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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881081

ABSTRACT

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is regarded as the most common liver disease with no approved therapeutic drug currently. Silymarin, an extract from the seeds of Silybum marianum, has been used for centuries for the treatment of various liver diseases. Although the hepatoprotective effect of silybin against NAFLD is widely accepted, the underlying mechanism and therapeutic target remain unclear. In this study, NAFLD mice caused by methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet were orally administrated with silybin to explore the possible mechanism and target. To clarify the contribution of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), PPARα antagonist GW6471 was co-administrated with silybin to NAFLD mice. Since silybin was proven as a PPARα partial agonist, the combined effect of silybin with PPARα agonist, fenofibrate, was then evaluated in NAFLD mice. Serum and liver samples were collected to analyze the pharmacological efficacy and expression of PPARα and its targets. As expected, silybin significantly protected mice from MCD-induced NAFLD. Furthermore, silybin reduced lipid accumulation via activating PPARα, inducing the expression of liver cytosolic fatty acid-binding protein, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (Cpt)-1a, Cpt-2, medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and suppressing fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase α. GW6471 abolished the effect of silybin on PPARα signal and hepatoprotective effect against NAFLD. Moreover, as a partial agonist for PPARα, silybin impaired the powerful lipid-lowering effect of fenofibrate when used together. Taken together, silybin protected mice against NAFLD via activating PPARα to diminish lipid accumulation and it is not suggested to simultaneously take silybin and classical PPARα agonists for NAFLD therapy.

2.
Journal of Medical Postgraduates ; (12): 468-473, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818262

ABSTRACT

In the past decades, the targeted therapeutic strategies of anti-cancer drugs based on metabolic regulation has been progressing. The study found that the regulation of over-activated metabolic pathways and the subsequent changes brought to metabolic homeostasis can effectively inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. However, the mechanistic link between cancer metabolism and cell fates has remained unclear. As the advancements of biological mass spectrometry and functional omics, researchers have discovered that endogenous metabolites can interact with multiple proteins as functional ligands, and thus affect the survival and proliferation of cancer cells. Nevertheless, the the direct targets and regulatory mechanisms of most functional metabolites in tumors are still unknown. The missing recognition of them has impeded further exploration of the development of precise targeted drug design based metabolic the phenomenon of tumor metabolic reprogramming. Therefore, the capability of elucidating the direct targets of endogenous metabolites in vivo not only helps to develop drugs based on the leading compounds targeting tumor metabolic, but also provides new ideas for personalized medicines of tumor patients. This review thus focuses on the characteristics of cancer metabolism and how endogenous metabolites affects tumor survival, and introduces current target identification approaches applicable to endogenous compounds, in hope to provide thoughts for developing precise treatment strategies based on cancer metabolism.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 19-25, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779815

ABSTRACT

Traditional anti-depressant therapy based on the regulation of monoamine neurotransmitters has shown certain limitations. Recently, accumulating clinical and preclinical studies have reported the tantalizing link between immune dysregulation, inflammatory process and the initiation and exacerbation of major depressive disorder (MDD). With a deepening understanding of neural-immune-metabolic interactions, an immunometabolism driven disease network has attracted huge interests in understanding neuronal inflammation and dysfunction underlying MDD pathogenesis and intervention. This review describes recent data uncovering immunometabolic dysregulation as a key factor in MDD network, with a focus on the recent appreciation of immune-metabolic actions of several anti-depressant compounds. The implications for the discovery of novel antidepressant drugs and clinical management of MDD are discussed.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812593

