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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915516

ABSTRACT

Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) has been reported as rare complication of vaccination. Herein, we report 2 cases of ATM after the administration of an mRNA vaccine for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The first one is an 81-year-old man who received the BNT162b2 vaccine. He presented with bilateral hand weakness. Spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed high signal intensity from the C1 to C3 vertebrae. The second is a 23-year-old woman who received the BNT162b2 vaccine and experienced tingling in her legs. Spine MRI showed a high signal intensity lesion at the conus medullaris. These patients were treated with intravenous methylprednisolone and their symptoms improved slightly. Careful follow-up is needed to identify adverse events after the administration of mRNA vaccines for COVID-19.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900915

ABSTRACT

The variable predominance of the affected muscle groups and the fluctuating severity and extent of myasthenia gravis (MG) makes it difficult to assess and classify these patients. With new treatments being developed and applied, it has become more important to properly classify MG patients and objectively evaluate the results of treatment. So far, a number of clinical classification and assessment systems have been proposed and used individually. However, for the comparative analysis, a uniform set of classifications and reliable measurement methods of muscle impairment are necessary. In this article, MG-clinical classification and several MG-specific assessment tools that are widely used are mentioned.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899141

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Detecting antibodies against muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK Abs) is essential for diagnosing myasthenia gravis (MG). We applied an in-house cellbased assay (CBA) to detect MuSK Abs. @*Methods@#A stable cell line was generated using a lentiviral vector, which allowed the expression of MuSK tagged with green fluorescent protein in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Serum and anti-human IgG antibody conjugated with red fluorescence were added. The presence of MuSK Abs was determined based on the fluorescence intensity and their colocalization in fluorescence microscopy. Totals of 218 serum samples collected from 177 patients with MG, 31 with other neuromuscular diseases, and 10 healthy controls were analyzed. The CBA results were compared with those of a radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). @*Results@#The MuSK-HEK293 cell line stably expressed MuSK protein. The CBA detected MuSK Abs in 34 (19.2%) of 177 samples obtained from patients with MG and in none of the participants having other neuromuscular diseases or in the healthy controls. The clinical characteristics of the patients with MuSK MG determined based on the CBA were strongly correlated with known clinical features of MuSK MG. There was an almost perfect agreement between the results of the CBA and those of the RIPA (Cohen’s kappa=0.880, p<0.001) and ELISA (Cohen’s kappa=0.982, p<0.001). @*Conclusions@#The results of the in-house CBA showed excellent agreement with both the RIPA and ELISA. Our in-house CBA can be considered a reliable method for detecting MuSK Abs.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899099

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose A major concern with ocular myasthenia gravis (MG) is the potential conversion to generalized MG. This study was conducted to determine if the repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) test could predict the conversion from ocular to generalized MG. @*Methods@#The RNS test was conducted in a consistent manner on five muscles in the face and limbs in every patient. Subjects were divided into those who remained as ocular MG (ROMG group) and those who experienced conversion to generalized MG during follow-up (GOMG group). @*Results@#Conversion to generalized MG occurred in 24 (21.4%) of 112 MG patients with ocular onset. The proportion of patients displaying abnormal decreases in responses in the trapezius, abductor digiti minimi, or flexor carpi ulnaris muscles on the RNS test was higher in the GOMG group (p<0.001,p=0.002, and p<0.001, respectively). The Cox proportional-hazards model revealed that an abnormal result on the RNS test was significantly associated with conversion to generalized MG [hazard ratio (HR)=3.13, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.18– 8.32]. Notably, the HR was higher for abnormal results on the RNS test for the limb muscles, at 5.19 (95% CI=2.09–12.90). @*Conclusions@#An abnormal result on the RNS test, especially in the limb muscles, is an independent predictor of the conversion from ocular to generalized MG. Applying the RNS test to limb muscles could be useful for predicting the conversion to generalized MG in patients with ocular onset.

