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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718421

ABSTRACT

In infants and small children, ultrasound (US) guidance provides ample anatomical information to perform neuraxial blocks. We can measure the distance from the skin to the epidural space in the US image and can refer to it during needle insertion. We may also visualize the needle or a catheter during real-time US-guided epidural catheterization. In cases where direct needle or catheter visualization is difficult, US allows predicting successful puncture and catheterization using surrogate markers, such as dura mater displacement, epidural space widening due to drug injection, or mass movement of the drug within the caudal space. Although many experienced anesthesiologists still prefer to use conventional techniques, prospective randomized controlled trials using US guidance are providing increasing evidence of its advantages. The use of US-guided regional block will gradually become widespread in infants and children.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Catheterization , Catheters , Child , Dura Mater , Epidural Space , Humans , Infant , Needles , Prospective Studies , Punctures , Skin , Ultrasonography
2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 535-542, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-141605

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was to evaluate the characteristics of selective spinal anesthesia using 1 mg of bupivacaine combined with fentanyl or sufentanil in elderly patients undergoing transurethral resection of prostate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-six patients were randomized into two groups. The Fentanyl group received 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.2 mL+fentanyl 20 microg+5% dextrose 1.4 mL, and the Sufentanil group received 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.2 mL+sufentanil 5 microg+5% dextrose 1.7 mL intrathecally. Intraoperative and postoperative characteristics were evaluated. Patient satisfaction was assessed postoperatively. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients in each group completed the study. The median peak sensory block level was similar between two groups, but sensory regression time was longer in the Sufentanil group than the Fentanyl group (p=0.017). All patients were able to move themselves to the bed without any aid when they arrived at the admission room. Pain scores were lower in the Sufentanil group than the Fentanyl group at postoperative 6, 12, and 18 hours (p=0.001). Compared to the Fentanyl group, the Sufentanil group required less postoperative analgesia (p=0.023) and the time to the first analgesic request was longer (p=0.025). Twenty-four of 26 patients (92.3%) in each group showed "good" satisfaction level. CONCLUSION: Selective spinal anesthesia using 1 mg of bupivacaine with fentanyl or sufentanil provided appropriate sensory block level with spared motor function for transurethral resection of the prostate in elderly patients. Intrathecal sufentanil was superior to fentanyl in postoperative analgesic quality.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Double-Blind Method , Drug Therapy, Combination , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Humans , Injections, Spinal , Male , Patient Satisfaction , Postoperative Period , Prospective Studies , Prostate/surgery , Sufentanil/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Transurethral Resection of Prostate , Treatment Outcome
3.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 535-542, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-141604

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was to evaluate the characteristics of selective spinal anesthesia using 1 mg of bupivacaine combined with fentanyl or sufentanil in elderly patients undergoing transurethral resection of prostate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-six patients were randomized into two groups. The Fentanyl group received 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.2 mL+fentanyl 20 microg+5% dextrose 1.4 mL, and the Sufentanil group received 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.2 mL+sufentanil 5 microg+5% dextrose 1.7 mL intrathecally. Intraoperative and postoperative characteristics were evaluated. Patient satisfaction was assessed postoperatively. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients in each group completed the study. The median peak sensory block level was similar between two groups, but sensory regression time was longer in the Sufentanil group than the Fentanyl group (p=0.017). All patients were able to move themselves to the bed without any aid when they arrived at the admission room. Pain scores were lower in the Sufentanil group than the Fentanyl group at postoperative 6, 12, and 18 hours (p=0.001). Compared to the Fentanyl group, the Sufentanil group required less postoperative analgesia (p=0.023) and the time to the first analgesic request was longer (p=0.025). Twenty-four of 26 patients (92.3%) in each group showed "good" satisfaction level. CONCLUSION: Selective spinal anesthesia using 1 mg of bupivacaine with fentanyl or sufentanil provided appropriate sensory block level with spared motor function for transurethral resection of the prostate in elderly patients. Intrathecal sufentanil was superior to fentanyl in postoperative analgesic quality.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Double-Blind Method , Drug Therapy, Combination , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Humans , Injections, Spinal , Male , Patient Satisfaction , Postoperative Period , Prospective Studies , Prostate/surgery , Sufentanil/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Transurethral Resection of Prostate , Treatment Outcome
4.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1401-1407, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39976

