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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892314

ABSTRACT

Background@#Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a negative impact on growth and development in children and is a risk factor for neurocognitive impairment; however, there is limited research on the cognitive function of children and adolescents with CKD. This study therefore aimed to investigate the mean intelligence and risk factors for low intelligence in children and adolescents with CKD. @*Methods@#Eighty-one patients with CKD under 18 years old were included in the KoreaN cohort study for Outcomes in patients With Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-Ped CKD). Participants completed either the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (6–16 years), or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (> 16 years). @*Results@#The mean full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) was 91 ± 19; 24.7% of participants scored a full-scale IQ below 80. Participants with a short stature (height Z scores < −1.88), failure to thrive (weight Z scores < −1.65), more severe CKD stage (≥ IIIb), longer duration of CKD (≥ 5 years), and those who were Medicare or Medicaid beneficiaries, had significantly lower mean full-scale IQs. @*Conclusion@#On linear regression analysis, the association between the full-scale IQ, and longer duration of CKD and growth failure, remained significant after controlling for demographic and clinical variables. It is therefore necessary to investigate cognitive impairment in pediatric patients with CKD who exhibit growth failure or for a longer postmorbid period. It is believed that early interventions, such as kidney transplantation, will have a positive effect on IQ in children with CKD, as the disease negatively affects IQ due to poor glomerular filtration rate over time.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917048

ABSTRACT

Background@#The clinical features of pediatric rhabdomyolysis differ from those of the adults with rhabdomyolysis; however, multicenter studies are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of pediatric rhabdomyolysis and reveal the risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) in such cases. @*Methods@#This retrospective study analyzed the medical records of children and adolescents diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis at 23 hospitals in South Korea between January 2007 and December 2016. @*Results@#Among 880 patients, those aged 3 to 5 years old composed the largest subgroup (19.4%), and all age subgroups were predominantly male. The incidence of AKI was 11.3%. Neurological disorders (53%) and infection (44%) were the most common underlying disorder and cause of rhabdomyolysis, respectively. The median age at diagnosis in the AKI subgroup was older than that in the non-AKI subgroup (12.2 years vs. 8.0 years). There were no significant differences in body mass index, myalgia, dark-colored urine, or the number of causal factors between the two AKI-status subgroups. The multivariate logistic regression model indicated that the following factors were independently associated with AKI: multiorgan failure, presence of an underlying disorder, strong positive urine occult blood, increased aspartate aminotransferase and uric acid levels, and reduced calcium levels. @*Conclusions@#Our study revealed characteristic clinical and laboratory features of rhabdomyolysis in a Korean pediatric population and highlighted the risk factors for AKI in these cases. Our findings will contribute to a greater understanding of pediatric rhabdomyolysis and may enable early intervention against rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900018

ABSTRACT

Background@#Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a negative impact on growth and development in children and is a risk factor for neurocognitive impairment; however, there is limited research on the cognitive function of children and adolescents with CKD. This study therefore aimed to investigate the mean intelligence and risk factors for low intelligence in children and adolescents with CKD. @*Methods@#Eighty-one patients with CKD under 18 years old were included in the KoreaN cohort study for Outcomes in patients With Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-Ped CKD). Participants completed either the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (6–16 years), or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (> 16 years). @*Results@#The mean full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) was 91 ± 19; 24.7% of participants scored a full-scale IQ below 80. Participants with a short stature (height Z scores < −1.88), failure to thrive (weight Z scores < −1.65), more severe CKD stage (≥ IIIb), longer duration of CKD (≥ 5 years), and those who were Medicare or Medicaid beneficiaries, had significantly lower mean full-scale IQs. @*Conclusion@#On linear regression analysis, the association between the full-scale IQ, and longer duration of CKD and growth failure, remained significant after controlling for demographic and clinical variables. It is therefore necessary to investigate cognitive impairment in pediatric patients with CKD who exhibit growth failure or for a longer postmorbid period. It is believed that early interventions, such as kidney transplantation, will have a positive effect on IQ in children with CKD, as the disease negatively affects IQ due to poor glomerular filtration rate over time.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897481

ABSTRACT

C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN), a rare condition associated with dysregulation of the alternative pathway of the complement system, is histopathologically characterized by isolated or dominant C3 deposition in the renal glomeruli. We report a case of C3GN associated with anti-complement factor H (CFH) autoantibodies and CHF-related protein deficiency in an adolescent male. A 16-year-old adolescent male was admitted to a hospital with a 1-month history of generalized edema prior to presentation. Persistent microscopic hematuria and low serum C3 levels were incidentally detected at 7 and 10 years of age, respectively. Laboratory test results revealed hypoalbuminemia, nephrotic-range proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, and normal serum creatinine levels. The serum C3 and C4 levels were 17 mg/dL (normal 80–150 mg/dL) and 22 mg/mL (17–40 mg/mL), respectively. Renal biopsy showed typical features of C3GN. Further investigations revealed positive results on plasma anti-CFH autoantibody testing and a homozygous deletion of CFHR1 and CFHR3, which encode CFH-related proteins 1 and 3, respectively. Proteinuria persisted despite treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone, mycophenolate mofetil, and angiotensin-receptor blocker; however, his renal function remained stable. In conclusion, anti-CFH autoantibodies serve as important contributors to C3GN. This is the first case report that describes C3GN in an adolescent Korean male with anti-CFH autoantibodies and homozygous CFHR1 and CFHR3 deletion.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889777