5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893211

ABSTRACT

The variable predominance of the affected muscle groups and the fluctuating severity and extent of myasthenia gravis (MG) makes it difficult to assess and classify these patients. With new treatments being developed and applied, it has become more important to properly classify MG patients and objectively evaluate the results of treatment. So far, a number of clinical classification and assessment systems have been proposed and used individually. However, for the comparative analysis, a uniform set of classifications and reliable measurement methods of muscle impairment are necessary. In this article, MG-clinical classification and several MG-specific assessment tools that are widely used are mentioned.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891437

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Detecting antibodies against muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK Abs) is essential for diagnosing myasthenia gravis (MG). We applied an in-house cellbased assay (CBA) to detect MuSK Abs. @*Methods@#A stable cell line was generated using a lentiviral vector, which allowed the expression of MuSK tagged with green fluorescent protein in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Serum and anti-human IgG antibody conjugated with red fluorescence were added. The presence of MuSK Abs was determined based on the fluorescence intensity and their colocalization in fluorescence microscopy. Totals of 218 serum samples collected from 177 patients with MG, 31 with other neuromuscular diseases, and 10 healthy controls were analyzed. The CBA results were compared with those of a radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). @*Results@#The MuSK-HEK293 cell line stably expressed MuSK protein. The CBA detected MuSK Abs in 34 (19.2%) of 177 samples obtained from patients with MG and in none of the participants having other neuromuscular diseases or in the healthy controls. The clinical characteristics of the patients with MuSK MG determined based on the CBA were strongly correlated with known clinical features of MuSK MG. There was an almost perfect agreement between the results of the CBA and those of the RIPA (Cohen’s kappa=0.880, p<0.001) and ELISA (Cohen’s kappa=0.982, p<0.001). @*Conclusions@#The results of the in-house CBA showed excellent agreement with both the RIPA and ELISA. Our in-house CBA can be considered a reliable method for detecting MuSK Abs.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891395

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose A major concern with ocular myasthenia gravis (MG) is the potential conversion to generalized MG. This study was conducted to determine if the repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) test could predict the conversion from ocular to generalized MG. @*Methods@#The RNS test was conducted in a consistent manner on five muscles in the face and limbs in every patient. Subjects were divided into those who remained as ocular MG (ROMG group) and those who experienced conversion to generalized MG during follow-up (GOMG group). @*Results@#Conversion to generalized MG occurred in 24 (21.4%) of 112 MG patients with ocular onset. The proportion of patients displaying abnormal decreases in responses in the trapezius, abductor digiti minimi, or flexor carpi ulnaris muscles on the RNS test was higher in the GOMG group (p<0.001,p=0.002, and p<0.001, respectively). The Cox proportional-hazards model revealed that an abnormal result on the RNS test was significantly associated with conversion to generalized MG [hazard ratio (HR)=3.13, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.18– 8.32]. Notably, the HR was higher for abnormal results on the RNS test for the limb muscles, at 5.19 (95% CI=2.09–12.90). @*Conclusions@#An abnormal result on the RNS test, especially in the limb muscles, is an independent predictor of the conversion from ocular to generalized MG. Applying the RNS test to limb muscles could be useful for predicting the conversion to generalized MG in patients with ocular onset.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874815

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Electrooculography (EOG) records eyeball movements as changes in the potential difference between the negatively charged retina and the positively charged cornea. We aimed to investigate whether reliable EOG waveforms can be evoked by electrical stimulation of the oculomotor and abducens nerves during skull base surgery. @*Methods@#: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 18 patients who had undergone a skull base tumor surgery using EOG (11 craniotomies and seven endonasal endoscopic surgeries). Stimulation was performed at 5 Hz with a stimulus duration of 200 μs and an intensity of 0.1–5 mA using a concentric bipolar probe. Recording electrodes were placed on the upper (active) and lower (reference) eyelids, and on the outer corners of both eyes; the active electrode was placed on the contralateral side. @*Results@#: Reproducibly triggered EOG waveforms were observed in all cases. Electrical stimulation of cranial nerves (CNs) III and VI elicited positive waveforms and negative waveforms, respectively, in the horizontal recording. The median latencies were 3.1 and 0.5 ms for craniotomies and endonasal endoscopic surgeries, respectively (p=0.007). Additionally, the median amplitudes were 33.7 and 46.4 μV for craniotomies and endonasal endoscopic surgeries, respectively (p=0.40). @*Conclusion@#: This study showed reliably triggered EOG waveforms with stimulation of CNs III and VI during skull base surgery. The latency was different according to the point of stimulation and thus predictable. As EOG is noninvasive and relatively easy to perform, it can be used to identify the ocular motor nerves during surgeries as an alternative of electromyography.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874264

