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1.
Korean Journal of Ophthalmology ; : 501-509, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002347

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the effects of humidity and temperature on dry eye disease (DED) @*Methods@#A retrospective, clinic-based study was conducted on DED patients undergoing dry eye treatment. Patients were followed up at least twice, and symptoms and signs were evaluated using the Symptoms Assessment Questionnaire in Dry Eye (SANDE) score, tear secretion, tear film breakup time (TBUT), ocular staining score, and tear osmolarity. Mean humidity and temperature values for 1 week before ocular examinations were used as the environmental exposure level. The relationship between humidity and temperature, with DED clinical parameters was analyzed in single- and multi-environmental factor models. @*Results@#The study included 33 patients with a mean age of 53.9 ± 12.2 years. The low humidity group showed significantly higher SANDE scores (p = 0.023) and tear osmolarity (p = 0.008), and the low temperature group had higher SANDE scores (p = 0.004), ocular staining scores (p = 0.036), and tear osmolarity (p < 0.001). In the linear mixed model, single factor analysis showed that an increase in humidity resulted in decreased SANDE scores (p = 0.043), and an increase in temperature led to a decrease in SANDE score (p = 0.007), ocular staining score (p = 0.007), and tear osmolarity (p = 0.012). In the multifactor analysis, changes in humidity had no significant effect on dry eye parameters, but an increase in temperature was significantly correlated with decreased SANDE score (p = 0.026), ocular staining score (p = 0.024), and tear osmolarity (p = 0.002). @*Conclusions@#Lower temperature led to aggravated symptoms and signs of DED and the effect of temperature on DED was more pronounced than humidity. Tear osmolarity was the most sensitive clinical parameter to be affected by climate factors in DED patients.

2.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 566-572, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001782

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To analyze short-term changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD) immediately and 1 month after traumatic hyphema. @*Methods@#Thirty-two patients with traumatic hyphema treated from October 2015 to July 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Nineteen were followed-up for 1 month. The ACDs were measured using an IOL Master 500 platform and the differences between the affected and contralateral eyes immediately after trauma and 1 month after treatment analyzed. The ACD differences between the affected and contralateral eyes of those with gross and microscopic hyphema and the correlations between the ACD differences of the two eyes were analyzed by age. @*Results@#The average age was 36.0 ± 14.2 years and 24 patients were male (75%). The ACDs of affected eyes were greater than those of contralateral eyes both immediately after trauma (3.81 ± 0.38 vs. 3.55 ± 0.43 mm; p = 0.021) and 1 month after trauma (3.73 ± 0.37 vs. 3.61 ± 0.37 mm; p = 0.001). The ACD gaps and ACD/axial length ratios (%) did not differ significantly between the injured and contralateral eyes of the gross and microscopic hyphema groups immediately after trauma (p = 0.951/0.981). The ACDs of affected eyes decreased 1 month after trauma compared to immediately after trauma (3.73 ± 0.37 vs. 3.87 ± 0.40 mm; p = 0.013). The ACD difference immediately after trauma increased significantly with older age (R = 0.387, p = 0.018). @*Conclusions@#The ACDs of eyes with traumatic hyphema increased significantly compared to those of the contralateral eyes immediately after trauma. The ACDs decreased after treatment but 1 month later were still significantly greater than the ACDs of the contralateral side.

3.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 1643-1649, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916385

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To find out the significance of early surgery in children of 4 years old and under with large angle intermittent exotropia of 35 prism diopters (PD) and more by examining the results of bilateral lateral rectus recession surgery and factors influencing the surgical outcome. @*Methods@#It was a retrospective study of patients who underwent bilateral lateral rectus muscle recession surgery between 2006 to 2016 with intermittent exotropia greater than or equal to 35 PD and who were able to follow-up for at least 2 years after surgery were divided into two groups based on age of 4 years old. The surgical motor success was defined as exodeviation less than 10 PD, esodeviation less than 8 PD. The angle of deviation, binocular function, best corrected visual acuity, and amount of corrected PD per lateral recession (PD/mm) were compared at each observation point after surgery. @*Results@#The motor success of bilateral rectus muscle recession surgery was 85% in children of age 4 years and under, 65.5% in age over 4 years. Success rate of early surgery was 1.3 times higher in younger age group, but there was no statistical meaning. The complication of surgery after 2 years of follow up was less in younger group-the rate of recurrent exotropia was 15% in younger group, 31.3% in older group and the rate of consecutive esotropia was 0% and 3.1%, respectively. Stereoacuity after 2 years of surgery was not fall behind in younger group compared to older group. @*Conclusions@#It is possible to obtain good surgical results by performing early surgery rather than hesitating to operate due to the younger age in patients younger than 4 years old with large angle exotropia of 35 PD and more for long-term follow up and efficient patient management.

