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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927005

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The objective of this study was to determine whether the newly developed two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE, RS85, Samsung-shearwave imaging) was more valid and reliable than transient elastography (TE) for predicting the stage of liver fibrosis. @*Methods@#The study prospectively enrolled a total of 116 patients with chronic liver disease who underwent 2D-SWE, TE, laboratory testing, and liver biopsy on the same day from two tertiary care hospitals. One patient with unreliable measurement was excluded. The measurement of 2D-SWE was considered acceptable when a homogenous color pattern in a region of interest of at least 10 mm was detected at 10 different sites. Diagnostic performance was calculated using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). @*Results@#Liver fibrosis stages included F0 (18%), F1 (19%), F2 (24%), F3 (22%), and F4 (17%). Interclass correlation coefficient for inter-observer agreement in 2D-SWE was 0.994 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.988 to 0.997). Overall, the results of 2D-SWE and stages of histological fibrosis were significantly correlated (r = 0.601, p < 0.001). For The 2D-SWE showed good diagnostic ability (AUROC, 0.851; 95% CI, 0.773 to 0.911) comparable to TE (AUROC, 0.859; 95% CI, 0.781 to 0.916) for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis (≥ F2), and the cut-off value was 5.8 kPa. AUROC and optimal cut-off of 2D-SWE for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis were 0.889 (95% CI, 0.817 to 0.940) and 9.6 kPa, respectively. TE showed similar diagnostic performance in distinguishing cirrhosis (AUROC, 0.938; 95% CI, 0.877 to 0.974; p = 0.08). @*Conclusions@#2D-SWE is comparable to TE in diagnosing significant fibrosis and liver cirrhosis with high reliability.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893656

ABSTRACT

The inferior mesenteric artery is a rare source of postpartum hemorrhage. We report two cases of primary postpartum hemorrhage that originated from the inferior mesenteric artery after vaginal delivery. Both patients showed signs of hypovolemic shock, and disseminated intravascular coagulation was suspected. The bleeding continued even after embolization of the uterine artery, a typical source of postpartum hemorrhage. Inferior mesenteric arteriography confirmed contrast extravasation from the superior rectal artery, and selective embolization was performed using N-butyl cyanoacrylate. This report highlights that the inferior mesenteric artery can be a source of bleeding in patients with intractable and persistent postpartum hemorrhage due to birth canal injury.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915485

ABSTRACT

Background@#Evidence for the association between underlying non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the risk of testing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) positive, and the clinical consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is controversial and scarce. We aimed to investigate the association between the presence of NAFLD and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and COVID-19-related outcomes. @*Methods@#We used the population-based, nationwide cohort in South Korea linked with the general health examination records between January 1, 2018 and July 30, 2020. Data for 212,768 adults older than 20 years who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from January 1 to May 30, 2020, were obtained. The presence of NAFLDs was defined using three definitions, namely hepatic steatosis index (HSI), fatty liver index (FLI), and claims-based definition. The outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 test positive, COVID-19 severe illness, and related death. @*Results@#Among 74,244 adults who completed the general health examination, there were 2,251 (3.0%) who were SARS-CoV-2 positive, 438 (0.6%) with severe COVID-19 illness, and 45 (0.06%) COVID-19-related deaths. After exposure-driven propensity score matching, patients with pre-existing HSI-NAFLD, FLI-NAFLD, or claims-based NAFLD had an 11–23% increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (HSI-NAFLD 95% confidence interval [CI], 1–28%; FLI-NAFLD 95% CI, 2–27%; and claims-based NAFLD 95% CI, 2–31%) and a 35–41% increased risk of severe COVID-19 illness (HSI-NAFLD 95% CI, 8–83%; FLI-NAFLD 95% CI, 5–71%; and claims-based NAFLD 95% CI, 1–92%). These associations are more evident as liver fibrosis advanced (based on the BARD scoring system). Similar patterns were observed in several sensitivity analyses including the full-unmatched cohort. @*Conclusion@#Patients with pre-existing NAFLDs have a higher likelihood of testing SARSCoV-2 positive and severe COVID-19 illness; this association was more evident in patients with NAFLD with advanced fibrosis. Our results suggest that extra attention should be given to the management of patients with NAFLD during the COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901360

ABSTRACT

The inferior mesenteric artery is a rare source of postpartum hemorrhage. We report two cases of primary postpartum hemorrhage that originated from the inferior mesenteric artery after vaginal delivery. Both patients showed signs of hypovolemic shock, and disseminated intravascular coagulation was suspected. The bleeding continued even after embolization of the uterine artery, a typical source of postpartum hemorrhage. Inferior mesenteric arteriography confirmed contrast extravasation from the superior rectal artery, and selective embolization was performed using N-butyl cyanoacrylate. This report highlights that the inferior mesenteric artery can be a source of bleeding in patients with intractable and persistent postpartum hemorrhage due to birth canal injury.

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