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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878885

ABSTRACT

In this study, Fick's first law and partition equilibrium were used to represent the internal and external mass transfer processes of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma at the macroscopic level, and a mass transfer model was established. The specific surface area was integrated into the mass transfer resistance, which effectively avoided the irregular shape of medicinal materials and expanded the application scope of the model. Meanwhile, the mass transfer model was further combined with the kinetic model of salvia-nolic acid degradation to establish the extraction kinetic models of salvianolic acid B, lithospermic acid and Danshensu. The model was applied to study the extraction process of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. According to the sensitivity analysis results, the relative error of the model prediction was within 5% near the maximum extraction rate(320 min), and the prediction performance of the model was good. According to the investigation results of different process parameters, stirring could significantly accelerate the mass transfer rate of salvianolic acid B, while the mass transfer resistance and degradation rate constant were not affected by solvent-to-solid ratio. The linear relationship between the reciprocal of temperature and the logarithm of mass transfer resistance was good(R~2=0.996), indicating that the temperature and mass transfer resistance conformed to Arrhenius formula. In addition, we also found that the concentration changes of lithospermic acid and Danshensu were weakly affected by mass transferwhen the extraction temperature was higher than 358 K. This study has provided the basis for the process optimization and quality control of traditional Chinese medicine extraction.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Kinetics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Rhizome , Salvia miltiorrhiza
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827973

ABSTRACT

A rapid analysis method based on ultraviolet-visual(UV-Vis) spectroscopy, near infrared(NIR) spectroscopy and multivariable data analysis was established for quality evaluation of Shengxuebao Mixture. The contents of eight active ingredients of Shengxuebao Mixture including albiflorin, paeoniflorin, 2, 3, 5, 4'-tetra-hydroxy-stilbene-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, specnuezhenide,ecliptasaponin D, emodin, calycosin-7-glucoside and astragaloside Ⅳ were simultaneously detected by using this method. HPLC-UV-MS was used as a reference method for determining the contents of these ingredients. Partial least squares(PLS) analysis was implemented as a linear method for multivariate models calibrated between UV spectrum/NIR spectrum and contents of 8 ingredients. Finally, the performance of the model was evaluated by 24 batches of test samples. The results showed that both UV-Vis and NIR models gave a good calibration ability with an R~2 value above 0.9, and the prediction ability was also satisfactory, with an R~2 value higher than 0.83 for UV-Vis model and higher than 0.79 for NIR model. The overall results demonstrate that the established method is accurate, robust and fast, therefore, it can be used for rapid quality evaluation of Shengxuebao Mixture.


Subject(s)
Calibration , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Least-Squares Analysis , Mass Spectrometry , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773264

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) glues,including leather glues,horn glues,nail glues and bone glues,have a long application history and unique characteristics. In recent years,their market demand has increased year by year because of their remarkable curative efficacy and nourishing effects,which leads to insufficient supply of raw material resources,and widespread use of fake and inferior products,seriously affecting the reputation of TCM glues and drug safety. In this context,the establishment of a more specific quality detection method for the TCM glues according to their specific characteristics can effectively improve the quality control level,promote rational use,and have a far-reaching impact on the industrial development of TCM glues. In this paper,the classification of TCM glues,as well as the production and application status of their representative( Ejiao) were briefly introduced; the papers on quality control technologies of TCM glues,including traditional identification experience,authenticity identification,physical property determination,protein,peptide and amino acid contents determination,element analysis,biological evaluation,and brand protection technology of TCM glues,were reviewed,and their advantages and disadvantages were summarized and analyzed comprehensively.Based on the specific characteristics of TCM glues,such as complex material basis,unclear pharmacodynamic components and different production processes,it was proposed in this paper to research and develop information-rich,convenient,fast,and non-destructive analytical techniques for the quality control of TCM glues and brand protection of famous products,thus promoting the healthy development of TCM glues industry.


Subject(s)
Adhesives , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control , Research
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773099

ABSTRACT

This study aims to develop the quality standards of Fructus Corni piece standard decoction. Morroniside and loganin were considered as index components. The content determination method of morroniside and loganin were developed. The fingerprint analysis method was also established. The standard decoctions of 15 batches of Fructus Corni pieces from Henan, Zhejiang, and Shaanxi were analyzed. The similarity values of fingerprint were all above 0.99. The transfer rates of morroniside were all higher than 100%. The quality evaluation indices of standard decoction were discussed. The transfer rate of an index component was not easy to be measured accurately and its concept was not rigorous. Therefore, index component yield was suggested as an evaluation index of standard decoction. Two methods for setting quality standards of standard decoctions, which were the ■ method and the ■ method, were compared. It was found that the standard range of ■ method was wider and more suitable for smaller sample size of standard decoction. The quality standards of Fructus Corni standard decoction were as follows, dry matter extraction ratio 37.48%-69.60%; morroniside yield 8.719-16.19 mg·g~(-1) piece; loganin yield 4.342-8.064 mg·g~(-1) piece.