4.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 334-340, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833215

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To determine the efficacy of tear varicella zoster virus polymerase chain reaction (VZV PCR) results for the occurrenceof ocular symptoms in patients diagnosed with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO), as compared to Hutchinson’s sign, and to determinethe relationship between recurrence of HZO and VZV PCR results. @*Methods@#We conducted a retrospective analysis using medical records from 69 patients diagnosed with HZO from February2015 to June 2018. We investigated whether Hutchinson’s sign and VZV PCR results were correlated with the occurrence of ocularsymptoms and recurrence of HZO. @*Results@#Of the 69 patients, 51 patients (73%) had ocular symptoms and 45 patients (65.2%) had conjunctivitis as the most commonocular symptom. There were correlations between Hutchinson’s sign and the occurrence of ocular symptoms, and betweenVZV PCR and the occurrence of ocular symptoms (p = 0.047 and p = 0.005, respectively). The receiver operating characteristiccurve of Hutchinson’s sign and VZV PCR in ocular involvement of the area under the curve of the tear VZV PCR was larger thanHutchinson’s sign (VZV PCR = 0.72; Hutchinson’s sign = 0.63). Only keratouveitis was identified as a risk factor for recurrenceof HZO (odds ratio = 30.53; p = 0.033). There was no correlation between keratouveitis and recurrence of HZO (p > 0.05). @*Conclusions@#In patients with HZO, the tear VZV PCR may be as effective a predictor of ocular involvement as Hutchinson’s sign,and keratouveitis diagnosed at the initial visit was associated with the recurrence of HZO.

5.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 281-287, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811340

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate how the effect of bilateral rectus muscle recession changed by analyzing the effect/dose ratio of surgery according to the preoperative angle deviation.METHODS: We retrospectively studied the medical records of patients from January 2007 to March 2014 who underwent bilateral lateral rectus muscle recession and who visited our hospital for at least 2 years after surgery. We classified the patients into two groups: the preoperative large angle deviation group (35 prism diopters [PD] or more) and the small angle deviation group (20 PD or less). We observed exodrift patterns by measuring distant and near angle deviation according to the preoperative and postoperative times. The effect/dose ratio of recession was calculated at each visit. Surgical success was defined as an alignment between 10 PD of exodeviation and 5 PD of esodeviation, both at distance and at near.RESULTS: Among 165 patients, 84 patients were in the large angle deviation group and 81 patients were in the small angle deviation group. Preoperative angle deviation of the large angle deviation group was 39.34 ± 5.13 PD (range: 35–55 PD) and the small angle deviation group was 19.49 ± 1.62 PD (range: 18-20 PD) (p < 0.001). At postoperative 1 day, the alignments of eyes of the two groups were −8.32 ± 9.31 PD and −13.11 ± 6.94 PD; p < 0.001, respectively. At the date of the final follow-up, the alignments of eyes of the two groups were 4.63 ± 8.94 PD and 1.22 ± 8.01 PD; p = 0.011, respectively, and the effect/dose ratios were 2.25 ± 0.62 PD/mm and 1.94 ± 0.78 PD/mm, respectively, which meant that the effect of correction for the large angle deviation group was larger than that of the small angle deviation group (p = 0.005). Both groups showed postoperative exodrift patterns and similar success rates (75.0% and 80.2%, respectively), which showed no significant difference (p = 0.268).CONCLUSIONS: The small angle deviation group showed a larger effect of correction and high exodrift pattern at the postoperative initial time and the large angle deviation group showed a smaller effect of correction and low exodrift pattern at the postoperative initial time. The preoperative angles of deviation and the operative success rates were not related.

