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1.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1,supl): 445-456, May. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886648

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study investigated the anesthetic potential of the essential oil (EO) of Aloysia polystachya in juveniles of dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus). Fish were exposed to different concentrations of EO of A. polystachya to evaluate time of induction and recovery from anesthesia. In the second experiment, fish were divided into four groups: control, ethanol and 50 or 300 µL L−1 EO of A. polystachya, and each group was submitted to induction for 3.5 min and recovery for 5 or 10 min. The blood gases and glucose levels showed alterations as a function of the recovery times, but Na+ and K+ levels did not show any alteration. In conclusion, the EO from leaves of A. polystachya is an effective anesthetic for dusky grouper, because anesthesia was reached within the recommended time at EO concentrations of 300 and 400 µL L−1. However, most evaluated blood parameters showed compensatory responses due to EO exposure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes/blood , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Biomarkers/blood , Verbenaceae/chemistry , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Bicarbonates/blood , Hemoglobins/analysis , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Gases/blood , Glucose/analysis , Hematocrit , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Metals, Alkali/blood
2.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 203-212, Jan,-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886624

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Linalool is the main compound of many essential oils and occurs in two isomeric forms: S-(+)- and R-(-)-linalool. This study aimed to determine if linalool isomers have different antimicrobial and anesthetic properties in fish. For this purpose, these compounds were previously isolated from Lippia alba (Mill.)N. E. Brown and Ocimum americanum L. essential oils. Antimicrobial effects were evaluated through the microdilution test against Aeromonas hydrophila, an important fish disease etiologic agent. Induction time until sedation, anesthesia and recovery time were determined in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) through bath exposure (60, 180, 300 or 500 μL L-1). The results showed different biological properties for the isomers being S-(+)-linalool the only active against A. hydrophila at 3.2 mg mL-1. The sedation was induced without differences between the compounds, however R-(-)-linalool promoted faster anesthesia. There were no differences regarding the recovery time of the animals exposed to the linalool isomers. Although both S-(+)- and R-(-)-linalool can be used for sedative purposes, their use in A. hydrophila infection is inadvisable due to the high effective concentration. Considering anesthesia as the main objective, the R-(-)-linalool demonstrated clear advantages at lower concentration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes , Aeromonas hydrophila/drug effects , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Stereoisomerism , Time Factors , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Ocimum/chemistry , Lippia/chemistry , Monoterpenes/isolation & purification , Monoterpenes/chemistry , Acyclic Monoterpenes
3.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 15(1): e160076, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-841874

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated anesthetic efficacy and possible effects of the essential oils (EOs) of Cunila galioides (EOC) and Origanum majorana (EOO) on ventilatory rate (VR) and ionoregulation in Rhamdia quelen. In the anesthesia assessments, 50, 100, 200 and 300 μL L-1 EOC and 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 μL L-1 EOO were tested, and time for induction to sedation and anesthesia stages, as well as recovery, were taken. A second trial employed lower concentrations of both EOs, 10, 25, 50 and 100 μL L-1, in order to verify VR and Na+, K+ and Cl- whole body net fluxes. Sedation was achieved with both oils at 100 µL L-1, and anesthesia at ≥ 200 µL L-1. There was no significant difference between control and EO-treated groups regarding VR, but all fish subjected to 100 µL L-1 EOC died within 2 h of exposure. Overall, ionic loss declined in the presence of the EOs. The EOC at 200 - 300 μL L-1 and EOO at 400 - 500 μL L-1 present the potential to promote fast anesthesia in R. quelen.(AU)


No presente estudo foi avaliada a eficácia da anestesia e possíveis efeitos dos óleos essenciais (EOs) de Cunila galioides (EOC) e Origanum majorana (EOO) sobre a taxa ventilatória (VR) e regulação iônica em Rhamdia quelen. Nas avaliações de anestesia, as concentrações de 50, 100, 200 e 300 μL L-1 EOC e 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 e 500 μL L-1 EOO foram testadas, e os tempos para a indução às fases de sedação e de anestesia, assim como recuperação, foram mensurados. Um segundo ensaio empregou concentrações mais baixas de ambos EOs: 10, 25, 50 e 100 μL L-1 a fim de verificar a VR e o fluxo líquido corporal dos íons Na+, K+ and Cl- . A sedação foi alcançada para ambos os óleos em 100 μL L-1, e a anestesia em concentrações ≥ 200 µL L-1. Não houve diferença significativa entre o controle e grupos tratados com EOs em relação a VR, mas todos os peixes submetidos a 100 µL L-1 do EOC morreram dentro de 2 h de exposição. No geral, a perda iônica declinou na presença dos EOs. O EOC em 200 - 300 μL L-1 e o EOO em 400 - 500 μL L-1 apresentam potencial para anestesia rápida em R. quelen.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Anesthetics/administration & dosage , Catfishes/immunology , Oils, Volatile/chemical synthesis
4.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 13(4): 707-714, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769845

