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1.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168529

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Delivering bad news is a task that occurs in most medical practices, rendering communication skills essential to competent patient care. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that are associated with scores on an assessment of medical students' communication skills in delivering bad news to help develop more effective curricula to enhance these essential skills. METHODS: One hundred fifty-four fourth-year medical students at Pusan National University were included. Skills for delivering bad news were assessed using the SPIKES protocol in the CPX. The students were categorized into three main groups according to total scores: 'Exceeds expectations (E)', 'Meets expectations (M)', and 'Needs development (N)'. Personal experiences with misfortune and attitudes toward breaking bad news were surveyed, and school records were collected. The differences between the E and N groups were analyzed based on performance test and survey. RESULTS: Compared with students in the N group, E group students acquired significantlyhigher scores on the items of Perception, Invitation, a division of Knowledge, Empathy and Strategy, and Summary but not on Setting and a part of Knowledge. E group students had better records in classes and clerkships. There were no differences in personal experiences and attitudes toward breaking bad news between the groups. CONCLUSION: Personal experience with delivering bad news does not guarantee better communication, and attitudes toward this task do not influence student performance. We expect that deliberate educational programs will have a positive impact on improving communication skills for delivering bad news.


Subject(s)
Curriculum , Empathy , Humans , Patient Care , Personality Inventory , Professional-Family Relations , Students, Medical
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-19946

ABSTRACT

In order to obtain greater insight into the relevant genomic expression patterns of Trichinella spiralis, 992 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were collected from a cDNA library of T. spiralis muscle stage larvae and assembled into 60 clusters and 385 singletons. Of them, 445 (44.7%) ESTs were annotated to their homologous genes, and small fractions were matched to known genes of nematodes. The annotated ESTs were classified into 25 eukaryotic orthologous groups (KOG). Cytochrome C oxidase (34 clones) was found to be most frequent species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Expressed Sequence Tags , Gene Library , Helminth Proteins/genetics , Larva/genetics , Muscle, Skeletal/parasitology , Rats , Trichinella spiralis/genetics , Trichinellosis/parasitology
3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-177475

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was performed to compare the characteristics and perceptions of medical school students and professional graduate medical school students. METHODS: Study subjects were 131 medical students from a national university and 113 applicants of a professional graduate medical school. We developed a self-reported questionnaire asking about socio-demographic characteristics; the level of satisfaction of educational environment; perception of missions of medical education and career plan and student activities during school. RESULTS: Students from the professional graduate medical school were significantly different from medical students in socio-demographic characteristics. They also showed higher satisfaction with their education, were more supportive of student union activities and were more anxious about economic and health problems than medical students. However, there was no difference between the two groups regarding perception of missions of medical education and career plan after graduation. CONCLUSION: Based on the above results, it is necessary to consider the characteristics and perceptions of professional graduate medical students when developing educational policies for these older students. The limitation of this study includes a restricted sample, and generalization of results should be done carefully. Thus, more extensive, wide-ranging studies would be useful.


Subject(s)
Education , Education, Medical , Generalization, Psychological , Humans , Religious Missions , Schools, Medical , Students, Medical , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198438

ABSTRACT

The endosymbionts of 4 strains of Acanthamoeba (KA/E9, KA/E21, KA/E22, and KA/E23) isolated from the infected corneas of Korean patients were characterized via orcein stain, transmission electron microscopic examination, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Double membrane-bound, rod-shaped endosymbionts were distributed randomly throughout both the trophozoites and cysts of each of Acanthamoeba isolates. The endosymbionts of KA/E9, KA/E22, and KA/E23 were surrounded by electron-translucent areas. No lacunae-like structures were observed in the endosymbionts of KA/E21, the bacterial cell walls of which were studded with host ribosomes. Comparative analyses of the 16S rDNA sequences showed that the endosymbionts of KA/E9, KA/E22 and KA/E23 were closely related to Caedibacter caryophilus, whereas the KA/E21 endosymbiont was assigned to the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) phylum. In the 4 strains of Acanthamoeba, the hosts of the endosymbionts were identified as belonging to the Acanthamoeba castellanii complex, which corresponds to the T4 genotype. Acanthamoeba KA/E21 evidenced characteristics almost identical to those of KA/E6, with the exception of the existence of endosymbionts. The discovery of these endosymbionts from Acanthamoeba may prove essential to future studies focusing on interactions between the endosymbionts and the amoebic hosts.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba/genetics , Acanthamoeba Keratitis/microbiology , Animals , Bacteria/genetics , Base Sequence , Cornea/microbiology , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Humans , Korea , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission/methods , Oxazines/metabolism , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Symbiosis
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198437