6.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 276-281, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738517

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To define risk factors for and to analyze changes in hyperopic refractive error during development of postoperative exotropia (XT) after bilateral medial rectus (BMR) recession to treat infantile esotropia. METHODS: We retrospectively examined 50 patients with infantile esotropia who underwent BMR recession from January 2005 to December 2010. All were +2.0 D) prior to BMR recession and a marked fall in the extent of hyperopia (−1.0 D/year) after recession may be associated with a high risk of consecutive XT. Thorough follow-up is necessary when IOOA develops after BMR recession.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esotropia , Exotropia , Follow-Up Studies , Hyperopia , Incidence , Refractive Errors , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Strabismus
7.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 67-72, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738469

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the amount of additional surgery required for patients with consecutive esotropia, who had an esodeviation angle similar to their pre-operative exodeviation angle, following bilateral lateral rectus recession surgery for intermittent exotropia. METHODS: The medical records of 29 patients who underwent surgery for intermittent exotropia from 1998 through 2013 were reviewed. These patients had consecutive esotropia with an unchanged postoperative esodeviation angle. Thirteen patients underwent esotropia surgery with the aim of full correction (Group A), while 16 patients underwent esotropia surgery with the aim of partial correction (Group B). The postoperative ocular alignment and stereopsis of both groups were compared. RESULTS: A total of 29 patients were evaluated including 13 patients in Group A and 16 patients in Group B. At the final follow-up visit, at least 24 months post procedure, Group B had a significantly greater success rate than Group A (62.5% vs. 23.1%, p = 0.039). Over-correction rates were higher in Group A than Group B (76.9% vs. 37.5%, p = 0.039). The changes during the follow-up period (6 months to their last follow-up) showed that the over-correction rate had increased from 30.8% to 76.9% in Group A (p = 0.034) and from 12.5% to 37.5% in Group B (p = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: Consecutive esotropia surgery with the aim of partial correction showed favorable motor and sensory outcomes in patients who had a postoperative esodeviation angle similar to that of their pre-operative exodeviation. This strategy may also be helpful in preventing long-term postoperative over-correction in patients presenting with consecutive esotropia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Depth Perception , Esotropia , Exotropia , Follow-Up Studies , Medical Records
8.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 760-765, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738570

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report the surgical outcomes and changes in types of recurrent exotropia after surgical correction of basic type intermittent exotropia. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 91 patients who underwent reoperations for recurrent exotropia after primary surgical correction, and who visited our hospital for a period of at least one year after the reoperation. When distant deviation was >30 prism diopters (PD), we defined convergence insufficiency type (CI type) if the difference of the deviation angle was >10 PD and basic type exotropia if the difference was 33% of the distant deviation angle. RESULTS: The types of recurrent exotropia were similar to those of the preoperative condition in 68 patients (74.7%), and newly emergent CI type was observed in 23 patients (25.3%). With regard to the incidence of CI type, bilateral lateral rectus recession was more common than unilateral lateral rectus recession after primary surgery and medial rectus resection and unilateral lateral rectus recession, but the difference was not significant (p = 0.615). Recurrent CI type exotropia was observed 6 months after primary surgery (p 0.05). There was no significant difference in the success of reoperations between the two groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The types of recurrent exotropia after surgical correction of primary basic type intermittent exotropia differed from those of preoperative exotropia, which was not related to various factors before surgery. Recurrent exotropia was successfully treated by appropriately selected reoperations, regardless of the type of exotropia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exotropia , Incidence , Medical Records , Ocular Motility Disorders , Reoperation , Retrospective Studies
9.
Korean Journal of Ophthalmology ; : 268-274, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-26621