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The Physiological and Operative Severity Score for enUmeration of Mortality and morbidity (POSSUM) and its Portsmouth modification (P-POSSUM) are comprehensive assessment methods for evaluating patient and surgical factors widely used to predict 30-day mortality rates. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the usefulness of POSSUM and P-POSSUM in predicting 30-day mortality after intraoperative cardiac arrests in adult patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among 190486 patients who underwent anesthesia, 51 experienced intraoperative cardiac arrest as defined in our study protocol. Predicted mortality rates were calculated using POSSUM and P-POSSUM equations and were compared with actual outcomes using exponential and linear analyses. In addition, a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was undertaken, and area-under-the-curve (AUC) values with confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for POSSUM and P-POSSUM. RESULTS: Among the 51 patients with intraoperative cardiac arrest, 32 (62.7%) died within 30 days postoperatively. The overall predicted 30-day mortality rates using POSSUM and P-POSSUM were 65.5% and 57.5%, respectively. The observed-to-predicted (O:E) ratio for the POSSUM 30-day mortality was 1.07, with no significant difference between the observed and predicted values (chi2=4.794; p=0.779). P-POSSUM predicted mortality equally well, with an O:E ratio of 1.10 (chi2=8.905; p=0.350). AUC values (95% CI) were 0.771 (0.634-0.908) and 0.785 (0.651-0.918) for POSSUM and P-POSSUM, respectively. CONCLUSION: Both POSSUM and P-POSSUM performed well to predict overall 30-day mortality following intraoperative cardiac arrest in adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery at a university teaching hospital in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Heart Arrest/complications , Humans , Incidence , Intraoperative Complications/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Morbidity , Postoperative Period , ROC Curve , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Surgical Procedures, Operative/mortality
5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1106-1114, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207151

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Epidural analgesia has been the preferred analgesic technique after major abdominal surgery. On the other hand, the combined use of intrathecal morphine (ITM) and intravenous patient controlled analgesia (IVPCA) has been shown to be a viable alternative approach for analgesia. We hypothesized that ITM combined with IVPCA is as effective as patient controlled thoracic epidural analgesia (PCTEA) with respect to postoperative pain control after conventional open gastrectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-four patients undergoing conventional open gastrectomy due to gastric cancer were randomly allocated into the intrathecal morphine combined with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IT) group or patient-controlled thoracic epidural analgesia (EP) group. The IT group received preoperative 0.3 mg of ITM, followed by postoperative IVPCA. The EP group preoperatively underwent epidural catheterization, followed by postoperative PCTEA. Visual analog scale (VAS) scores were assessed until 48 hrs after surgery. Adverse effects related to analgesia, profiles associated with recovery from surgery, and postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery were also evaluated. RESULTS: This study failed to demonstrate the non-inferiority of ITM-IVPCA (n=29) to PCTEA (n=30) with respect to VAS 24 hrs after surgery. Furthermore, the IT group consumed more fentanyl than the EP group did (1247.2+/-263.7 microg vs. 1048.9+/-71.7 microg, p<0.001). The IT group took a longer time to ambulate than the EP group (p=0.021) and had higher incidences of postoperative ileus (p=0.012) and pulmonary complications (p=0.05) compared with the EP group. CONCLUSION: ITM-IVPCA is not as effective as PCTEA in patients undergoing gastrectomy, with respect to pain control, ambulation, postoperative ileus and pulmonary complications.


