follow up (default) rate was higher in the immigrant group than in the native Korean group after adjusting for age and drug resistance (OR: 3.61; 95% CI: 1.36–9.61, p=0.010). There was no difference between defaulter and non-defaulter in clinical characteristics or types of visa among these immigrants (null p value). However, 43 TB patients with recent immigration were diagnosed as TB even though they had been screened as normal at the time of immigration. CONCLUSION: Endeavor to reduce the default rate of immigrants with TB and reinforce TB screening during the immigration process must be performed for TB infection control in South Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Drug Resistance , Emigrants and Immigrants , Emigration and Immigration , Humans , Infection Control , Korea , Lost to Follow-Up , Mass Screening , Medication Adherence , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Tuberculosis
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49027

ABSTRACT

The tools for asthma control assessment recommended by the current guideline are cognitive function- and effort-dependent, which is substantially impaired in the elderly. The aim of this study is to investigate objective assessment tools of asthma control status and previous asthma exacerbation (AE) in elderly subjects. Asthmatics aged >60 years who were treated with step 2 or 3 by the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guideline were enrolled. During the 12-week study period, the subjects used either 400 µg of budesonide plus 10 mg of montelukast or 800 µg of inhaled budesonide. The occurrence of AE during the 4-week run-in and 12-week treatment period was monitored. After 12-week of treatment, sputum eosinophil count, peripheral eosinophil count, the plasma leukotriene E₄ (LTE₄), and prostaglandin F₂α (PGF₂α) metabolite levels were measured using the UHPLC/Q-ToF MS system. The study subjects were divided into group 1 (asthmatics who experienced AE during the study period) and group 2 (those who did not). A total of 101 patients aged 60-85 years were enrolled. Twenty-three patients (22.8%) had experienced AE. The plasma LTE₄ level, LTE₄/PGF₂α ratio, and peripheral eosinophil count were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (P=0.023, P=0.010, P=0.033, respectively). The plasma LTE₄/PGF₂α ratio and peripheral eosinophil count at week 12 were significantly associated with previous AE (odds ratio [OR]=1.748, P=0.013; OR=1.256, P=0.027). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to discriminate the subjects with previous AE, including these 2 parameters, showed that the area under the curve was 0.700 (P=0.004), with 73.9% sensitivity and 47.9% specificity. In conclusion, a combination of plasma LTE₄/PGF₂α ratio and peripheral eosinophil count can be an objective assessment tool which is significantly associated with asthma control status in elderly asthmatics.


Subject(s)
Aged , Asthma , Budesonide , Eosinophils , Humans , Plasma , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sputum
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