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of preoperative part-time occlusion therapy on long-term surgical success in early-onset exotropia. METHODS: The medical records of patients who underwent surgery for exotropia with onset before the first year of age and who were followed for ≥3 years were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups according to the degree of compliance with part-time occlusion therapy: the good compliance group (>50% adherence rate) and the poor compliance group (≤50% adherence rate). Surgical success was defined as orthophoria to exodeviation less than 10 prism diopters both at distance and near. The level of postoperative stereopsis was compared between the two study groups among total enrolled patients and among those with constant exotropia. RESULTS: Of the 51 patients, 26 were assigned to the good compliance group and the remaining 25 patients to the poor compliance group. The surgical success rate was significantly higher in the good compliance group than in the poor compliance group (80.8% vs. 52.0%, p = 0.040). Among 24 constant exotropia patients (12 patients for each group), the success rate was insignificantly higher in the good compliance group than in the poor compliance group (75.0% vs. 58.3%, p = 0.448). The good compliance group had a better level of stereopsis than the poor compliance group (p = 0.045 for all 44 patients, p = 0.020 for 19 patients with constant exotropia). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative part-time occlusion therapy was useful for improving the surgical outcome of early-onset exotropia and postoperative stereopsis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Compliance , Depth Perception , Exotropia , Medical Records
10.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 49-56, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129460

ABSTRACT

The visual system of newborn infants is not like that of adults. Both ocular and neural structures essential for vision will undergo anatomical and physiological changes as maturation process. The maturation of all visual systems occurs relatively rapidly in normal children. So, early examination of visual acuity is critical for normal visual funciton achievement. Visual acuity in preverbal children can be assessed using several techniques, such as fixation and following behavior under both monocular and binocular conditions, the optokinetic nystagmus technique, preferential looking, visual evoked potential, and recognition acuity using a vision chart. Most clinicians consider the standard technique of recognition acuity to be the gold standard for visual acuity assessments, 20/20 vision should be achieved by 7 years of age. Significant refractive error, a high degree of hyperopia, myopia, or astigmatism may result in not only blurred vision, but also strabismus and amblyopia. Therefore, early vision screening is very valuable. Subjective and objective refractive techniques are standard for detecting significant refractive errors in children and are available under either non-cycloplegic or cycloplegic conditions. Amblyopia is the most common cause of vision loss in children and young adults, defining as a reduction of best-corrected visual acuity due to the interruption of normal visual development during the so-called sensitive period. If the problem is not identified until the sensitive period is complete, the vision loss is permanent. Visual impairment in childhood affects all aspects of the child's development. Earlier treatment is associated with better outcomes. Of course, patient compliance and parental support are the most important factors contributing to treatment success.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Young Adult , Amblyopia , Astigmatism , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Hyperopia , Myopia , Nystagmus, Optokinetic , Parents , Patient Compliance , Refractive Errors , Strabismus , Telescopes , Vision Disorders , Vision Screening , Visual Acuity
11.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 49-56, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129445

ABSTRACT

The visual system of newborn infants is not like that of adults. Both ocular and neural structures essential for vision will undergo anatomical and physiological changes as maturation process. The maturation of all visual systems occurs relatively rapidly in normal children. So, early examination of visual acuity is critical for normal visual funciton achievement. Visual acuity in preverbal children can be assessed using several techniques, such as fixation and following behavior under both monocular and binocular conditions, the optokinetic nystagmus technique, preferential looking, visual evoked potential, and recognition acuity using a vision chart. Most clinicians consider the standard technique of recognition acuity to be the gold standard for visual acuity assessments, 20/20 vision should be achieved by 7 years of age. Significant refractive error, a high degree of hyperopia, myopia, or astigmatism may result in not only blurred vision, but also strabismus and amblyopia. Therefore, early vision screening is very valuable. Subjective and objective refractive techniques are standard for detecting significant refractive errors in children and are available under either non-cycloplegic or cycloplegic conditions. Amblyopia is the most common cause of vision loss in children and young adults, defining as a reduction of best-corrected visual acuity due to the interruption of normal visual development during the so-called sensitive period. If the problem is not identified until the sensitive period is complete, the vision loss is permanent. Visual impairment in childhood affects all aspects of the child's development. Earlier treatment is associated with better outcomes. Of course, patient compliance and parental support are the most important factors contributing to treatment success.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Young Adult , Amblyopia , Astigmatism , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Hyperopia , Myopia , Nystagmus, Optokinetic , Parents , Patient Compliance , Refractive Errors , Strabismus , Telescopes , Vision Disorders , Vision Screening , Visual Acuity
12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 143-150, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104368