Subject(s)
Adult , Analgesia, Epidural/methods , Analgesia, Patient-Controlled/methods , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Female , Gastrectomy/methods , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Morphine/administration & dosage , Pain Management/methods , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy
6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 209-215, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50980

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Dexmedetomidine, a potent selective alpha2-adrenergic agonist, produces sedation and analgesia. This study was conducted to assess the effect of dexmedetomidine infusion on sevoflurane requirements, recovery profiles, and emergence agitation in children undergoing ambulatory surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty children undergoing ambulatory hernioplasty or orchiopexy were randomized into two groups. The dexmedetomidine group (Group D, n=20) received dexmedetomidine 1 microg/kg, followed by 0.1 microg/kg/h until the end of surgery, whereas the saline group (Group S, n=20) received volume-matched normal saline. Sevoflurane was used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia and caudal block was performed in all children. End-tidal sevoflurane concentration (ET-sevo), the incidence of emergence agitation, pain scores, and sedation scores were recorded. Hemodynamic changes and other adverse effects were assessed in the perioperative period. RESULTS: ET-sevo of Group D was significantly reduced in 23.8-67% compared to Group S during surgery. The incidence of emergence agitation was lower in Group D than in Group S (5% vs. 55%, p=0.001). Postoperative pain was comparable, and discharge time was not different between the groups. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were significantly lower in Group D during surgery. CONCLUSION: Intraoperative infusion of dexmedetomidine reduced sevoflurane requirements and decreased emergence agitation without delaying discharge in children undergoing ambulatory surgery. However, caution should be taken in regard to bradycardia and hypotension.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Ambulatory Surgical Procedures/methods , Child , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Female , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Humans , Male , Methyl Ethers/therapeutic use , Psychomotor Agitation/drug therapy , Young Adult
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-102939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) continues to be a major problem, because PONV is associated with delayed recovery and prolonged hospital stay. Although the PONV guidelines recommended the use of 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT3) receptor antagonists as the first-line prophylactic agents in patients categorized as high-risk, there are few studies comparing the efficacies of ondansetron, ramosetron, and palonosetron. The aim of present study was to compare the prophylactic antiemetic efficacies of three 5HT3 receptor antagonists in high-risk patients after laparoscopic surgery. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, double-blinded trial, 109 female nonsmokers scheduled for elective laparoscopic surgery were randomized to receive intravenous 4 mg ondansetron (n = 35), 0.3 mg ramosetron (n = 38), or 75 microg palonosetron (n = 36) before anesthesia. Fentanyl-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia was administered for 48 h after surgery. Primary antiemetic efficacy variables were the incidence and severity of nausea, the frequency of emetic episodes during the first 48 h after surgery, and the need to use a rescue antiemetic medication. RESULTS: The overall incidence of nausea/retching/vomiting was lower in the palonosetron (22.2%/11.1%/5.6%) than in the ondansetron (77.1%/48.6%/28.6%) and ramosetron (60.5%/28.9%/18.4%) groups. The rescue antiemetic therapy was required less frequently in the palonosetron group than the other groups (P < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the order of prophylactic efficacy in delaying the interval to use of a rescue emetic was palonosetron, ramosetron, and ondansetron. CONCLUSIONS: Single-dose palonosetron is the prophylactic antiemetics of choice in high-risk patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery.


Subject(s)
Analgesia, Patient-Controlled , Anesthesia , Antiemetics , Benzimidazoles , Female , Humans , Incidence , Isoquinolines , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Laparoscopy , Length of Stay , Nausea , Ondansetron , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting , Prospective Studies , Quinuclidines
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100103

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Different tidal volume (TV) settings during mechanical ventilation alter intrathoracic blood volume, and these changes could alter central venous pressure and the cross sectional area (CSA) of the right internal jugular vein (RIJV). The aim of this study was to determine the optimal TV for maximizing the CSA of the RIJV in the supine and Trendelenburg positions in anesthetized patients. METHODS: Forty patients were randomly allocated to a supine group (Group S, n = 20) or a Trendelenburg group (Group T, n = 20) by computer generated randomization. RIJV CSAs were measured repeatedly after increasing the inspiratory volume in 1 ml/kg increments from a TV of 8 ml/kg to 14 ml/kg using ultrasound images. RESULTS: Peak inspiratory pressure increased significantly on increasing TV from 11 ml/kg to 14 ml/kg and between baseline (TV 8 ml/kg) and 11 ml/kg in both groups (P < 0.05). RIJV CSA was not increased versus baseline even after TV changes in either group and no intergroup difference was found. CONCLUSIONS: TV increases do not increase the CSA of the RIJV within the TV range 8 to 14 ml/kg in the supine or 10degrees Trendelenburg position.