ABSTRACT

Glycyrrhizin is a major bioactive component of liquorice, which exerts multiple biochemical and pharmacological activities and is frequently used in combination with other drugs in the clinic. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), an immunosuppressant widely used in transplant patients, is metabolized by UDP-glucuronyltransferases (UGTs). Although significant evidence supports that glycyrrhizin could interact with the cytochrome P450s (CYPs), few studies have addressed its effects on UGTs. The present study aimed at investigating the regulatory effects of diammonium glycyrrhizinate (GLN) on UGTs in vitro and in vivo. We found that long-term administration of GLN in rats induced overall metabolism of MMF, which might be due to the induction of UGT1A protein expression. Hepatic UGT1A activity and UGT1A mRNA and protein expression were significantly increased in GLN-treated rats. UGT1A expression levels were also increased in the intestine, contradicting with the observed decrease in intestinal UGT1A activities. This phenomenon may be attributed to different concentrations of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) in liver and intestine and the inhibitory effects of GA on UGT1A activity. In conclusion, our study revealed that GLN had multiple effects on the expression and activities of UGT1A isoforms, providing a basis for a better understanding of interactions between GLN and other drugs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Glucuronosyltransferase , Chemistry , Metabolism , Glycyrrhizic Acid , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Herb-Drug Interactions , Intestines , Chemistry , Kinetics , Liver , Chemistry , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812589

ABSTRACT

Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) catalyzes the first rate-limiting step in converting nicotinamide to NAD(+), essential for a number of enzymes and regulatory proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes, including deacetylation enzyme SIRT1 which modulates several tumor suppressors such as p53 and FOXO. Herein we report that NQO1 substrates Tanshione IIA (TSA) and β-lapachone (β-lap) induced a rapid depletion of NAD(+) pool but adaptively a significant upregulation of NAMPT. NAMPT inhibition by FK866 at a nontoxic dose significantly enhanced NQO1-targeting agent-induced apoptotic cell death. Compared with TSA or β-lap treatment alone, co-treatment with FK866 induced a more dramatic depletion of NAD(+), repression of SIRT1 activity, and thereby the increased accumulation of acetylated FOXO1 and the activation of apoptotic pathway. In conclusion, the results from the present study support that NAMPT inhibition can synergize with NQO1 activation to induce apoptotic cell death, thereby providing a new rationale for the development of combinative therapeutic drugs in combating non-small lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Abietanes , Pharmacology , Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cytokines , Genetics , Metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Humans , NAD , Metabolism , NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone) , Genetics , Metabolism , Naphthoquinones , Pharmacology , Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase , Genetics , Metabolism
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812566

ABSTRACT

Isochlorogenic acid A (ICQA), which has anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and antiviral properties, is commonly presented in fruits, vegetables, coffee, plant-based food products, and herbal medicines. These herbal medicines are usually used in combination with other medicines in the clinic. However, little is known about the regulatory effects of ICQA on drug-metabolizing enzymes and the herb-drug interactions. In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory potentials of ICQA on CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1 in vitro based on a cocktail approach. The P450 and UGT activities in mice treated with ICQA for a prolonged period were also determined. Our results demonstrated that ICQA exhibited a weak inhibitory effect on CYP2C9 in human liver microsomes with IC being 57.25 μmol·L and Ki being 26.77 μmol·L. In addition, ICQA inhibited UGT1A6 activity by 25%, in the mice treated with ICQA (i.p.) at 30 mg·kg for 14 d, compared with the control group. Moreover, ICQA showed no mechanism-based inhibition on CYP2C9 or UGT1A6. In conclusion, our results further confirm a safe use of ICQA in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chlorogenic Acid , Chemistry , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors , Chemistry , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Chemistry , Metabolism , Glucuronosyltransferase , Chemistry , Metabolism , Humans , Kinetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microsomes, Liver , Chemistry
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812476

ABSTRACT

As a computer-assisted approach, molecular docking has been universally applied in drug research and development and plays an important role in the investigation and evaluation of herbal medicines. Herein, the method was used to estimate the pharmacodynamics of Mai-Luo-Ning injection, a traditional Chinese compound herbal prescription. Through investigating the interactions between several important proteins in cardiovascular system and characteristic components of the formula, its effect on cardiovascular protection was evaluated. Results showed the differences in the interactions between each component and the selected target proteins and revealed the possible mechanisms for synergistic effects of various characteristic components on cardiovascular protection. The study provided scientific evidence supporting the mechanistic study of the interactions among multi-components and targets, offering a general approach to investigating the pharmacodynamics of complicated materials in compound herbal prescriptions.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Agents , Pharmacology , Cardiovascular System , Metabolism , Drug Synergism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Enzymes , Metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation
8.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 252-258, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-297494