ABSTRACT

Recent in vitro studies have revealed that a certain Mycobacterium can survive and multiply within freeliving amoebae. It is believed that protozoans function as host cells for the intracellular replication and evasion of Mycobacterium spp. under harmful conditions. In this study, we describe the isolation and characterization of a bacterium naturally observed within an amoeba isolate acquired from a contact lens storage case. The bacterium multiplied within Acanthamoeba, but exerted no cytopathic effects on the amoeba during a 6-year amoebic culture. Trasnmission electron microscopy showed that the bacteria were randomly distributed within the cytoplasm of trophozoites and cysts of Acanthamoeba. On the basis of the results of 18S rRNA gene analysis, the amoeba was identified as A. lugdunensis. A 16S rRNA gene analysis placed this bacterium within the genus Mycobacterium. The bacterium evidenced positive reactivity for acid-fast and fluorescent acid-fast stains. The bacterium was capable of growth on the Middlebrook 7H11-Mycobacterium-specific agar. The identification and characterization of bacterial endosymbionts of free-living protozoa bears significant implications for our understanding of the ecology and the identification of other atypical mycobacterial pathogens.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba/genetics , Animals , Base Sequence , Contact Lens Solutions , Contact Lenses , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission/methods , Mycobacterium/genetics , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Symbiosis
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198436

ABSTRACT

The status of Dirofilaria immitis infection was assessed in pet dogs of Busan, Korea, and chemoprophylactic effects of microfilaricidal medication were evaluated. A total of 294 pet dogs older than 6 mo were examined, 217 of which had been maintained indoors, and 77 had been kept outdoors. The Snap(R) kit and direct microscopic examinations of the peripheral blood were used. The mean overall parasite positive rates were 10.2% and 6.5%, respectively. Outdoor dogs evidenced adult worm infection rate of 31.2% and microfilaria infection rate of 18.2%. The indoor dogs, however, evidenced adult worm infection rate of 2.8% and microfilaria infection rate of 2.3%. The prevalence in males was more than 2 times that of females. The changing pattern of infection rates by age evidenced a gradual increase, from 2- to 6-year-old dogs, after which, a decrease in infection rates was noted. With regard to chemoprophylaxis, the infection rates of complete and incomplete chemoprophylaxis groups were found to be 2-3 times lower than that of the non-chemoprophylaxis group. The results of the present study indicate that the risk of exposure to D. immitis in pet dogs is quite high, particularly in male outdoor dogs, and chemoprophylactic measures were quite effective.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemoprevention , Dirofilaria immitis/growth & development , Dirofilariasis/blood , Dog Diseases/blood , Dogs , Female , Heart/parasitology , Korea/epidemiology , Male , Mosquito Control , Prevalence
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-112200

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of direct verbal feedback from an expert during endotracheal intubation skills training using a mannequin compared to practice alone without feedback. METHODS: 154 fourth-year medical students at the Pusan National University were divided into control or feedback groups. Both groups were taught by experts using a mannequin at a clinical skills learning center. The feedback group (n=66) received verbal feedback from the expert throughout training. Skills acquisition was tested during a Clinical Performance Examination. RESULTS: There were no differences between the control and feedback groups in terms of prior experiences with endotracheal intubation, confidence level to perform the skill, and grades received from previous clinical clerkships. The average score of the feedback group was significantly higher than that of the control group (14.06 versus 11.98, p<0.05). When the students were divided into 'exceeds expectations', 'meets expectations' and 'needs development' groups according to a global rating, more students from the feedback group were in the 'exceeds expectations' group and less were in the 'needs development' group compared to the control group (p<0.05). The results showed no significant relation with training date. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that direct verbal feedback from an expert during training significantly improves the performance of endotracheal intubation skill. Feedback acts as an essential component of clinical education; and its effect is prominent, especially in students who require further development.