Subject(s)
Cornus , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Fruit , Chemistry , Quality Control
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775351

ABSTRACT

In this study, the HPLC-UV-MS method for the simultaneous determination of eight active ingredients of Shengxuebao Mixture were developed based on the concept of quality by design(QbD)with a stepwise optimization approach. After the analytical target profile(ATP)had been defined, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, 2, 3, 5, 4'-tetra-hydroxy-stilbene-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, specnuezhenide, ecliptasaponin D, emodin, calycosin-7-glucoside, and astragaloside Ⅳ were identified as the indicator components. The resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio of indicator components were then selected as critical method attributes (CMA) for the first step optimization. According to the results collected from fractional factorial design, critical method parameters (CMP) were determined with a multiple linear regression method, which included the amount of acid addition in the mobile phase, temperature, gradient, and wavelength. After that, the amount of acid addition and the wavelength were optimized to improve the resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio of the indicator components. The peak symmetry factors of specnuezhenide and emodin were then set as CMA for the second step optimization. The Box-Behnken designed experiments were conducted. The temperature and gradient were optimized after modelling. The design space were calculated and verified. The optimized analytical method was validated, and the results showed a good precision, accuracy and stability, which means that it can be used for the quantification of the indicator components in Shengxuebao Mixture.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Mass Spectrometry , Phytochemicals , Reproducibility of Results
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690703

ABSTRACT

The paper-based analytical device (PAD) was applied in this study to analyze the antioxidant activity of Danhong injection and its intermediates. First polycaprolactone was printed on the surface of a filter paper with a 3D printing device. The modified filter paper was then prepared using polycaprolactone and solid paraffin as the modifiers. The PAD was prepared after adding DPPH ethanol solution to the modified filter paper. Ascorbic acid solutions with different concentrations were used as the positive drug on PAD. After the occurrence of color reactions, the PAD was dried, and the data of color were collected by a cell phone. The color component G and grayscale were selected as the potential indices for measurement according to the values of determination coefficients, detection limits, and effective number of digits. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Danhong injection and the concentrate of aqueous extract were realized with the PAD. Because no significant differences were observed between the results obtained using the two potential indices, the average values of these two were used for analysis, and the antioxidant activity of Danhong injection and the concentrate of aqueous extract was equivalent to ascorbic acid solutions of 3.7, 46 g·L⁻¹, respectively. The PAD method presented in this work can be a simple method to determine biological activities of Chinese medicines and their intermediates.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690529

ABSTRACT

In this work, two algorithms (overlapping method and the probability-based method) for design space calculation were compared by using the data collected from extraction process of Codonopsis Radix as an example. In the probability-based method, experimental error was simulated to calculate the probability of reaching the standard. The effects of several parameters on the calculated design space were studied, including simulation number, step length, and the acceptable probability threshold. For the extraction process of Codonopsis Radix, 10 000 times of simulation and 0.02 for the calculation step length can lead to a satisfactory design space. In general, the overlapping method is easy to understand, and can be realized by several kinds of commercial software without coding programs, but the reliability of the process evaluation indexes when operating in the design space is not indicated. Probability-based method is complex in calculation, but can provide the reliability to ensure that the process indexes can reach the standard within the acceptable probability threshold. In addition, there is no probability mutation in the edge of design space by probability-based method. Therefore, probability-based method is recommended for design space calculation.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690407

ABSTRACT

In this work, we obtained the quality information of Panax notoginseng with near infrared spectroscopy in an efficient way. By combining the quality information of raw materials with process parameters in experimental design, quantitative relationship models were established between material quality information, process parameters and product quality of P. notoginseng, thus realizing the feedforward control of the alcohol extraction process. The quantitative models established have high robustness and satisfactory forecasting ability. With new batches of P. notoginseng introduced for the alcohol extraction process, the quality information of raw materials was rapidly obtained. Based on the established models, the process parameters were optimized according to the expected critical quality attributes (CQA), thereby reducing the fluctuation of product quality caused by raw material variation.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275424

ABSTRACT

Quality by design (QbD) concept is an advanced pharmaceutical quality control concept. The application of QbD concept in the research and development of pharmaceutical processes of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) mainly contains five parts, including the definition of critical processes and their evaluation criteria, the determination of critical process parameters and critical material attributes, the establishment of quantitative models, the development of design space, as well as the application and continuous improvement of control strategy. In this work, recent research advances in QbD concept implementation methods in the secondary development of Chinese patent medicines were reviewed, and five promising fields of the implementation of QbD concept were pointed out, including the research and development of TCM new drugs and Chinese medicine granules for formulation, modeling of pharmaceutical processes, development of control strategy based on industrial big data, strengthening the research of process amplification rules, and the development of new pharmaceutical equipment..