ABSTRACT

C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN), a rare condition associated with dysregulation of the alternative pathway of the complement system, is histopathologically characterized by isolated or dominant C3 deposition in the renal glomeruli. We report a case of C3GN associated with anti-complement factor H (CFH) autoantibodies and CHF-related protein deficiency in an adolescent male. A 16-year-old adolescent male was admitted to a hospital with a 1-month history of generalized edema prior to presentation. Persistent microscopic hematuria and low serum C3 levels were incidentally detected at 7 and 10 years of age, respectively. Laboratory test results revealed hypoalbuminemia, nephrotic-range proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, and normal serum creatinine levels. The serum C3 and C4 levels were 17 mg/dL (normal 80–150 mg/dL) and 22 mg/mL (17–40 mg/mL), respectively. Renal biopsy showed typical features of C3GN. Further investigations revealed positive results on plasma anti-CFH autoantibody testing and a homozygous deletion of CFHR1 and CFHR3, which encode CFH-related proteins 1 and 3, respectively. Proteinuria persisted despite treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone, mycophenolate mofetil, and angiotensin-receptor blocker; however, his renal function remained stable. In conclusion, anti-CFH autoantibodies serve as important contributors to C3GN. This is the first case report that describes C3GN in an adolescent Korean male with anti-CFH autoantibodies and homozygous CFHR1 and CFHR3 deletion.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837192

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic renal hypouricemia is a hereditary disease characterized by abnormally high renal uric acid clearance. A defect in the SLC22A12 genes, which encodes the renal uric acid transporter, URAT1, is the known major causes of this disorder. Most patients are clinically silent, but exercise-induced acute kidney injury, urolithiasis or hematuria may develop. The patient presented with azotemia, decreased urine output and abdominal pain without vigorous exercise past history. He was diagnosed with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis at admission, but low serum uric acid level was persisted. Since the diagnosis of the patient was familial renal hypouricemia, we performed sequence analysis of the SLC22A12 gene in all family members. We report a case of 17-year-old boy with severe acute kidney injury with familial renal hypouricemia confirmed by genotyping of SLC22A12 .

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834955

ABSTRACT

Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is a common cause of chronic kidney disease in children, and a considerable number of patients progress to end-stage renal disease. SRNS is a highly heterogeneous disorder, both clinically and genetically, and more than 50 monogenic causes of SRNS, including isolated and syndromic forms, have been identified. Recent large-cohort studies indicate that at least 30% of childhood-onset SRNS cases are genetic. The benefits of definitive molecular diagnosis by genetic testing include the avoidance of unnecessary and potentially harmful diagnostic procedures (e.g., kidney biopsy) and treatment (e.g., steroid and immunosuppressants), detection of rare and potentially treatable mutations (e.g., coenzyme Q10 biosynthesis pathway defect), prediction of prognosis (e.g., posttransplant recurrence), and providing precise genetic counseling. Furthermore, the identification of novel disease-causing genes could provide new insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of SRNS. Therefore, whenever accessible and affordable, genetic testing is recommended for all pediatric patients with SRNS, and should certainly be performed in patients with a higher probability of genetic predisposition based on genotype-phenotype correlation data. The genetic testing approach should be determined for each patient, and clinicians should, therefore, be aware of the advantages and disadvantages of methods currently available, which include Sanger sequencing, gene panel testing, and whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing. Importantly, the need for precise and thorough phenotyping by clinicians, even in the era of genomics, cannot be overemphasized. This review provides an update on recent advances in genetic studies, a suggested approach for the genetic testing of pediatric patients with SRNS.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831755

ABSTRACT

Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is defined by specific clinical characteristics, including microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and pathologic evidence of endothelial cell damage, as well as the resulting ischemic end-organ injuries. A variety of clinical scenarios have features of TMA, including infection, pregnancy, malignancy, autoimmune disease, and medications. These overlapping manifestations hamper differential diagnosis of the underlying pathogenesis, despite recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of several types of TMA syndrome. Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is caused by a genetic or acquired defect in regulation of the alternative complement pathway. It is important to consider the possibility of aHUS in all patients who exhibit TMA with triggering conditions because of the incomplete genetic penetrance of aHUS. Therapeutic strategies for aHUS are based on functional restoration of the complement system. Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody against the terminal complement component 5 inhibitor, yields good outcomes that include prevention of organ damage and premature death. However, there remain unresolved challenges in terms of treatment duration, cost, and infectious complications. A consensus regarding diagnosis and management of TMA syndrome would enhance understanding of the disease and enable treatment decision-making.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831682