Subject(s)
Blood Volume , Central Venous Pressure , Head-Down Tilt , Humans , Jugular Veins , Random Allocation , Respiration, Artificial , Tidal Volume , Ultrasonography
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To justify the use of the lidocaine/tetracaine medicated patch or peel as a preventive treatment for reducing pain and discomfort in adults and children. We reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the lidocaine/tetracaine medicated patch or peel compared with placebo. METHODS: Ten RCTs (574 patients) were included in this systemic review. Relevant studies were identified through searches of MEDLINE, SCOPUS and the Cochrane database library. The outcome was the adequacy of cutaneous anesthesia reflected in the patient's assessment of pain intensity during minor dermatologic procedures and adverse effects after application of the lidocaine/tetracaine medicated patch or peel versus placebo. RESULTS: The efficacy of the lidocaine/tetracaine patch or peel was consistently very significantly beneficial 30 or 60 minutes after the application compared to placebo (Relative risk, RR: 2.5; Number needed to treat, NNT: 2.2). We did not identify any difference in the effectiveness of adequate analgesia between the lidocaine/tetracaine patch and peel (the number needed to treat or to harm, NNT 2.4 vs. 2.0). No serious side effects or adverse events were observed with the lidocaine/tetracaine medicated patch or peel and placebo. Minor skin reactions were transient and resolved without treatment (Odd ratio, OR: 1.4 and 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.9-2.1; NNT: 14.9). CONCLUSIONS: The lidocaine/tetracaine medicated patch or peel is a well accepted, effective and safe method for minor dermatologic procedures based on pooled data of trials in terms of adequacy of cutaneous anesthesia and adverse effects.


Subject(s)
Adult , Analgesia , Anesthesia , Child , Humans , Lidocaine , Skin , Tetracaine
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-229279

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was designed to determine the optimal sedative dose of propofol to start brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Twenty children, aged 0.5-5 years, were administered propofol to achieve a University of Michigan Sedation Scale (UMSS) score > or = 3 in the MRI room. The proper dose of propofol was determined using the up-and-down method. RESULTS: The ED50 and ED95 for successful sedation with a UMSS > or = 3 were 2.07 mg/kg (95% CI 1.69-2.56) and 2.69 mg/kg (95% CI 2.35-5.59). Respiratory events occurred in 5 patients and were resolved with neck extension, chin lift, or transient respiratory assistance with successful sedation. CONCLUSIONS: Low dose propofol can safely facilitate the initiation of MRI in children with CP.


Subject(s)
Aged , Brain , Cerebral Palsy , Child , Chin , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Michigan , Neck , Propofol
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-229276

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Epidurally administered dexamethasone may reduce the incidence and severity of postoperative pain. We investigated whether postoperative pain could be alleviated by preoperative or postoperative epidural dexamethasone administration in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. METHODS: Ninety patients (age 30-77 with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II) undergoing radical subtotal gastrectomy were randomly allocated to three groups using computer generated randomization. In all groups, 10 ml of 0.25% ropivacaine was injected epidurally before the start and at the end of the operation. In Group I, a bolus ropivacaine epidural without dexamethasone was administered. In Group II, dexamethasone (5 mg) was added to the ropivacaine bolus epidural before the start of operation. In Group III, the same amount of dexamethasone was given with the ropivacaine epidural at the end of operation. Effort and resting VAS, the use of rescue analgesics and any complications noted during the procedure were evaluated. RESULTS: VAS and requirements of rescue analgesics were significantly lower in Groups II and III when compared to Group I. There were no difference in the incidence of nausea and vomiting between groups, but an itching sensation was frequent in Group III. CONCLUSIONS: The administration of 5 mg of dexamethasone epidurallly, before or after operation, could reduce the pain and analgesic requirement after radical subtotal gastrectomy.