ABSTRACT

Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a ligand-activated transcriptional factor belonged to the superfamily of nuclear receptors. In the past decades, FXR has been found with important roles in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis of bile acids, cholesterol, lipids and carbohydrates. Recent studies further demonstrate the potential protective effect of FXR against metabolic diseases, such as hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, as well as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In addition, FXR plays an essential role in liver regeneration, tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis. However, the role of FXR in the development of tumor is still obscure and even with discrepancy. This article reviews the function of FXR in metabolic regulation and recent progress in basic, clinical and pharmacological researches related to tumor cell proliferation involving FXR.


Subject(s)
Cell Proliferation , Homeostasis , Humans , Neoplasms , Metabolism , Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear , Metabolism , Transcription Factors
9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 104-112, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-235696

ABSTRACT

Isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial ischemia animal model has been widely applied to the study of myocardial ischemia and evaluation of drug efficacy. Metabolic profiling of endogenous compounds can make a deep insight into biochemical process of the ISO-induced myocardial ischemia rats. Herein, rats were treated with ISO (2 mg x kg(-1)) for 10 days. After the model was established by measuring myocardial histopathology and plasma creatine kinase, GC/TOF-MS was used to determine endogenous metabolites in plasma and cardiac muscle of rats, and pattern recognition was used to process the data. Results showed that the plasma metabolic profiling of ISO-induced myocardial ischemia rats was significantly different from that of the control, and it had the tendency to the normal state after the discontinue of ISO injection. Besides, the cardiac muscle of rats treated with ISO for 10 days and the normal cardiac muscle could also be separated clearly. The potential biomarkers in plasma and cardiac muscle of model rats had homogeneity and their own specialty. Biochemical metabolic pathway analysis indicated that this myocardial ischemia model was involved in the alternation of energy metabolism, saccharometabolism, lipid metabolism, nucleoside metabolism and amino acid metabolism, and in relationship with oxidative stress. These findings revealed that metabonomics may be a promising tool to evaluate myocardial ischemia rat model induced by ISO and could further extend the study of pharmacodynamic action of drugs at the molecular level.


Subject(s)
Animals , Creatine Kinase , Blood , Energy Metabolism , Isoproterenol , Lipid Metabolism , Male , Metabolome , Metabolomics , Methods , Myocardial Ischemia , Blood , Metabolism , Myocardium , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812687

ABSTRACT

AIM@#This study was designed to explore the effects of short-term and long-term pretreatment of diammonium glycyrrhizinate (GLN) on the pharmacokinetics of entecavir (ETV) in rats.@*METHODS@#Male SD rats were randomized into short-term and long-term experimental groups, respectively. In the short-term experiment, the control group received saline, the low dose group received GLN 13.5 mg·kg(-1) and the high dose group received GLN 40.5 mg·kg(-1). ETV (0.09 mg·kg(-1)) was given i.g. 0.5 h after saline/GLN administration. For the long-term experiment, rats were allocated into two experimental designs. The control group received saline/ETV (0.09 mg·kg(-1)), the low dose group received GLN 13.5 mg·kg(-1)/ETV 0.09 mg·kg(-1) + GLN 13.5 mg·kg(-1), while the high dose group received GLN 40.5 mg·kg(-1)/ETV 0.09 mg·kg(-1) + GLN 40.5 mg·kg(-1); all administration was continued for 15 days. On the 16(th) day, 0.09 mg·kg(-1) ETV was administrated to all groups. Blood samples were obtained at different time points after ETV administration to determine plasma ETV concentrations.@*RESULTS@#Pretreatment with glycyrrhizin resulted in no significant alterations in the main pharmacokinetic parameters of ETV in the short-term and long-term administration experiments.@*CONCLUSION@#Diammonium glycyrrhizinate has no effect on ETV pharmacokinetics in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drug Interactions , Glycyrrhizic Acid , Pharmacology , Guanine , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812646