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although loss of sensation in patients with breast cancer after mastectomy followed by breast reconstruction is an important factor affecting patients’ quality of life, the mechanism of sensory recovery is still unclear. Our study aimed to identify variables that affect sensory recovery, especially pain, in reconstructed breasts. @*Methods@#All patients with breast cancer who underwent mastectomy followed by immediate breast reconstruction, including nipple reconstruction or areolar tattooing, were included in this study. Sensation was evaluated in the nipple as an endpoint of sensation recovery of the whole breast. Patients rated pain severity using a 3-point verbal rating scale (VRS): grade 0, no pain; grade 1, mild to moderate pain; and grade 2, severe pain. The VRS was assessed by a single experienced plastic surgeon. @*Results@#In the univariate analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for sensation recovery was 0.951 for age (P=0.014), 0.803 for body mass index (P=0.001), 0.996 for breast volume before surgery (P=0.001), 0.998 for specimen weight after mastectomy (P=0.040), and 1.066 for the period between mastectomy and sensory assessment (P=0.003). In the multivariate analysis, the variables that showed a significant effect were age (OR, 0.953; P=0.034), the period between mastectomy and sensory assessment (OR, 1.071; P=0.006), and reconstruction using abdominal tissue instead of prosthetic reconstruction (OR, 0.270; P=0.004). @*Conclusions@#Based on our results, it can be inferred that aging has a negative impact on the recovery of sensation, breast sensation improves with time after surgery, and the recovery of sensation is better in prosthetic reconstruction.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831502

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is known to be a rare disease, its prevalence and incidence have not yet been studied in Korea. We performed a population-based study to examine the prevalence and incidence of NMOSD in Korea using data from the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) claims database. @*Methods@#Data from 2013 to 2017 were obtained, with a washout period set as 2013 and 2014. The prevalence and incidence of NMOSD in 2016 and 2017 were calculated using population census data. Subjects were divided into 5 groups at 15-year intervals, depending on the age at which the diagnostic code was entered. The relative risk (RR) for each age group was compared with the oldest (≥ 60 years) age group. @*Results@#The overall prevalence was estimated to be 3.36 and 3.56 per 100,000 individuals, with an incidence of 0.41 and 0.65 per 100,000 individuals-year in 2016 and 2017, respectively. The mean age was 43.08 (standard deviation, 14.56) years, and the ratio of male to females was 1:4.7. The incidence was higher in female individuals aged between 30 and 59 years (RR, 2.8–3.05; P < 0.05). @*Conclusion@#Nationwide prevalence of NMOSD in Korea was 3.36 and 3.56/100,000 and its incidence was 0.41 and 0.65/100,000-year in 2016 and 2017 respectively.

11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766742

ABSTRACT

Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS), which is caused by mutations in SACS gene, is a very rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the clinical triad of early onset cerebellar ataxia, pyramidal tract features, and sensorimotor polyneuropathy. Herein, we report a 35-year-old Korean male who presented with gait disturbance and lower extremity weakness. Neuroimaging and ophthalmologic evaluation revealed features consistent with ARSACS. Mutation in SACS gene was demonstrated in clinical exome sequence analysis and the patient was finally diagnosed as ARSACS.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ataxia , Cerebellar Ataxia , Exome , Gait , Humans , Lower Extremity , Male , Muscle Spasticity , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuroimaging , Polyneuropathies , Pyramidal Tracts , Sequence Analysis , Spinocerebellar Degenerations
12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 633-639, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762097

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a lifelong autoimmune disorder that affects neuromuscular transmission. The long-term treatment plan should include immunotherapy. We investigated the long-term safety and efficacy of tacrolimus for the treatment of MG in real-world clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 160 MG patients treated with tacrolimus from 2005 to 2015. Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) clinical classification, MGFA post-intervention status, myasthenic functional score, and dose of oral prednisolone were investigated. RESULTS: Adverse events occurred in 68 patients (42.5%), most of which were minor and well-managed. Clinical severity scales improved after administration of tacrolimus, compared to the baseline. Compared to 6 months before administration of tacrolimus, prednisolone dose significantly decreased at 12 months after treatment (2.85±0.92 mg/day, p=0.002), 18 months after treatment (3.36±0.99 mg/day, p=0.001), and 24 months after treatment (3.71±0.93 mg/day, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Tacrolimus may be effective in reducing the severity of MG and may permit a reduction in the steroid dose prescribed to the patients. Adverse events due to tacrolimus treatment were not serious.