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hearing loss (HL) in children may adversely affect their development. HL is more prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) than in the general population.This study evaluated the prevalence of HL and its underlying diseases in patients with childhood-onset in CKD. @*Methods@#In this retrospective study of a tertiary referral center, childhood-onset CKD patients (stage 2–5, age at onset of renal symptom < 18 years) were recruited. We referred to the “renal” syndromic HL as cases with genetic or syndromic diseases, or extra-renal anomalies in addition to HL and CKD. @*Results@#A total of 421 patients (male:female = 279:142) were reviewed according to the causes of CKD: congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT; n = 184, 43.7%), glomerulopathies (GP; n = 105, 24.9%), cystic kidney diseases (CYST; n = 39, 9.3%), perinatal problems (PP; n = 29, 6.9%), and others (n = 64, 15.2%). HL was detected in 82 (19.5%) patients, including 51 (12.1%) patients with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), 30 (7.1%) with conductive hearing loss (CHL), and 1 patient with mixed HL. The prevalence of HL in each group was as follows: 16.8% in the CAKUT group, 28.6% in the GP group, 12.8% in the CYST group, 24.1% in the PP group, and 14.1% in the others group. HL was more common in higher CKD stages, especially CHL in end-stage renal disease. SNHL was more prevalent in CKD from GP. Of the 82 patients with HL, 50% had renal syndromic HL: 58.8% of SNHL and one-third of CHL were renal syndromic HL. @*Conclusion@#One-fifth of the childhood-onset CKD had HL. Collectively, renal syndromic HL comprised half of the HL in this study. To improve the quality of life in patients with childhood-onset CKD, we suggest that HL should be considered, requiring surveillance, and if necessary, early intervention.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831540

ABSTRACT

Renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD) is a rare fatal disorder in which there is poor development of proximal tubules, leading to oligohydramnios and the Potter sequences. RTD occurs secondary to renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade during the early stages of fetal development or due to autosomal recessive mutation of genes in the RAS pathway. A boy born at 33+1 weeks due to cord prolapse was found to be anuric and hypotensive. Pregnancy was complicated by severe oligohydramnios from gestational age 28+4 weeks. Abdominal sonography revealed diffuse globular enlargement of both kidneys with increased cortical parenchymal echogenicity. Infantogram showed a narrow thoracic cage and skull X-ray showed large fontanelles and wide sutures suggestive of ossification delay. Basal plasma renin activity was markedly elevated and angiotensin-converting enzyme was undetectable. Despite adequate use of medications, peritoneal dialysis, and respiratory support, he did not recover and expired on the 23rd day of life. At first, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease was suspected, but severe oligohydramnios along with refractory hypotension, anuria, skull ossification delay and high renin levels made RTD suspicious. ACE gene analysis revealed compound heterozygous pathogenic variations of c.1454.dupC in exon 9 and c.2141dupA in exon 14, confirming RTD. Based on our findings, we propose that, although rare, RTD should be suspected in patients with severe oligohydramnios and refractory hypotension.

13.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 115-119, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831209

ABSTRACT

Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is a rare renal tubular disorder characterized by normal anion gap metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, and high urine pH. It can be inherited or acquired. In untreated pediatric patients with dRTA, rickets and growth retardation are common. We report the case of a 12-year-old Lao girl who presented with typical clinical features of dRTA with severe bone deformities that developed after a bed-ridden state due to a bicycle accident at the age of 8 years. Initial laboratory tests revealed metabolic acidosis with a normal anion gap, hypokalemia, and alkali urine. Renal ultrasonography revealed bilateral medullary nephrocalcinosis. Whole exome sequencing revealed no pathogenic mutations. After treatment with oral alkali, potassium, and vitamin D, she could walk and run. Later, she underwent corrective orthopedic surgeries for bony deformities. Thus, in pediatric dRTA patients, despite severe symptoms remaining untreated, accurate diagnosis and proper management can improve quality of life.