ABSTRACT

We investigated relationships between outdoor air pollution and pterygium in Korean adults. This study includes 23,276 adults in population-based cross-sectional data using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011. Pterygium was assessed using slit lamp biomicroscopy. Air pollution data (humidity, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm [PM₁₀], ozone [O₃], nitrogen dioxide [NO₂], and sulfur dioxide levels [SO₂]) for 2 years preceding the ocular examinations were acquired. Associations of multiple air pollutants with pterygium or pterygium recurrence after surgery were examined using multivariate logistic models, after adjusting for several covariates. Distributed lag models were additionally used for estimating cumulative effects of air pollution on pterygium. None of air pollution factors was significantly associated with pterygium or pterygium recurrence (each P > 0.05). Distributed lag models also showed that air pollution factors were not associated with pterygium or pterygium recurrence in 0-to-2 year lags (each P > 0.05). However, primary pterygium showed a weak association with PM₁₀ after adjusting for covariates (odds ratio [OR] 1.23; [per 5 μg/m³ PM₁₀ increase]; P = 0.023). Aging, male sex, and greater sun exposure were associated with pterygium, while higher education level and myopia were negatively associated with pterygium (each P ≤ 0.001). Male sex and myopia were negatively associated with pterygium recurrence (each P < 0.05). In conclusion, exposure to higher PM10 levels was associated with primary pterygium, although this study observed no significant association between air pollution and overall pterygium or pterygium recurrence in Korean adults.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Aging , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Education , Korea , Logistic Models , Myopia , Nitrogen Dioxide , Nutrition Surveys , Ozone , Particulate Matter , Pterygium , Recurrence , Slit Lamp , Solar System , Sulfur Dioxide
13.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 1752-1758, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36591

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In the present study, short-term and long-term surgical outcomes dependent on the amount of hyperopia in patients with infantile esotropia were analyzed. METHODS: In this study, 80 patients with infantile esotropia who underwent both medial rectus recession from 2007 to 2011 and followed up for at least 36 months were retrospectively examined. The patients were divided into two groups according to the degree of hyperopia: ≥ +3.0 D (high hyperopia [HH], n = 59 patients) and < +3.0 D (non-high hyperopia [NH], n = 21 patients). Clinical characteristics analyzed included surgical success rate and dose-response relationship at the 3-month and 3-year postoperative follow-ups. RESULTS: Initial preoperative alignment (NH: 44.8 ± 10.2 PD, HH: 42.7 ± 11.6 PD, p = 0.450), surgical success rates (NH: 69.5% (41/59), HH: 71.4% (15/21), p = 0.837), under-correction rates (NH: 23.7% (14/59), HH: 9.5% (2/21), p = 0.191) and over-correction rates (NH: 6.8% (4/59), HH: 19.1% (4/21), p = 0.138) were not statistically significantly different between the NH and HH groups. A tendency towards a larger dose-response relationship was observed with HH (NH: 3.9 PD/mm, HH: 4.3 PD/mm) at the 3-month postoperative follow-up, but was not significant (p = 0.105). At the 3-year postoperative follow-up, exodrift was in progress and the dose-response relationship was significantly higher in the HH group than NH group (NH: 3.9 PD/mm, HH: 4.9 PD/mm, p = 0.010). A difference between the groups with amblyopia was observed (NH: 8.5% (5/59), HH: 23.8% (5/21), p = 0.146), although without statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The surgical success rate of infantile esotropia was not statistically associated with the amount of hyperopia. There was no statistical association between the dose-response relationship and amount of hyperopia at the postoperative 3-month follow-up, but a statistical association was found in the high dose-response relationship in the HH group at the postoperative 3-year follow-up. Therefore, the conventional amount of recession or muscle resection should be modified in high hyperopic (≥ +3.0 D) infantile esotropia, and long-term postoperative follow-up is necessary.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amblyopia , Esotropia , Follow-Up Studies , Hyperopia , Refractive Errors , Retrospective Studies
14.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 1926-1931, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124576