Subject(s)
Americas , Classification , Humans , Immunotherapy , Myasthenia Gravis , Prednisolone , Retrospective Studies , Tacrolimus , Weights and Measures
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neurological involvement in Behçet's disease [neuro-Behçet's disease (NBD)] is uncommon, but it is worth investigating since it can cause substantial disability. However, difficulties exist in understanding the clinical features of NBD due to regional variations and the lack of studies utilizing well-established diagnostic criteria. We therefore analyzed the clinical features of patients with NBD based on the recent international consensus recommendation. METHODS: We retrospectively searched electronic databases for patients with Behçet's disease (BD) between 2000 and 2017, and reviewed their medical records. Based on the recent international consensus recommendation, patients with definite or probable NBD were included. RESULTS: Of 9,817 patients with the diagnosis code for BD, 1,682 (17.1%) visited the neurology clinic and 110 (1.1%) were classified as NBD. Ninety-eight patients exhibited parenchymal NBD and 12 exhibited nonparenchymal NBD. Their age at the onset of NBD was 37.6±10.6 years and the male-to-female ratio was 1.24:1. Brainstem syndrome (43.9%) was the most common condition in the 98 patients with parenchymal NBD, followed by multifocal (32.7%) and spinal cord (12.2%) syndromes. 72.4% exhibited acute NBD and 27.6% exhibited a progressive disease course. Frequent manifestations included pyramidal signs (52.0%), headache (45.9%), dysarthria (42.9%), and fever (31.6%). A frequent pattern in brain MRI was an upper brainstem lesion extending to the thalamus and basal ganglia. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 1% of the patients with suspected BD exhibited NBD. Neurologists must understand the clinical characteristics of NBD in order to perform the differential diagnosis and management of these patients.


Subject(s)
Basal Ganglia , Brain , Brain Stem , Classification , Consensus , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Dysarthria , Fever , Headache , Humans , Korea , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Medical Records , Neurology , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Cord , Thalamus
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714337

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients treated with interferon-beta (IFN-β) can develop neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against IFN-β that can negatively affect the therapeutic response. This study assessed the prevalence of NAbs and the impact of NAb positivity on the therapeutic response to IFN-β in Korean patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: This was a multicenter study involving 150 MS patients from 9 Korean medical centers who were treated with IFN-β for at least 6 months. Sera that had not been influenced by acute treatment were assessed for NAbs using a luciferase reporter gene assay. To evaluate the association between persistent positivity for NAbs and disease activity, NAbs were tested at 2 different time points in 75 of the 150 patients. Disease activity was defined as the presence of clinical exacerbations and/or active MRI lesions during a 1-year follow-up after NAb positivity was confirmed. RESULTS: NAbs were found in 39 of the 150 (26%) MS patients: 30 of the 85 (35%) who were treated with subcutaneous IFN-β-1b, 9 of the 60 (15%) who were treated with subcutaneous IFN-β-1a, and 0 of the 5 (0%) who were treated with intramuscular IFN-β-1a. Thirty of the 39 patients exhibiting NAb positivity were tested at different time points, and 20 of them exhibited persistent NAb positivity. Disease activity was observed more frequently in patients with persistent NAb positivity than in those with transient positivity or persistent negativity [16/20 (80%) vs. 4/55 (7%), respectively; p < 0.001]. When disease activity was compared between patients with persistent and transient NAb positivity, the difference was unchanged and remained statistically significant [16/20 (80%) vs. 2/10 (20%), p=0.004]. CONCLUSIONS: These results further support that persistent NAb positivity is associated with disease activity in MS patients treated with IFN-β.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Follow-Up Studies , Genes, Reporter , Humans , Interferon-beta , Luciferases , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multiple Sclerosis , Prevalence
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766644

ABSTRACT

Hemicrania continua (HC) is an indomethacin-responsive primary headache. Owing to continuous unilateral headache and clinical rarity, a great attention should be paid during the diagnosis of HC to exclude secondary causes of headache. Various pathologies have been described for HC-like headache. We describe a 64-year old man with invasive sphenoid sinus aspergillosis who presented continuous unilateral headache, trigeminal autonomic symptoms and response to oral indomethacin 225 mg/day. He was treated with intranasal ethmoidectomy and antifungal agent, and his headache has greatly improved.