Subject(s)
Clinical Clerkship , Clinical Competence , Education , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Learning , Manikins , Students, Medical
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-112198

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to report the opinions of the students on the OSCE and how to improve this exam. METHODS: 135 students at Pusan National University School of Medicine were asked to perform the OSCE. Data were collected through a questionnaire (Cronbach's alpha = .965). Analysis was done using SPSS statistics program. RESULTS: In summary, the students thought the content of the OSCE was all very important but practically, it was difficult to perform due to a lack of practice. Through this exam, thestudents said that they realized their insufficiencies, and they felt more motivated to learn. The BLS station scored very high in the 'validity of contents', 'validity of difficulty', 'validity of time limit', and 'fostering learning motivation'. The opinions of the students on the areas requiring improvement were: the control of information exchange among them, the connection with training, the establishment of a permanent training space, and increasing exposure to the exam. CONCLUSION: The OSCE, now more than ever, definitely has an educating role in preparing physicians for clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Learning , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220307

ABSTRACT

In an effort to characterize, on the molecular scale, the Acanthamoeba initially isolated from the cornea of an amoebic keratitis patient associated with overnight-wear orthokeratology lens in Korea, we conducted mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism, 18S rDNA sequencing, and drug sensitivity analyses on the isolate (KA/PE1). The patient was treated with polyhexamethylene biguanide, chlorhexidine and oral itraconazole, which resulted in resolution of the patient's ocular inflammation. The majority of the molecular characteristics of the KA/PE1 were determined to be identical, or quite similar, to those of A. castellanii Ma strain, which had been isolated also from amoebic keratitis. The risk of Acanthamoeba keratitis as a potential complication of overnight orthokeratology is briefly discussed.


Subject(s)
Sequence Analysis, DNA , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Myopia/therapy , Itraconazole/administration & dosage , Humans , Female , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , DNA, Ribosomal/analysis , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis , Contact Lenses/adverse effects , Chlorhexidine/administration & dosage , Biguanides/administration & dosage , Astigmatism/therapy , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Animals , Adolescent , Acanthamoeba Keratitis/drug therapy , Acanthamoeba/classification
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220306

ABSTRACT

The pathogenic mechanism of granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) and amebic keratitis (AK) by Acanthamoeba has yet to be clarified. Protease has been recognized to play an important role in the pathogenesis of GAE and AK. In the present study, we have compared specific activity and cytopathic effects (CPE) of purified 33 kDa serine proteinases from Acanthamoeba strains with different degree of virulence (A. healyi OC-3A, A. lugdunensis KA/E2, and A. castellanii Neff). Trophozoites of the 3 strains revealed different degrees of CPE on human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells. The effect was remarkably reduced by adding phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride (PMSF), a serine proteinase inhibitor. This result indicated that PMSF-susceptible proteinase is the main component causing cytopathy to HCE cells by Acanthamoeba. The purified 33 kDa serine proteinase showed strong activity toward HCE cells and extracellular matrix proteins. The purified proteinase from OC-3A, the most virulent strain, demonstrated the highest enzyme activity compared to KA/E2, an ocular isolate, and Neff, a soil isolate. Polyclonal antibodies against the purified 33 kDa serine proteinase inhibit almost completely the proteolytic activity of culture supernatant of Acanthamoeba. In line with these results, the 33 kDa serine proteinase is suggested to play an important role in pathogenesis and to be the main component of virulence factor of Acanthamoeba.


Subject(s)
Virulence Factors/isolation & purification , Virulence , Trophozoites/physiology , Substrate Specificity , Soil/parasitology , Serine Endopeptidases/isolation & purification , Humans , Epithelial Cells/parasitology , Encephalitis , Cornea/cytology , Cells, Cultured , Animals , Acanthamoeba castellanii/enzymology , Acanthamoeba Keratitis/parasitology , Acanthamoeba/classification
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91923