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oil of Lippia alba (EOLA) as a feed additive on ionoregulatory and metabolic parameters and pituitary hormones expression in silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen , submitted to a stressful condition (stocking density of 10.6 kg m-3 and limited space). Fish were fed with different concentrations of EOLA (0.0 - control, 0.25 and 0.50 mL kg food-1) for 20 days. Metabolic parameters were not affected by the diet, with the exception of alanine aminotransferase, which was higher in the liver of fish fed 0.50 mL EOLA kg food-1. Plasma ions and activity of H+-ATPase did not change, but fish fed 0.25 mL EOLA kg food-1 presented higher Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Somatolactin expression in the pituitary was higher in the fish fed 0.25 mL EOLA kg food -1, but the expression of growth hormone and prolactin did not change. Therefore, dietary EOLA does not exert a protective effect in R. quelen submitted to a stressful situation because it did not alter most measured parameters. The use of 0.25 mL EOLA kg food-1 seems to be more suitable than 0.50 mL EOLA kg food-1 since the latter may be related to liver damage.


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do óleo essencial de Lippiaalba (OELA) como aditivo em rações na ionoregulação, parâmetros metabólicos e expressão de hormônios hipofisários em jundiás, Rhamdiaquelen, submetidos a uma situação estressante (densidade de estocagem de 10,6 kg m-3 e espaço limitado). Os peixes foram alimentados com diferentes concentrações de OELA (0,0 - controle, 0,25 e 0,50 mL kg de ração-1) durante 20 dias. Parâmetros metabólicos não foram afetados pela dieta, com a exceção da alanina aminotransferase, que foi mais elevada no fígado dos peixes alimentados com 0,50 mL de OELA kg de ração-1. Íons plasmáticos e a atividade da H+-ATPase não apresentaram nenhuma alteração, mas os peixes alimentados com 0,25 mL OELA kg de ração-1 apresentaram maior atividade da Na+/K+-ATPase. A expressão da somatolactina na hipófise de peixes alimentados com 0,25 mL OELA kg de ração-1 aumentou, porém a expressão do hormônio de crescimento e da prolactina não mudou. Portanto, a adição do OELA na ração não tem um efeito protetor em jundiás submetidos a uma situação estressante, pois não influiu na maioria dos parâmetros medidos. O uso de 0,25 mL OELA kg de ração-1 parece ser mais adequado que 0,50 mL OELA kg de ração-1, uma vez que este nível de inclusão pode estar relacionado a danos hepáticos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Oils, Volatile/adverse effects , Animal Feed/analysis
5.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 12(4): 811-818, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732621

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effects of the essential oil (EO) from Lippia alba on biochemical parameters related to oxidative stress in the brain and liver of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) after six hours of transport. Fish were transported in plastic bags and divided into three treatments groups: control, 30 µL L- 1 EO from L.alba and 40 µL L-1 EO from L.alba. Prior to transport, the fish were treated with the EO from L. alba (200 µL L -1 for three minutes), except for the control group. Fish transported in bags containing the EO did not have any alterations in acetylcholinesterase, ecto -nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase and 5'nucleotidase activity in the brain or superoxide dismutase activity in the liver. The hepatic catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), nonprotein thiol and ascorbic acid levels were significantly lower compared to the control group. However, the hepatic thiobarbituric acid- reactive substances, protein oxidation levels and the lipid peroxidation/catalase+glutathione peroxidase (LPO/CAT+GPx) ratio were significantly higher in fish transported with both concentrations of the EO, indicating oxidative stress in the liver. In conclusion, considering the hepatic oxidative stress parameters analyzed in the present experiment, the transport of previously sedated silver catfish in water containing 30 or 40 µL L-1 of EO from L. alba is less effective than the use of lower concentrations.


Este estudo investigou os efeitos do óleo essencial (OE) de Lippia alba sobre parâmetros bioquímicos relacionados ao estresse oxidativo em cérebro e fígado de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen), após seis horas de transporte. Os peixes foram transportados em sacos plásticos e divididos em três tratamentos: controle, 30 µL L-1 e 40 µL L-1 de OE de L.alba. Antes do transporte, os peixes foram tratados com o OE de L. alba (200 µL L-1 por três minutos), exceto para o grupo controle. Os peixes transportados em sacos contendo o OE não tiveram alterações na atividade da acetilcolinesterase (AChE), ecto-nucleosídeo trifosfato difosfohidrolase (NTPDase) e 5'nucleotidase, em cérebro ou superóxido dismutase (SOD) no fígado. O tiol não proteico (NPSH), os níveis de ácido ascórbico, catalase (CAT), glutationa-S-transferase (GST) e glutationa-peroxidase (GPx) hepáticos, foram significativamente mais baixos em comparação com o grupo controle. No entanto, as substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS), os níveis de oxidação proteica e a taxa de peroxidação lipídica/catalase+glutationa peroxidase (LPO/ CAT+GPx) foram significativamente maiores nos peixes transportados com ambas as concentrações de OE, indicando estresse oxidativo no fígado. Em conclusão, considerando os parâmetros de estresse oxidativo do fígado analisados no presente experimento, o transporte de jundiás previamente sedados em água contendo 30 ou 40 µL L-1 de OE de L.alba é menos efetivo que utilizando concentrações menores.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/adverse effects , Oxidative Stress , Lippia/adverse effects , Catfishes/physiology , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 33(7): 909-913, jul. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-683233