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In the present study, the surgical outcome and postoperative exodrift pattern between bilateral lateral rectus recession (BLR) and unilateral lateral rectus recession (ULR) in intermittent exotropia of 20 prism diopters (PDs) were compared. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 5.0 mm BLR or 8.5 mm ULR was performed on 82 patients for the treatment of intermittent exotropia of 20 PDs with a follow-up period of 2 years. The main outcome measures were postoperative 1-week, 1-month, 6-month, 1-year and 2-year exodeviation angles with their patterns and success rates. A surgical success was considered an alignment within 10 PDs and sensory success was defined at 100 seconds of arc. RESULTS: The mean deviation angles at postoperative 1 week were 4.7 ± 5.1 PD esodeviation in the BLR group (44 patients) and 1.2 ± 4.2 PD esodeviation in the ULR group (38 patients). The BLR group was significantly more overcorrected than the ULR group (p = 0.001), but postoperative exodrift occurred in the BLR group at 1 week, 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. In the ULR group, the postoperative exodrift occurred at 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months which was followed by stabilized alignment. Surgical success rate at the postoperative 2-year follow-up was 75.0% in the BLR group and 81.6% in ULR group (p = 0.717). CONCLUSIONS: ULR showed less overcorrection and early exodrift up to only 6 months, resulting in stabilization of the alignment afterwards; surgical success rate at the final 2-year follow-up was similar to BLR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Esotropia , Exotropia , Follow-Up Studies , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Retrospective Studies
15.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 249-253, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167645

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate whether combining inferior oblique weakening procedures with bilateral lateral rectus recession as a surgical approach to intermittent exotropia enhances postoperative horizontal angle of deviation over bilateral lateral rectus recession alone. METHODS: Patients were allocated to one of two surgical groups: a bilateral lateral rectus recession group (Group 1) or a bilateral lateral rectus recession with bilateral inferior oblique weakening group (Group 2). Group differences in the angle of distance deviation were evaluated preoperatively and at 3- and 12-months postoperatively. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in preoperative factors or angles of deviation between Group 1 (n = 98) and Group 2 (n = 77); no significant intergroup difference in the angle of deviation was observed at any postoperative time point (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Combined inferior oblique weakening procedures did not significantly influence the horizontal angle of deviation after surgery for intermittent exotropia. Accordingly, there is no need to revise the surgical amount of lateral rectus recession.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exotropia
16.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 580-585, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14242

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To analyze the long-term changes of hyperopic refractive error in patients with refractive accommodative esotropia. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 54 patients with accommodative esotropia who underwent at least 36 months of follow-up and had hyperopia more than +1.50 diopter (D). The patients were divided into groups according to the degree of hyperopia: +1.50~ or =+3.00~ or =+5.00 D, the age of their first hyperopic glasses prescription: under two-years old, between two to four-years old and older than four years old, whether or not they had amblyopia, the degree of astigmatism: or =0.75- or =1.25 D and divided into two groups according to the degree of stereopsis: 400 sec. The divided groups were than retrospectively reviewed if they influenced the refractive error at the third year of follow-up using Fisher's exact test, paired t-test, Wilcoxon's signed-ranks test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, and ANOVA (p < 0.05). RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 103.72 +/- 41.82 months for refractive accommodative esotropia. Patients with a greater initial hyperopic refractive err or showed a significant tendency towards emmetropization with a higher rate of hyperopic decrease (p < 0.001), regardless of the hyperopic refractive error. Statistical differences were not observed in patients who started wearing glasses after four-years old, patients with amblyopia, patients with a large degree of astigmatism, and patients with poor stereoacuity. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term changes of hyperopic refractive error in accommodative esotropia showed a significant decrease when initial hyperopic refractive error was high. Wearing hyperopic glasses at an older age and visual functions such as amblyopia, large degree of astigmatism, and poor stereoacuity may influence emmetropization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amblyopia , Astigmatism , Depth Perception , Esotropia , Eyeglasses , Follow-Up Studies , Glass , Hyperopia , Medical Records , Prescriptions , Refractive Errors , Retrospective Studies
17.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 271-277, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90225