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Insufficient teaching of clinical microbiology, often caused by limited resources in medical schools, might be a reason for inaccurate diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases by doctors. The purpose of this study is to develop and assess a multimedia self learning tool (MSLT) for clinical microbiology course. METHODS: We developed the MSLT based on existing self-directed learning tools. This tool was used by second- and third-year medical students. We randomly assigned 67 participating students to two groups: one (29) with lectures only and the other (38) with the MSLT only. We conducted pre- and post-tests. RESULTS: There are no differences in the pre- and post-test scores between the lecture group and the MSLT group in knowledge of bacterial classification, understanding of infectious diseases, proper use of laboratory tests, and proper selection of antimicrobials. However, post-test scores were significantly higher in both groups. CONCLUSION: The MSLT was found to be as equally effective as lectures, at least, test scorewise. Teachers could use either this tool alone or combined with conventional lectures to improve and enhance teaching in clinical microbiology. The results shed new insights into the possibility of introducing new teaching methods in clinical microbiology for future medical education.


Subject(s)
Classification , Communicable Diseases , Computer-Assisted Instruction , Diagnosis , Education, Medical , Humans , Learning , Lecture , Multimedia , Schools, Medical , Students, Medical , Teaching
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-59380

ABSTRACT

The mammalian trematode Paragonimus westermani is a typical digenetic parasite, which can cause paragonimiasis in humans. Host tissues and blood cells are important sources of nutrients for development, growth and reproduction of P. westermani. In this study, a cDNA clone encoding a 47 kDa hemoglobinase of P. westermani was characterized by sequencing analysis, and its localization was investigated immunohistochemically. The phylogenetic tree prepared based on the hemoglobinase gene showed high homology with hemoglobinases of Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma spp. Moreover, recombinant P. westermani hemoglobinase degradaded human hemoglobin at acidic pH (from 3.0 to 5.5) and its activity was almost completely inhibited by E-64, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor. Immunohistochemical studies showed that P. westermani hemoglobinase was localized in the epithelium of the adult worm intestine implying that the protein has a specific function. These observations suggest that hemoglobinase may act as a digestive enzyme for acquisition of nutrients from host hemoglobin. Further investigations may provide insights into hemoglobin catabolism in P. westermani.


Subject(s)
Sequence Alignment , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Phylogeny , Paragonimus westermani/enzymology , Molecular Sequence Data , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Escherichia coli/enzymology , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics , Astacoidea/parasitology , Antigens, Helminth/genetics , Animals , Amino Acid Sequence
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21337

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: With our medical school accepting graduate level students, there may be more conflicts between the older students and hospital employees. These issues need to be dealt with in order to improve the quality of education of medical students during clerkship. This study aims to improve the setting of clerkship by analysing how knowledgeable hospital employees are about medical school clerkship. METHODS: Study subjects included 206 hospital employees working at a university hospital in Pusan. Subjects completed a self-reported questionnaires on the hospital employees' knowledge about medical student's clerkship. Means and standard deviations were based on a five point scale, and data were analyzed using statistical methods including chi-square-test, two-sample t-test, ANOVA, and partial correlation. RESULTS: Opinions about the awareness of educational role of the university hospital, necessity of clerkship, influence that clerkship has on doctor's careers, necessity for clerkship students to understand roles of other hospital employees, and degree to which hospital employee explain their roles to clerkship students, were positive, but opinions about the attitudes of clerkship students were neutral, and opinions about attachment to clerkship students, clerkship students' efforts to understand the roles of hospital employees were negative. Opinions about the necessity of clerkship, influence that clerkship had on doctor's careers, clerkship students' efforts to understand roles of hospital employees showed significantly positive correlations with opinions about the attitude of clerkship students, attachment to clerkship students and the degree of explaining hospital employee's roles to clerkship students. CONCLUSION: To increase attentiveness in hospital employees towards medical clerkships, it seems necessary both to educate hospital employees on the clerkship itself and on working together with medical students, and to have clerkship students continue to be taught on the roles of other employees of the hospital.


Subject(s)
Education , Humans , Schools, Medical , Students, Medical , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-215235

ABSTRACT

Four hundred and sixty five randomly selected clones from a cDNA library of Blattella germanica were partially sequenced and searched using BLAST as a means of analyzing the transcribed sequences of its genome. A total of 363 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated from 465 clones after editing and trimming the vector and ambiguous sequences. About 42% (154/363) of these clones showed significant homology with other data base registered genes. These new B. germanica genes constituted a broad range of transcripts distributed among ribosomal proteins, energy metabolism, allergens, proteases, protease inhibitors, enzymes, translation, cell signaling pathways, and proteins of unknown function. Eighty clones were not well-matched by database searches, and these represent new B. germanica-specific ESTs. Some genes which drew our attention are discussed. The information obtained increases our understanding of the B. germanica genome.