14.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 120-125, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831208

ABSTRACT

Gorham-Stout syndrome is a rare bone disorder characterized by progressive massive osteolysis and proliferation of vascular and lymphatic vessels. A 15-year-old boy was initially diagnosed with Gorham-Stout at the age of 8 years based on clinical and radiological findings. Following diagnosis, he was treated with pamidronate, interferon alfa, propranolol, oral corticosteroids, and sirolimus. He developed proteinuria at the age of 15 and progressed into the nephrotic range 2 years later. A renal biopsy revealed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, not otherwise specified variant. The sequential increase in proteinuria associated with medications suggested that the focal segmental glomerulosclerosis may be caused by pamidronate and sirolimus, but cannot completely rule out the possibility of kidney involvement of GSS itself.

15.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 138-142, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831205

ABSTRACT

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is an extremely rare and life-threatening disorder. Typical HUS is often caused by Shiga toxin-positive Escherichia coli, while aHUS is caused by dysregulation of the alternative pathway of the complement system in association with genetic abnormalities or development of autoantibodies. Eculizumab, a humanized anti-complement 5 monoclonal antibody, is recommended for the treatment of aHUS, but its long-term safety and efficacy in pediatric patients remain under review. In this paper, we report a pediatric case of aHUS with anti-complement factor H autoantibodies, who was treated successfully with eculizumab.

16.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831196

ABSTRACT

Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1) is a rare salt-wasting disorder caused byresistance to mineralocorticoid action. PHA1 is of two types with different levelsof disease severity and phenotype as follows: systemic type with an autosomalrecessiveinheritance (caused by mutations of the epithelial sodium channel)and renal type with an autosomal dominant inheritance (caused by mutations inthe mineralocorticoid receptor). The clinical manifestations of PHA1 vary widely;however,PHA1 commonly involves hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, metabolicacidosis and elevated levels of renin and aldosterone. The earliest signs of bothtype of PAH1 also comprise insufficiency weight gain due to chronic dehydrationand failure to thrive during infancy. Here, we report a case of renal PAH1 in a28-day-old male infant harboring a novel heterozygous mutation in NR3C2 gene(c.1341_1345dupAAACC in exon 2), showing only failure to thrive without thecharacteristic of dehydration.

17.
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765034

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is one of the major complications of organ transplantation, especially in children with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viremia (EV). We performed a retrospective study to evaluate risk factors for PTLD in children with EV. METHODS: Among 199 pediatric kidney transplantation (KT) recipients at our center from January 2001 to October 2015, records of those with EBV viral loads of > 1,000 copies/mL and/or PTLD were reviewed. RESULTS: Diagnosis of PTLD was made in seven patients (PTLD group), and 39 patients had EV only (EV only group). The median time from KT to EV and PTLD diagnosis was 6.7 (range 0.4–47.8) months and 8.2 (range, 2.8–98.9) months, respectively. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of sex, age at transplantation, donor type, EBV viral load, or EV-free duration after KT. Higher tacrolimus level before EV (hazard ratio, 44.5; P = 0.003) was an independent risk factor for PTLD in multivariate Cox regression analysis. Six patients with a high EBV load (median 171,639 copies/mL) were treated with preemptive rituximab (RTX) therapy, resulting in transient reduction of EBV load. None of these patients developed PTLD (median follow-up 51.5 months); however, two had neutropenia and two developed infection requiring hospital admission. CONCLUSION: In pediatric KT recipients, higher tacrolimus levels were associated with a higher incidence of PTLD. Conversely, those who received preemptive RTX for EV did not develop PTLD.


Subject(s)
Allografts , Child , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Neutropenia , Organ Transplantation , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Rituximab , Tacrolimus , Tissue Donors , Transplants , Viral Load , Viremia
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765002

ABSTRACT

D-penicillamine has been reported to cause antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis presenting as rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis or pulmonary-renal syndrome mostly in adults. We report a pediatric case of D-penicillamine induced ANCA-associated vasculitis that manifests as a pulmonary-renal syndrome with a mild renal manifestation. A 13-year-old girl who has been taking D-penicillamine for five years under the diagnosis of Wilson disease visited the emergency room because of hemoptysis and dyspnea. She had diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage, microscopic hematuria, and proteinuria. Myeloperoxidase ANCA was positive, and a renal biopsy revealed pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis. Under the diagnosis of D-penicillamine-induced ANCA-associated vasculitis, D-penicillamine was switched to trientine, and the patient was treated with plasmapheresis, glucocorticoid, cyclophosphamide, and mycophenolate mofetil. Pulmonary hemorrhage improved rapidly followed by the disappearance of the hematuria and proteinuria five months later.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Biopsy , Child , Cyclophosphamide , Diagnosis , Dyspnea , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Glomerulonephritis , Hematuria , Hemoptysis , Hemorrhage , Hepatolenticular Degeneration , Humans , Penicillamine , Peroxidase , Plasmapheresis , Proteinuria , Trientine , Vasculitis
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764983

ABSTRACT

The authors regret that there was an important error in the results in Table 1; the ATP7A mutations detected in Patients 2 and 14 were incorrectly noted.

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