ABSTRACT

AIM@#Silybin (SB), a major constituent of the milk thistle, has been used to treat several liver disorders. However, liver diseases were always accompanied by CYP450 dysfunction. This study was designed to explore the relationship between the hepatoprotective effect and CYP3A regulation of SB during thioacetamide (TAA)-induced rat liver injury.@*METHODS@#Serum biochemical analysis and histopathological study were taken to evaluate the hepatoprotectinve effect of SB. α-SMA were detected by immunohistochemical analysis and cytokine release in rat liver was determined by ELISA assay. CYP3A and PXR expression were determined by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, and CYP3A activity was based on the midazolam 4-hydroxylation reaction. Also, siRNA transfection was induced in HepG2 cells to evaluate the effect of PXR on cytotoxicity and CYP3A4 dysregulation caused by TAA.@*RESULTS@#SB showed powerful hepatoprotective effects, and anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosis effects, and reversed the loss of CYP3A and PXR in TAA-injured rat liver, and decreased PXR translocation into the cell nucleus. PXR silencing weakened the effect of SB on cytoprotection and CYP3A regulation.@*CONCLUSIONS@#PXR was a very important factor of CYP3A regulation and might be the target of SB in TAA-induced liver disease. Also, because of the potential interactions of SB and co-administered medicines, it might be necessary to adjust the dosage in the clinical medication of liver disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Drug Therapy , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Genetics , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Liver , Metabolism , Male , Milk Thistle , Chemistry , Pregnane X Receptor , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Steroid , Genetics , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Silymarin , Silymarin , Thioacetamide
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812320

ABSTRACT

AIM@#To identify and quantify the major metabolites of salvianolic acid B (SAB) after intravenous injection in rats.@*METHODS@#LC-IT/TOF-MS was used to identify the metabolites in rat bile, plasma, and urine; LC-MS/MS was used to quantify the two major metabolites.@*RESULTS@#In rat bile, plasma, and urine, nine metabolites were identified, including methylated metabolites of SAB, lithospermic acid (LSA), the decarboxylation and methylation metabolites of LSA, salvianolic acid S (SAS), and dehydrated-SAS. The t1/2 of monomethyl-SAB and LSA were both very short, and monomethyl-SAB had a larger AUC than LSA in rats.@*CONCLUSION@#Nine metabolites were found, the metabolic pathway was described, and the pharmacokinetic profiles of LSA and monomethyl-SAB were studied, thereby clarifying that methylation was the dominant metabolic pathway for SAB in rats.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravenous , Animals , Benzofurans , Chemistry , Metabolism , Pharmacokinetics , Bile , Chemistry , Male , Molecular Structure , Plasma , Chemistry , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Urine , Chemistry
13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 976-982, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-233042

ABSTRACT

In order to explore the scientific connotation of "Fangzhengduiying (formula corresponding to pattern types)", "Qiyinliangxuzheng (Qi and Yin deficiency pattern)" of myocardial ischemia rat model and GC-TOF/MS based metabonomic method were used for comparing the effects of Sheng-mai injection, Salvia injection and propranolol in the present study. After data processing and pattern recognition, Sheng-mai injection showed better efficacy than the other two drugs in accordance with not only visual observation from PLS-DA scores plots but also the number of abnormal endogenous compounds restored to the normal level. Further studies showed that Sheng-mai injection could normalize the level of plasma endothelin-1, the index related to cardiovascular diseases and sleep disorders, which verified the results of metabonomics. Finally, the regulated metabolites and related metabolic pathways were analyzed, and it was supposed that the effects of Sheng-mai injection involved in the alternation of energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, amino acids metabolism, and so on. These findings provided scientific evidence to Shengmai "Fang" used for "Qi and Yin deficiency pattern" correspondingly, indicating that metabonomics has great potential in traditional Chinese medical research, which provides a novel approach and way to modernization of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents , Pharmacology , Drug Combinations , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Endothelin-1 , Blood , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Methods , Injections , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Metabolomics , Methods , Myocardial Ischemia , Blood , Metabolism , Pathology , Panax , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Propranolol , Pharmacology , Qi , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Salvia , Chemistry , Schisandraceae , Chemistry , Yin Deficiency , Metabolism
14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1193-1199, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-344094