Subject(s)
Sequence Alignment , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Molecular Sequence Data , Male , Female , Expressed Sequence Tags , Blattellidae/genetics , Base Sequence , Animals
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192618

ABSTRACT

The taxonomy of Acanthamoeba spp., an amphizoic amoeba which causes granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and chronic amoebic keratitis, has been revised many times. The taxonomic validity of some species has yet to be assessed. In this paper, we analyzed the morphological characteristics, nuclear 18s rDNA and mitochondrial 16s rDNA sequences and the Mt DNA RFLP of the type strains of four Acanthamoeba species, which had been previously designated as A. divionensis, A. parasidionensis, A. mauritaniensis, and A. rhysodes. The four isolates revealed characteristic group II morphology. They exhibited 18S rDNA sequence differences of 0.2-1.1% with each other, but more than 2% difference from the other compared reference strains. Four isolates formed a different clade from that of A. castellanii Castellani and the other strains in morphological group II on the phylogenetic tree. In light of these results, A. paradivionensis, A. divionensis, and A. mauritaniensis should be regarded as synonyms for A. rhysodes.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba/classification , Animals , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-117902

ABSTRACT

A survey was carried out from August to December 2004 in Pusan, Korea to document the presence of free-living amoeba (FLA), including the genus Acanthamoeba, in both contact lens storage cases and domestic tap water. Acanthamoeba was isolated from 5 (4.2%) in 120 contact lens storage cases. Four house tap water samples from residents, whose contact lens storage cases had been contaminated by Acanthamoeba, were also found to be contaminated with Acanthamoeba. Therefore, the contamination rate of FLA and Acanthamoeba in domestic tap water was investigated in order to examine the role of domestic tap water in Acanthamoeba contamination of contact lens storage cases. FLA and Acanthamoeba were identified in 97 (46.8%) and 16 (7.7%) of the 207 domestic tap water samples, respectively. There were no significant differences between the contamination rates of FLA in tap water according to the filtration plant of origin. No FLA was detected in the tap water directly supplied by the water purification plants. Water storage tanks appear to promote FLA colonization, including Acanthamoeba, in domestic tap water. This increases the risk of Acanthamoeba contamination in contact lens storage cases as well as increasing the risk of Acanthamoeba keratitis.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba/isolation & purification , Amebiasis/epidemiology , Animals , Comparative Study , Contact Lenses/parasitology , Data Collection , Humans , Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Water/parasitology , Water Supply/standards
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100045

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Questions are known to be an important teaching technique. And, waiting for the answers is essential in making questions effective and valuable. The objective of this study is to evaluate the status of the use of questions during lectures and to survey the level of awareness of the professors regarding the questioning method including waiting time in one medical college. METHODS: The study subjects were 42 medical college professors who have been lecturing to second year medical students from February to June 2004. The questionnaire consisted of 28 items on the questions used during their lectures. The lecturers were observes by an appointed student to get data on the characteristics of questions used. RESULTS: Most of the professors observed in this study used questions during lectures, predominantly questions requiring answers. The waiting time, however, for answers was too short than reported in the literature. About 50% of the professors answered that their usual waiting time is between 6 to 10 seconds but the results of the observation showed that the average waiting time was 0.6 second. CONCLUSION: There was significant discrepancy about waiting time between the results of the questionnaire and the data from the observation. Because the average waiting time was much shorter than expected, follow up studies after feedback and education would be recommended.


Subject(s)
Education , Education, Medical , Humans , Lecture , Schools, Medical , Students, Medical , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-645617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The biologic changes in recurrent laryngeal cancer following radiotherapy are not fully understood. The authors investigated the expression of p53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in patients with locally recurrent laryngeal cancer after radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors investigated the expression of p53 and PCNA by immunohistochemical stain in 15 patients with recurrent laryngeal cancer after radiotherapy. RESULTS: The expression of p53 protein was significantly different between laryngeal cancer before radiotherapy (4/15, 26.7%) and recurrent laryngeal cancer after radiotherapy (8/15, 53.3%) (p<0.05). Also, PCNA index was significantly different between laryngeal cancer before radiotherapy (mean, 11.9%) and recurrent laryngeal cancer after radiotherapy (mean, 18.0%) (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The expressions of p53 protein and PCNA were increased more in the recurrent laryngeal cancer after radiotherapy than in the laryngeal cancer before radiotherapy. Recurrent laryngeal cancers changed to biologically aggressive cancer after following radiation therapy.