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To analyze pre- and post-operative factors associated with favorable long-term sensory outcome after surgical correction for infantile esotropia. METHODS: This study retrospectively examined 40 patients with infantile esotropia who underwent surgery from January 2000 to December 2010. Clinical characteristics analyzed included age at onset, age at surgery, mean preoperative deviation, amblyopia on initial visit, other associated strabismus (Inferior oblique overaction (IOOA), dissociated vertical deviation (DVD), latent nystagmus), initial and subsequent postoperative motor alignment at 1-week and 2-year follow-up, recurrence rate, and stereopsis. Long-term sensory outcome was categorized as favorable (400 arcsec). RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 92.53 +/- 46.46 months. There were 19 patients (47.5%) in the favorable group and 21 (52.5%) in the unfavorable group. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with respect to age at onset or surgery, presence of amblyopia, and prevalence of IOOA and DVD, latent nystagmus, or initial postoperative alignment at 1-week. There was a tendency towards worse binocularity with larger preoperative angles of esodeviation, but it was not significant. Binocularity was significantly higher among those who had surgery at age 24 months. Orthotropic alignment within +/-10 PD at 2-year follow-up was 68.4% in the favorable group and 38.1% in the unfavorable group. Reoperation was performed on 8 patients (38.1%) in the unfavorable group and no patients (0.0%) in the favorable group. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical correction of infantile esotropia within the first 2 years of life and maintenance of orthotropic alignment within +/-10 PD without additional surgery with a minimum follow-up of 2 years may be associated with favorable long-term sensory outcome in infantile esotropia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amblyopia , Depth Perception , Esotropia , Follow-Up Studies , Prevalence , Recurrence , Reoperation , Retrospective Studies , Strabismus , Telescopes
18.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 711-718, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-132094

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated the recommended minimum postoperative follow-up period for the determination of secondary corrective surgery for the consecutive esotropia (ET) and recurrent exotropia (XT) after the first intermittent XT surgery. METHODS: The medical records of 728 patients who underwent surgical treatment for intermittent XT between 2004 and 2009 with a minimum postoperative follow-up of 1 year were retrospectively reviewed. Each patient underwent a detailed sensory and motor examination, including measurements of near and distance stereoacuity, alternating-cover test, and extraocular muscle function testing. Consecutive ET was defined as esodeviation over 15 prism diopter (PD) at distance persisting for more than 6 months after surgery despite medical treatment. Recurrent XT was defined as exodeviation over 15 PD at distance after surgery despite medical treatment. RESULTS: The mean age of the 728 patients at first surgery was 7.5 years (range, 22 months - 30 years). When only the motor outcome was considered, 663 patients (91.1%) had an orthrotropia at the final follow-up and 44 patients (6.0%) among consecutive ET patients and 21 patients (2.9%) who had a recurrent XT underwent secondary surgical correction. Binocularity decreased postoperatively in patients with consecutive ET (p < 0.001), whereas the other patients demonstrated improved stereopsis postoperatively (p = 0.041, 0.021). Patients with consecutive ET showed esodeviation over 10 PD when compared with orthotropia after 2 months postoperatively (p = 0.005). At 6 months postoperatively, 17 (81.0%) of 21 patients with recurrent XT showed orthotropia with an exodeviation over 11 PD after 18 months postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: The success rate of surgical correction for intermittent XT showed a favorable outcome. However, careful concern for consecutive ET and recurrent XT are required in postoperative follow-up periods. Over-corrected or consecutive ETs need early surgical correction because no further improvement of ocular alignment will occur after 2 months postoperatively and delayed correction can result in poor sensory binocularity. Under-corrected or recurrent XT should be observed for an extended period because of the exotropic drift after surgery, thus requiring periodic long term follow-up for secondary surgery at least for 18 months postoperatively.