ABSTRACT

The metabolic transformation of the drugs containing carboxylic acid groups can lead to the formation of acyl glucuronide metabolites through catalysis by glucuronosyltransferase, and produce pro-acyl glucuronide intermediate metabolites with electronic activity. Then, protein or DNA adducts appeared after a series of non-enzyme or enzyme reactions. These adducts would change the protein activity and potentially lead to idiosyncratic and genotoxicity. In this paper, we discussed the chemical activity, drug-induced mechanisms, distribution and toxicity resulting from this metabolic activation for these drugs, and stated the status and prospects of research in this field.


Subject(s)
Biological Transport, Active , Biotransformation , Carboxylic Acids , Metabolism , Toxicity , DNA Damage , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Glucuronides , Metabolism , Toxicity , Glucuronosyltransferase , Metabolism , Hepatocytes , Metabolism , Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Metabolism
15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 270-275, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-278271

ABSTRACT

The pharmacokinetic research of traditional Chinese medicines (TMC) is an inalienable part of the chain of TCM modernization and plays an important role in the TCM novel drug development. However, the researching method and system that is consistent with the specific characteristics of TCM, i.e., multiple-components and targets, is still lacking. Furthermore, the current understanding of the critical scientific questions of TCM pharmacokinetics remains still unclear. This review makes a brief summary of our recent developments on the pharmacokinetic exploration of TCMs, mainly including integral pharmacokinetic study of multiple components, herbalome analysis both in vitro and in vivo, mechanism based compatibility study for herbal components interactions, and the representative pharmacokinetic study for single herbal compound. Furthermore, the critical scientific questions of TCM pharmacokinetics are discussed based on understanding the requirements of novel drug developments from TCM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drug Combinations , Drug Interactions , Drug Synergism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacokinetics , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Principal Component Analysis , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship
16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1122-1128, 2007.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-268219

ABSTRACT

Hydrophilic low molecular drugs, peptides and proteins, which are always poor in bioavailability, are mainly absorbed through the paracellular way in which the tight junction is the elementary framework. The tight junctions are a multiple unit structure composed of multiprotein complex that affiliates with the underlying apical actomyosin ring. Tight junction proteins are identified including transmembrane proteins (occludin, claudin and JAM) , cytoplasmic plaque proteins (ZO-1, ZO-2, ZO-3 and cingulin) and cytoskeleton. Traditional absorption enhancers can usually impair mucous membranes which constraint the utilization of these enhancers. Recently, with the increasing knowledge of the structure and function of tight junctions, many new absorption enhancers have been developed such as NO donor, CPE, Zot, and so on. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that these enhancers could be effectively used to increase the absorption of paracellular markers and low bioavailable drug across intestinal epithelium with lower side effect. In short, the transient opening of the tight junctions by these enhancers provides new ideas that could help in novel drug delivery of therapeutic agents.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biological Availability , Cell Adhesion Molecules , Metabolism , Cholera Toxin , Pharmacology , Claudin-1 , Cytoskeleton , Metabolism , Decanoic Acids , Pharmacology , Drug Delivery Systems , Enterotoxins , Pharmacology , Humans , Intestinal Absorption , Membrane Proteins , Metabolism , Nitric Oxide Donors , Pharmacology , Occludin , Phosphoproteins , Metabolism , Receptors, Cell Surface , Metabolism , Tight Junctions , Metabolism , Physiology , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein
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