Subject(s)
Genes, p53 , Humans , Laryngeal Neoplasms , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Radiotherapy
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51050

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The germline, or somatic, inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, through point mutation, or deletion, plays an important role in carcinogenesis. Several gene alterations, such as adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) and p53, have been detected in the development of colorectal cancer. Within these genes, a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the DCC gene locus was frequently associated with colorectal tumors, and the LOH of the DCC gene, and the expression of the DCC protein, might be related to malignant formation and metastasis. The aim of this study was to determine the DCC LOH and the expression of DCC protein in colorectal cancers, and evaluate their prognostic value and relationship with the clinicopathological data. MTHODE: Fifty colorectal cancer tissues were obtained from resected specimens. Using formalin-fixed paraffin- embedded sections as a source of DNA, we examined the DCC protein in the tissue through immunohistochemical stainings and immunoblotting analysis, the DCC LOH through a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). RESULTS: DCC LOH was observed in 24 of the 50 patients (48.0%). The expression of the DCC protein was decreased in the cancer tissue (62.3 23.6%) compared with the adjacent normal mucosa inform the immunoblotting analysis. A decreased DCC protein expression was also observed from the immunohistochemistry, which coincided with the immunoblotting analysis. However, both the DCC LOH and the decreased DCC protein were not related to the clinical and pathological parameters, such as location of tumor, tumor size, histological type and the venous, and lymphatic invasions. There were significant correlations between the DCC protein expression and tumor progression, and hematogenous metastasis (P<.05). CONCLUSIONS: A decreased expression of the DCC protein was noted in human colorectal cancers, and there was a significant relationship between the expression of the DCC protein and distant metastasis, but there was no correlation between the DCC LOH and distant metastasis. These results suggest that the expression of the DCC protein might be related to tumor progression and metastatic potential, and the DCC protein immunoreactivity may be a useful prognostic factor in patients with colorectal cancers.


Subject(s)
Adenomatous Polyposis Coli , Carcinogenesis , Colorectal Neoplasms , DNA , Genes, DCC , Genes, Tumor Suppressor , Genes, vif , Humans , Immunoblotting , Immunohistochemistry , Loss of Heterozygosity , Mucous Membrane , Neoplasm Metastasis , Point Mutation , Polymerase Chain Reaction
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The intradermal test for the screening of Clonorchis sinensis is difficult to interpret because the sensitivity and persistence rates of reactions after treatment are not well known. METHODS: Stool egg examinations and intradermal tests for C. sinensis and Paragonimus westermani were performed for 1,207 persons who lived in endemic areas of C. sinensis infestation, and epidemiologic data were also surveyed. RESULTS: The infestation rate of C. sinensis was 12% (male 14%, female 9%). It was higher in Southeastern area of Gyungsang Namdo Province and Ulsan (22%) than in Busan (10%), whereas much higher in Gangseo/Buk/Sasang (28%) than in other areas of Busan. The performance of C. sinensis intradermal test was as belows; sensitivity 45%, specificity 80.8%, positive predictive value 24%, negative predictive value 92%, and diagnostic efficiency 77%. Positive C. sinensis intradermal reaction persisted for longer than 40 years after treatment of C. sinensis infestation in at least 30% of patients. C. sinensis intradermal reaction turned to be positive within 4 months after intake of raw fish in more than half the patients. CONCLUSION: The infestation rate of C. sinensis was still very high in inhabitants around Nakdong River, an endemic area. We think that C. sinensis intradermal test is inadequate to diagnose current clonorchiasis.


Subject(s)
Clonorchiasis , Clonorchis sinensis , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Intradermal Tests , Mass Screening , Ovum , Paragonimus westermani , Rivers , Sensitivity and Specificity
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