Subject(s)
Humans , Depth Perception , Esotropia , Exotropia , Follow-Up Studies , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Telescopes
19.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 711-718, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-132091

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated the recommended minimum postoperative follow-up period for the determination of secondary corrective surgery for the consecutive esotropia (ET) and recurrent exotropia (XT) after the first intermittent XT surgery. METHODS: The medical records of 728 patients who underwent surgical treatment for intermittent XT between 2004 and 2009 with a minimum postoperative follow-up of 1 year were retrospectively reviewed. Each patient underwent a detailed sensory and motor examination, including measurements of near and distance stereoacuity, alternating-cover test, and extraocular muscle function testing. Consecutive ET was defined as esodeviation over 15 prism diopter (PD) at distance persisting for more than 6 months after surgery despite medical treatment. Recurrent XT was defined as exodeviation over 15 PD at distance after surgery despite medical treatment. RESULTS: The mean age of the 728 patients at first surgery was 7.5 years (range, 22 months - 30 years). When only the motor outcome was considered, 663 patients (91.1%) had an orthrotropia at the final follow-up and 44 patients (6.0%) among consecutive ET patients and 21 patients (2.9%) who had a recurrent XT underwent secondary surgical correction. Binocularity decreased postoperatively in patients with consecutive ET (p < 0.001), whereas the other patients demonstrated improved stereopsis postoperatively (p = 0.041, 0.021). Patients with consecutive ET showed esodeviation over 10 PD when compared with orthotropia after 2 months postoperatively (p = 0.005). At 6 months postoperatively, 17 (81.0%) of 21 patients with recurrent XT showed orthotropia with an exodeviation over 11 PD after 18 months postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: The success rate of surgical correction for intermittent XT showed a favorable outcome. However, careful concern for consecutive ET and recurrent XT are required in postoperative follow-up periods. Over-corrected or consecutive ETs need early surgical correction because no further improvement of ocular alignment will occur after 2 months postoperatively and delayed correction can result in poor sensory binocularity. Under-corrected or recurrent XT should be observed for an extended period because of the exotropic drift after surgery, thus requiring periodic long term follow-up for secondary surgery at least for 18 months postoperatively.


Subject(s)
Humans , Depth Perception , Esotropia , Exotropia , Follow-Up Studies , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Telescopes
20.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 1180-1186, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195453

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the long-term outcome of lateral rectus (LR) advancement for consecutive esotropia following bilateral LR recession for intermittent exotropia. METHODS: Medical records of 25 patients who underwent LR advancement for consecutive esotropia after bilateral LR recession and who were followed up for more than 24 months postoperatively were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups: bilateral lateral rectus recession (BLR) group included 16 patients with consecutive esotropia greater than or the same magnitude as the initial exotropia and who underwent bilateral LR advancement; Unilateral lateral rectus recession (ULR) group included nine patients with consecutive esotropia less than the initial exotropia and who underwent unilateral LR advancement. Main outcome measurements were motor and sensory outcomes and the dose-effect relationship calculated from observed overall and group changes in the angle of deviation per millimeter. Motor success was defined as alignment from orthotropia to exodeviation less than 10 PD at distance. Sensory outcome was described by comparing the Titmus stereoacuity test before and after LR advancement. Sensory successvwas defined at 100 seconds of arc. RESULTS: Eighteen patients (72.0%) showed satisfactory long-term motor and sensory outcomes. Seventeen (77.3%) of 22 patients showed favorable stereopsis of 100 seconds of arc or more at final observation. The long-term motor success rate of the ULR group was better than that of the BLR group (p = 0.025). The average observed change in the angle of deviation was 3.6 PD/mm at the final visit in all patients. A greater dose-effect relationship was observed in the ULR group than in the BLR group at the final visit (p = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS: LR advancement showed favorable motor and sensory outcomes in the majority of patients. The surgical outcome was not favorable in patients in the BLR group with consecutive esotropia of the same magnitude as the initial exotropia. These results require further investigation for verification.


Subject(s)
Humans , Depth Perception , Esotropia , Exotropia , Medical Records
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