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Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-218128


Background: Thyroid diseases are among the most common endocrine disorders worldwide. Thyroid hormones play a key role in regulating the synthesis, metabolism, and mobilization of lipids. Levels of circulating lipids may alter in thyroid dysfunction. Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study was to find out the alterations of lipid levels in thyroid dysfunction. Materials and Methods: The study was designed as cross-sectional observational study and analysis of values was done by significant tests difference in means. 20 patients with hypothyroidism, 20 patients with hyperthyroidism, and 20 normal were participated in the study. Levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), LDL-C, and LDL/HDL ratio were estimated and compared. Results: In patients with hypothyroidism, there was an increase in total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglyceride levels and decrease in HDL-C levels. In hyperthyroidism, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and LDL/HDL ratio were found to be significantly decreased. Conclusion: Altered thyroid function can lead to significant changes in the lipid profile. Hypothyroidism is an important risk factor for heart diseases. Hence, routine screening of thyroid hormones may be of considerable help for early intervention and treatment of thyroid dysfunction-related cardiac disease.

Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-218090


Background: The sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) is an important factor in the electro diagnostic evaluation of a patient with suspected peripheral neuropathy. Sural nerve is the most frequently studied nerve in the electrophysiology. For proper diagnosis sural sensory conduction abnormalities, a reference data are required for each electrophysiology laboratory. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to find out normative reference data of amplitude and distal latency (DL) of sural SNAP for Northern Kerala population. Materials and Methods: The study was designed as cross-sectional and observational study and analysis of values was done using SPSS version 16. A total of 250 healthy subjects of age 15–50 from Northern Kerala participated in the study which included equal number of males and females. Results: Normative reference data for sensory amplitude and DL were derived in the present study. Sensory amplitude was more and DL was found to be less in female population, indicating faster nerve conduction in female. Conclusion: The reference data derived here can be utilized to detect any abnormality sural nerve sensory conduction. The gender effect on sural nerve sensory conduction parameters can be attributed to the height difference, as nerve conduction velocity is inversely proportional to height.

Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-218054


Background: Proper understanding of concepts of physiology forms basis of good clinical practice. To make the lectures in physiology more interesting and understanding, one has to review the teaching methods at regular intervals. Aims and Objectives: This study is designed to get feedback regarding teaching methods in physiology from MBBS students of Government Medical College, Kozhikode, to make teaching more effective. Materials and Methods: Two hundred randomly selected students who successfully completed 1st-year MBBS are included in the study group. The standard questionnaire is shared to study group through Google forms and adequate time is given to record their responses. Descriptive statistics are used. Frequency is expressed in percentage. Results: Most of students prefer interactive teaching methodologies such as group discussion as their preferred mode of learning rather than conventional didactic lectures in whole batch. Students also like to have integration with other subjects and early clinical exposure to understand the concepts precisely. Conclusion: Teaching in small groups with proper integration and alignment with other subjects will make maximum results rather than the traditional teacher centered medical education. Periodic review of teaching methods is very much essential to make the subject more interesting.

Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217915


Background: The COVID-19 pandemic had a widespread impact over the health-care system all over the world. This had resulted in varying degrees of psychological issues on healthcare workers. Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of depression among healthcare workers of a COVID-19 first line treatment center (CFLTC). Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 240 healthcare workers who volunteered for the study at COVID first line treatment centre-3 NIT mega boys’ hostel, Kozhikode, Kerala were recruited. They were interviewed, basic demographic data and patient health questionnaire-9 was administered. The data were analyzed with Microsoft Excel. The prevalence among various categories of healthcare workers were compared. Results: The prevalence of depression among healthcare workers was 52%. The prevalence of depression is each category of staff-doctors, staff nurses, cleaning staffs, and patient caretakers-separately. It was found that depression is inversely proportional to the knowledge, experience, medical qualification, and training. Conclusion: The prevalence of undetected depression is high among healthcare workers working in unconventional environment as in warfront situations such as COVID pandemic. The present study emphasizes the importance of proper screening of depression among healthcare workers in such circumstances in years to come.

Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217644


Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) reflects the earliest stage of thyroid dysfunction with subjects having normal free thyroid hormones T3, T4 with elevated Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) values. Hypothyroidism may depress the central ventilator control and affects respiratory muscle strength which is linearly related to the thyroid hormone levels. In hypothyroidism, the impairment of pulmonary functions may be initiated at the subclinical stage of hypothyroidism. Aim and Objectives: The present study was designed to derive Forced Vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, Peak expiratory flow rate and FEF 25–75 % in subclinical hypothyroid subjects and to compare the values with that of healthy controls. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in subjects aged between 25 and 60 years in which 85 subclinical hypothyroid cases were selected after proper exclusion and informed consent. 85 age and sex matched healthy controls were also studied. Statistical package for social sciences version 18 was used for statistical analysis. Results: All spirometric variables were found to be lower in subclinical hypothyroid subjects than in healthy controls and the abnormalities were of mixed pattern-both obstructive and restrictive. All values obtained were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Patients with SCH should be regularly screened with pulmonary function tests as respiratory derangement starts even at this stage. This will help for early diagnosis and treatment, and to prevent future complications.