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275419

ABSTRACT

To recognize the key influential factors during the liquid preparation process of Tanreqing injection, the near infrared(NIR) spectra of the raw materials and the operating parameters of 24 batches of physical manufacturing were recorded as independent variables, and the total soluble solids contents and the light inspection acceptance rate of the final products were collected as dependent variables. The calibration models were developed using the partial least-square regression (PLSR) method, and the correlation coefficients between the independent variables and the dependent variables were calculated. For the quantitative models, the correlation coefficients for the calibration and inner cross validation of total soluble solids contents and the light inspection acceptance rate reached 0.911 9, 0.724 2 and 0.873 8, 0.795 9, respectively. Using the correlation coefficients diagrams, several key influence factors were preliminarily determined, and the physical significance were analyzed combined with production experience. This work demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy with PLSR algorithm could be used for the key influential factors recognization during the liquid preparation process of Tanreqing injection and can be popularized to solve similar problems..

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275418

ABSTRACT

Quality by design principle was used as a guideline in this study to optimize ethanol reflux extraction of red ginseng. Firstly, hazard and operability analysis(HAZOP) was used as a risk assessment tool to evaluate the hazard degree of process parameters.Ethanol concentration, the ratio of alcohol and herbal material (A/M ratio), and extraction time were identified as the critical process parameters(CPPs) according to HAZOP method.Secondly, Box-Behnken experimental design was applied to establish theregression models between CPPs and the process indices. Finally, the design space was calculated. The recommended operation space of parametersis as follows:alcohol concentration of 90.3%-90.7%, A/M ratio of 2.5-3.1 mL•g ⁻¹ and extraction time of 124-130 min. The study shows that the design space approach combined with the risk assessment using HAZOP has the potential to reduce the risk of red ginseng extraction process, which might ultimately improve the process control..

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275417

ABSTRACT

Design space approach was applied in this study to optimize the lime milk precipitation process of Lonicera Japonica (Jinyinhua) aqueous extract. The evaluation indices for this process were total organic acid purity and amounts of 6 organic acids obtained from per unit mass of medicinal materials. Four critical process parameters (CPPs) including drop speed of lime milk, pH value after adding lime milk, settling time and settling temperature were identified by using the weighted standardized partial regression coefficient method. Quantitative models between process evaluation indices and CPPs were established by a stepwise regression analysis. A design space was calculated by a Monte-Carlo simulation method, and then verified. The verification test results showed that the operation within the design space can guarantee the stability of the lime milk precipitation process. The recommended normal operation space is as follows: drop speed of lime milk of 1.00-1.25 mL•min⁻¹, pH value of 11.5-11.7, settling time of 1.0-1.2 h, and settling temperature of 10-20 ℃..

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-258491

ABSTRACT

In this paper, a design space approach was applied to optimize the dropping process of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills. Firstly, potential critical process parameters and potential process critical quality attributes were determined through literature research and pre-experiments. Secondly, experiments were carried out according to Box-Behnken design. Then the critical process parameters and critical quality attributes were determined based on the experimental results. Thirdly, second-order polynomial models were used to describe the quantitative relationships between critical process parameters and critical quality attributes. Finally, a probability-based design space was calculated and verified. The verification results showed that efficient production of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills can be guaranteed by operating within the design space parameters. The recommended operation ranges for the critical dropping process parameters of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills were as follows: dropping distance of 5.5-6.7 cm, and dropping speed of 59-60 drops per minute, providing a reference for industrial production of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-272688

ABSTRACT

Continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing is one of the development directions in international pharmaceutical technology. In this study, a continuous mixing technology of ethanol and concentrated extract in the ethanol precipitation of Salvia miltiorrhiza was realized by using a membrane dispersion method. The effects of ethanol flowrate, concentrated extract flowrate, and flowrate ratio on ethanol precipitation results were investigated. With the increase of the flowrates of ethanol and concentrated extract, retention rate of active phenolic acids components was increased, and the total solid removal rate was decreased. The purity of active components in supernatants was mainly affected by the ratio of ethanol flowrate and concentrated extract flowrate. The mixing efficiency of adding ethanol under continuous flow mixing mode in this study was comparable to that of industrial ethanol precipitation. Continuous adding ethanol by using a membrane dispersion mixer is a promising technology with many advantages such as easy enlargement, large production per unit volume, and easy control.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284754