Subject(s)
Aspergillosis , Diagnosis , Headache , Indomethacin , Pathology , Sphenoid Sinus , Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This retrospective cross-sectional study included 18 patients from unrelated families harboring mutations of the transthyretin gene (TTR), and analyzed their characteristics and geographical distribution in South Korea. METHODS: The included patients had a diagnosis of systemic amyloidosis, clinical symptoms, such as amyloid neuropathy or cardiomyopathy, and confirmation of a TTR gene mutation using genetic analysis recorded between April 1995 and November 2014. RESULTS: The mean age at disease onset was 49.6 years, and the mean disease duration from symptom onset to diagnosis was 3.67 years. Fifteen of the 18 patients were classified as mixed phenotype, 2 as the neurological phenotype, and only 1 patient as the cardiac phenotype. The most-common mutation pattern in South Korea was Asp38Ala, which was detected in eight patients. Thirteen patients reported their family hometowns, and five of the eight harboring the Asp38Ala mutation were from the Gyeongsang province in southeast Korea. The other eight patients exhibited a widespread geographical distribution. A particularly noteworthy finding was that the valine at position 30 (Val30Met) mutation, which was previously reported as the most-common TTR mutation worldwide and also the most common in the Japanese population, was not detected in the present South Korean patients. CONCLUSIONS: South Korean patients with hereditary TTR amyloidosis exhibited heterogeneous TTR genotypes and clinical phenotypes. The findings of this study suggest that the distribution of TTR amyloidosis in South Korea is due to de novo mutations and/or related to the other countries in East Asia.


Subject(s)
Amyloid Neuropathies , Amyloidosis , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Cardiomyopathies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnosis , Far East , Genotype , Humans , Korea , Phenotype , Prealbumin , Retrospective Studies , Valine
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715681

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Antiganglioside antibodies are known to play a pathogenic role in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Either an immunoglobulin (Ig)G- or IgM-type anti-GM2 antibody is detected in rare cases in GBS patients. However, the specific pathogenic role of these antibodies in GBS has not been reported previously. This study aimed to define and characterize the clinical spectrum of GBS with anti-GM2 positivity. METHODS: We reviewed the database of the Dong-A University Neuroimmunology Team, which has collected sera of GBS and its variants from more than 40 general and university-based hospitals in Korea. Detailed information about the involved patients was often obtained and then corrected by the charge doctor applying additional questionnaires. RESULTS: Four patients with acute monophasic peripheral neuropathy or cranial neuropathy with isolated IgM-type anti-GM2-antibody positivity were recruited. In addition, IgG-type anti-GM2 antibody was solely detected in the sera of another four patients. The IgM-positive group comprised heterogeneous syndromes: two cases of acute motor axonal neuropathy, one of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and one of isolated facial diplegia. In contrast, all of the cases enrolled in the IgG-positive group manifested with dizziness with or without oculomotor palsy due to cranial neuropathy syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: This study has identified that anti-GM2 antibody can be found in various subtypes of GBS and its variants in rare cases. Compared to the clinical heterogeneity of the IgM-positive group, the IgG-positive group can be characterized by cranial-dominant GBS variants presenting mainly with oculomotor and vestibular dysfunctions.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Axons , Cranial Nerve Diseases , Dizziness , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Korea , Paralysis , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Population Characteristics
19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 337-340, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713189

ABSTRACT

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1 (FSHD1) is caused by contraction of the D4Z4 repeat array. Recent studies revealed that the FAT1 expression is associated with disease activity of FSHD, and the FAT1 alterations result in myopathy with a FSHD-like phenotype. We describe a 59-year-old woman with both contracted D4Z4 repeat units and a FAT1 mutation. Shoulder girdle muscle weakness developed at the age of 56 years, and was followed by proximal leg weakness. When we examined her at 59 years of age, she displayed asymmetric and predominant weakness of facial and proximal muscles. Muscle biopsy showed increased variation in fiber size and multifocal degenerating fibers with lymphocytic infiltration. Southern blot analysis revealed 8 D4Z4 repeat units, and targeted sequencing of modifier genes demonstrated the c.10331 A>G variant in the FAT1 gene. This FAT1 variant has previously been reported as pathogenic variant in a patient with FSHD-like phenotype. Our study is the first report of a FAT1 mutation in a FSHD1 patient, and suggests that FAT1 alterations might work as a genetic modifier.


Subject(s)
Cadherins/genetics , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Muscles/pathology , Muscular Dystrophy, Facioscapulohumeral/diagnostic imaging , Mutation/genetics , Phenotype
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