Subject(s)
Amides , Analgesics , Dexamethasone , Gastrectomy , Humans , Incidence , Nausea , Pain, Postoperative , Pruritus , Random Allocation , Sensation , Vomiting
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-214368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURB) under spinal anesthesia, electrical resection of the lateral wall mass may cause violent adductor contraction and possible inadvertent bladder perforation. Therefore, obturator nerve block (ONB) is mandatory after spinal anesthesia to avoid adductor muscle contraction. We compared the success rate and efficacy of an inguinal approach, to a pubic approach for ONB. METHODS: One hundred and two patients who required ONB undergoing TURB with spinal anesthesia were included in this study. After spinal anesthesia, ONB was performed with an inguinal approach (Group I, n = 51) or pubic approach (Group P, n = 51) using a nerve stimulator. In the pubic approach, a needle was inserted at a point 1.5 cm lateral and 1.5 cm inferior to the pubic tubercle. For the inguinal approach, a needle was inserted at the midpoint of the femoral artery and the inner margin of the adductor longus muscle 0.5 cm below the inguinal crease. If the adductor contracture had not occurred by the 3rd attempt, it was defined as a failed block. Puncture frequency, success rate, anatomical characteristics, and the presence of adductor muscle contraction during operation were evaluated. RESULTS: The success rate of ONB was higher in group I compared to group P (96.1% vs. 84.0%, P = 0.046) and the frequency of needle attempts was lower in group I than in group P (1.8 +/- 0.9 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.6, P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The inguinal approach for ONB appears to be technically easier and offers certain anatomical advantages when compared to the pubic approach.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Spinal , Contracts , Contracture , Femoral Artery , Humans , Muscle Contraction , Muscles , Needles , Obturator Nerve , Punctures , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-172269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) remains a challenge for patients and health professionals despite various newly developed prophylactic interventions. We reviewed the efficacy and safety of ramosetron in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the prevention of PONV. METHODS: We reviewed 18 randomized controlled trials investigating the efficacy and safety of ramosetron in comparison with placebo or any other drugs. Relevant studies were searched in the MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane database libraries. Our end points of concern were prevention of PONV and adverse effects as dichotomous data. RESULTS: The prophylactic effect of 0.3 mg ramosetron was observed in early PON (relative risk, RR: 0.4; 95% CI 0.3-0.6), early POV (RR: 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.6), late POV (RR: 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.6), but not late PON (RR: 0.7; 95% CI 0.5-1.0). Compared with placebo, the efficacy of 0.3 mg ramosetron in adults and 6 microg/kg in children were consistently beneficial in preventing PONV overall (RR: 0.4; 95% CI: 03-0.6). The effects of 0.3 mg ramosetron and 3 mg granisetron were similar. No serious side effects or adverse events resulted from ramosetron and other active drugs, and incidence was similar to those of the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Ramosetron is effective and safe in children and adults without serious adverse effects compared with placebo or other active drugs, as shown in pooled data of RCTs, in terms of the prevention of PONV.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antiemetics , Benzimidazoles , Child , Granisetron , Health Occupations , Humans , Incidence , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-145230

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of the position of the epidural catheter inserted from three different lumbar intervertebral spaces, L2-3, L3-4, and L4-5, in infants and children. METHODS: Seventy-five children were randomly allocated to 3 groups according to the epidural catheter insertion site (L2-3, L3-4, and L4-5). The epidural catheter tip was identified using 50% diluted Iohexol and fluoroscopy. The incidence of correct position was compared among the groups and between infants and children. RESULTS: The incidence of correct position was significantly higher in the L2-3 group as compared to the L3-4 and L4-5 groups (P = 0.023 and P = 0.046 respectively). The incidence of correct position was higher in infants compared to children (P = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: The L2-3 intervertebral space is preferable during epidural catheter insertion in children older than 1 year, but a low lumbar level should be considered in infants because they have a higher risk of neural damage.