ABSTRACT

A perspective analysis on the technological innovation in pharmaceutical engineering of Chinese medicine unveils a vision on "Future Factory" of Chinese medicine industry in mind. The strategy as well as the technical roadmap of "Chinese medicine industry 4.0" is proposed, with the projection of related core technology system. It is clarified that the technical development path of Chinese medicine industry from digital manufacture to intelligent manufacture. On the basis of precisely defining technical terms such as process control, on-line detection and process quality monitoring for Chinese medicine manufacture, the technical concepts and characteristics of intelligent pharmaceutical manufacture as well as digital pharmaceutical manufacture are elaborated. Promoting wide applications of digital manufacturing technology of Chinese medicine is strongly recommended. Through completely informationized manufacturing processes and multi-discipline cluster innovation, intelligent manufacturing technology of Chinese medicine should be developed, which would provide a new driving force for Chinese medicine industry in technology upgrade, product quality enhancement and efficiency improvement.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-230068

ABSTRACT

A HPLC-UV-ELSD method was established for simultaneous determination of six components in two intermediates of Shenqi Fuzheng injection (SFI) and the feasibility of establishing quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker (QAMS) methods on different detectors was further explored. Calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside and astragloside Ⅳ were selected as internal reference substances for respectively flavonoids and saponins, and relative correlation factors (RCF) of formononetin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, 9, 10-dimethoxypterocarpan-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 2'-dihydroxy-3', 4'-dimethoxyisoflavan-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and astragloside Ⅱ were calculated. Eventually, quantitative results of the 14 samples were compared between QAMS and external standard method. The sample concentrations calculated by QAMS were similar with concentrations calculated by external standard method, and the absolute values of relative deviations were generally less than 5% according to the UV detection of flavonoids. On the basis of ELSD detection for saponins, however, the absolute values of relative deviation of the two methods ranged from 0.48% to 23.17%. The QAMS method built on ultraviolet (UV) detectors was stable and can be used as a substitute method to reduce the consumption of standard compounds; meanwhile, the accuracy of QAMS method built on evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) was inferior to that of external standard method, and the working principle of ELSD and feasible concentration range remain to be further studied.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307129

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the principle of NIRS (near infrared spectroscopy)-based process trajectory technology was introduced.The main steps of the technique include:① in-line collection of the processes spectra of different technics; ② unfolding of the 3-D process spectra;③ determination of the process trajectories and their normal limits;④ monitoring of the new batches with the established MSPC (multivariate statistical process control) models.Applications of the technology in the chemical and biological medicines were reviewed briefly. By a comprehensive introduction of our feasibility research on the monitoring of traditional Chinese medicine technical process using NIRS-based multivariate process trajectories, several important problems of the practical applications which need urgent solutions are proposed, and also the application prospect of the NIRS-based process trajectory technology is fully discussed and put forward in the end.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307128

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has gained wide acceptance within the quantitative analysis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, the lack of technical standards is the bottleneck problem in this process. To address this issue, standardization study of the NIR spectroscopy based method for the quantitative analysis of TCM is needed, in which the specific characteristics of TCM should be given full considerations. The main research contents include:the scope definition for the application of NIR spectroscopy in the TCM quantitative analysis field, the selection criteria for the sample pretreatment and spectral acquisition conditions, the rules for the model optimization and evaluation, and the regulations for the model update and transfer. In this paper, some foreign studies in the agricultural areas are reviewed for reference. Different chemometrics methods reported in the literature are investigated and compared systematically. This research is important actual significance to the theoretical development of NIR spectroscopy analytical techniques, and will effectively promote the application of the technology in the TCM industry. Furthermore, it is beneficial to improve the technical level of TCM quality control, and can also be used as references to achieve similar purposes for other natural products.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307127

ABSTRACT

Due to the advantages of fast and noninvasive, requiring almost no sample preparation, supplying chemical and physical information, near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. In the life cycle of an established analytical method, rigorous validation should be performed before routine use. However,there is no detailed experimental standards or decision rules for the NIR methods validation currently, and various approaches were applied to validate the established NIR quantification models in literatures.In this paper, progress on the validation of NIR methods developed for the pharmaceutical application was reviewed, concentrating on the standard documents and main ideas of validation.It will provide references for the standardized application of NIR spectroscopy in the pharmaceutical industries.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307118

ABSTRACT

In this paper, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-based total quality control system of compound Ejiao oral liquid is introduced briefly, including the quality control of raw traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) materials, monitoring and control of the extract and the alkaline precipitation technics, and also the inspection of finished products in both open bottle and non-opening modes. By analyzing and summing up the significance and difficulties, several important problems in the practical applications of NIRS technology are proposed, which will provide references for the similar studies of other TCM products.

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