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the oleoresin Copaifera reticulata Ducke against Staphylococcus coagulase positive (SCP) isolated from otitis externa in dogs. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the oleoresin were determined by broth microdilution method. In addition, we verified the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates of SCP by agar diffusion method. Eight classes of antimicrobial were used to calculate the multidrug resistance. The chemical composition of the oleoresin was performed by gas chromatography coupled to the mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and β-caryophyllene, β-bisabolene, and (E)-α-bergamotene were the main compounds found. The copaiba oleoresin showed a MIC90 of 0.164mg/mL and a CBM90 of 1.3mg/mL. The multidrug resistance was found in 27% of the strains tested. The results suggest that copaiba oleoresin has bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity even in multidrug-resistant coagulase-positive strains.


O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar o potencial antimicrobiano do oleorresina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke em isolados de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (SCP) provenientes de casos de otite externa em cães. O método de microdiluição em caldo foi utilizado para determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) e concentração bactericida mínima (CBM) de oleorresina de copaíba. Em adição, foi determinado o perfil de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos dos isolados de SCP pelo método de difusão em ágar. Oito classes de antimicrobianos foram usadas para o cálculo de multirresistência antimicrobiana. A determinação da composição química do oleorresina de copaíba foi realizada por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (GC/MS), sendo que β-cariofileno, β-bisaboleno e (E)-α-bergamoteno foram os compostos majoritários. O oleorresina de copaíba demonstrou CIM90 de 0,164mg/mL e CBM90 de 1,31mg/mL. A multirresistência foi verificada em 27% das cepas testadas. Os resultados sugerem que o oleorresina de copaíba exerceu atividade bacteriostática e bactericida mesmo em cepas multirresistentes de Staphylococcus coagulase-positiva.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs/microbiology , Otitis/microbiology , Otitis/veterinary , Staphylococcus/immunology , Products with Antimicrobial Action
7.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 20(5): 700-705, Oct.-Nov. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-567412

ABSTRACT

O óleo essencial das inflorescências de Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae foi obtido por hidrodestilação e analisado por CG/EM. Os constituintes majoritários identificados foram eugenol (81,94 por cento) e γ-muuroleno (12,58 por cento). O óleo essencial das inflorescências demonstrou atividade antibacteriana frente a todas as cepas bacterianas testadas pelo método de microdiluição em caldo. Merece destaque a atividade verificada frente às cepas resistentes de Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli. Os valores obtidos de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM) variaram, respectivamente, entre 0,5-2 mg/mL e 1-4 mg/mL. Valores de CL50 de 233,8 (200,7-272,0) µg/mL para o óleo essencial e 186,1 (144,1-228,5) µg/mL para o eugenol, utilizado como controle positivo, foram observados frente à Artemia salina L.


The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the inflorescences of Ocimum gratissimum L. was analyzed by GC/MS. The main constituents were eugenol (81.94 percent) and γ-muurolene (12.58 percent). Antibacterial activity was shown against all assayed strains by the broth microdilution method. It's worth noting the activity against resistant strains of Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values ranged between 0.5-2 mg/mL and 1-4 mg/mL, respectively. Preliminary toxicity assayed by the brine-shrimp (Artemia salina L.) test showed LC50 values of 233.8 (200.7 - 272.0) µg/mL and 186.1 (144.1 - 228.5) µg/mL, respectively for the essential oil and eugenol (positive control).

8.
RBCF, Rev. bras. ciênc. farm. (Impr.) ; 38(2): 191-204, abr.-jun. 2002. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-333583

ABSTRACT

Chloroform or dichloromethane extracts of 357 southern Brazilian plant species were tested for the presence of peroxides by thin-layer chromatography, using the spray reagent from Huber & Fröhlke. >From the species tested, 71 (20 por cento) showed positive results and most of them (56 por cento) are Asteraceae species. The species tested were mainly from Asteraceae, but 55 more families were screened, in a total of 77 genera surveyed...


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/pharmacology , Asteraceae , Peroxides/analysis , Peroxides/pharmacology , Plant Extracts , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Indicators and Reagents
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