Subject(s)
Analgesia, Epidural , Catheters , Child , Fluoroscopy , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Iohexol , Pediatrics
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-187724

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Shivering is a frequent event during the perioperative period. We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind study to determine whether intrathecal meperidine (0.2 mg/kg) decreases the incidence and intensity of shivering after spinal anesthesia for transurethral operations. METHODS: Fifty patients scheduled for elective transurethral resection operations under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated to two groups. Spinal anesthesia consisted of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 8 mg and, mperidine (0.2 mg/kg) (meperidine group) or, normal saline (saline group). Data collection, including sensory block level (by pinprick), blood pressure, heart rate, sublingual temperature, incidence and intensity of shivering, pruritus, nausea, and vomiting was performed at 10 minute intervals. RESULTS: The incidence and intensity of shivering was significantly less in the meperidine group than saline group (P = 0.012 and P = 0.008, for incidence and intensity, respectively). However, pruritus was more common in the meperidine group compared with the saline group (16% vs. 0%, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The addition of meperidine 0.2 mg/kg to intrathecal bupivacaine lowers the incidence and severity of shivering during transurethral prostatectomy in elderly patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Spinal , Blood Pressure , Bupivacaine , Data Collection , Double-Blind Method , Heart Rate , Humans , Incidence , Meperidine , Nausea , Perioperative Period , Prospective Studies , Pruritus , Shivering , Transurethral Resection of Prostate , Vomiting
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109855

ABSTRACT

We performed a prospective, randomized, and double-blind study comparing the top-up effects of 2% lidocaine/100 microgram fentanyl/epinephrine (n=31) and 2% lidocaine/saline/epinephrine (n=30) when extending an epidural labor analgesia using low-dose ropivacaine and fentanyl. Survival analysis for the sensory blocks to the T4 level showed no statistically significant differences in onset time to T4 between the 2 groups. Onset times (min) to T4-sensory blocks for cold and pinprick were not different between the two groups. However, median maximum sensory level in the lidocaine-fentanyl group (T1 for cold and T2 for pinprick) was significantly higher than that in the lidocaine-saline group (T3 and T4, respectively). The lidocaine-fentanyl group exhibited less visceral pain (6.5% vs. 36.7%), less supplementation of lidocaine (6.5% vs. 43.3%), and less nausea (6.5% vs. 26.7%) compared with the lidocaine-saline group during the intraoperative period. It is concluded that adding fentanyl to 2% lidocaine does not speed up the onset of the block when the onset is tested with cold or sharp pinprick but improves the quality of analgesia with fewer side effects in emergency top-up for cesarean section.


Subject(s)
Adult , Amides/administration & dosage , Analgesia, Epidural , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Cesarean Section , Double-Blind Method , Emergency Medical Services , Epinephrine/administration & dosage , Female , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Humans , Lidocaine/administration & dosage , Pain Measurement , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Vasoconstrictor Agents/administration & dosage
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115111

ABSTRACT

A tracheal intubation-related tracheobronchial rupture is a relatively rare complication. We report a case of tracheobronchial rupture after single lumen endotracheal intubation. Twenty four hours after extubation of an endotracheal tube, subcutaneous emphysema developed on the patient's neck. A pneumomediastinum was also detected by computerized tomography (CT). The patient recovered uneventfully after conservative management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intubation , Intubation, Intratracheal , Mediastinal Emphysema , Neck , Rupture , Subcutaneous Emphysema
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146829

ABSTRACT

Seckel syndrome is an autosomal recessive, primordial dwarfism. The clinical symptoms and signs include severe intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, nanocephaly, proportional dwarfism, bird-like faces, beak-like triangular nose, and mental retardation. We report a successful anesthetic management including endotracheal intubation with the GlideScope(R) video laryngoscope in an 18-year old man with Seckel syndrome for curettage of chronic osteomyelitis of pelvic bone.


Subject(s)
Curettage , Dwarfism , Humans , Intellectual Disability , Intubation, Intratracheal , Laryngoscopes , Nose , Osteomyelitis , Pelvic Bones
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