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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 861-878, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970558

ABSTRACT

Schisandra chinensis, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, is rich in chemical constituents, including lignans, triterpenes, polysaccharides, and volatile oils. Clinically, it is commonly used to treat cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, liver, gastrointestinal, and respiratory diseases. Modern pharmacological studies have shown that S. chinensis extract and monomers have multiple pharmacological activities in lowering liver fat, alleviating insulin resistance, and resisting oxidative stress, and have good application prospects in alleviating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD). Therefore, this study reviewed the research progress on chemical constituents of S. chinensis and its effect on NAFLD in recent years to provide references for the research on S. chinensis in the treatment of NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Schisandra , Insulin Resistance , Lignans
2.
Chinese Herbal Medicines ; (4): 416-420, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-953643

ABSTRACT

Objective: Dianjixueteng is a geoherb in Yunnan Province, the source plant of which is Kadsura interior. However, the formation of this geoherb is not clear in genetic mechanism, in which genome size is the first step that should be known on the genomic level. In this study we aimed to estimate the genome sizes of source plants of K. interior and three related herbs K. heteroclita, K. longipedunculata, and K. coccinea by flow cytometry (FCM) and make a comparison. Methods: The genome sizes of K. interior, K. heteroclita, K. longipedunculata and K. coccinea, i.e., the source plants of Dianjixueteng and its relative medicinal materials, were estimated by FCM. The nuclei of K. interior were isolated using modified LB01 buffer, for the rest species, by the Galbraith's buffer. Results: The genome sizes of K. interior, K. heteroclita, K. longipedunculata, and K. coccinea were 7.36, 7.12, 7.01, and 5.15 pg/1C, respectively. Genome size of K. interior had no significant variation with those of K. heteroclita and K. longipedunculata (P = 0.296), which was significantly larger than that of K. coccinea. Conclusion: Genome size can not distinguish K. interior from K. heteroclita and K. longipedunculata, but could distinguish them from K. coccinea, which lays the foundation for future studies on genetic mechanism of the geoherb formation.

3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6312-6322, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921790

ABSTRACT

Cambodia is rich in medicinal plant resources. One hundred and thirty-three medicinal material samples, including the hole herb, root, stem/branch, leaf, flower, fruit, seed, and resin, were collected from the Orussey Herbal Market in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and then authenticated by ITS and psbA-trnH. A total of 46 samples were identified based on ITS sequences, belonging to 24 families, 40 genera, and 42 species. A total of 100 samples were identified by psbA-trnH sequences to belong to 42 families, 77 genera, and 84 species. A total of 103 samples were identified by two DNA barcodes. According to the morphological characteristics of the medicinal materials, 120 samples classified into 50 species, 86 genera, and 86 families were identified, and the majority of them were from Zingiberaceae, Fabaceae, and Acanthaceae. Such samples have been commonly used in traditional Cambodian medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, Unani medicine, traditional Chinese medicine, and ethnomedicine, but different medical systems focus on different functional aspects of the same medicinal material. The results of this study have demonstrated that DNA barcoding has a significant advantage in identifying herbal products, and this study has provided basic data for understanding the traditional medicinal materials used in Cambodia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cambodia , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , DNA, Plant/genetics , Plant Leaves , Plants, Medicinal/genetics
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5270-5277, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921672

ABSTRACT

Dirigent(DIR) proteins are involved in the biosynthesis of lignin, lignans, and gossypol in plants and respond to biotic and abiotic stresses. Based on the full-length transcriptome of Schisandra chinensis, bioinformatics methods were used to preliminarily identify the DIR gene family and analyze the physico-chemical properties, subcellular localization, conserved motifs, phylogeny, and expression patterns of the proteins. The results showed that a total of 34 DIR genes were screened and the encoded proteins were 156-387 aa. The physico-chemical properties of the proteins were different and the secondary structure was mainly random coil. Half of the DIR proteins were located in chloroplast, while the others in extracellular region, endoplasmic reticulum, cytoplasm, etc. Phylogenetic analysis of DIR proteins from S. chinensis and the other 8 species such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, and Glycine max demonstrated that all DIR proteins were clustered into 5 subfamilies and that DIR proteins from S. chinensis were in 4 subfamilies. DIR-a subfamily has the unique structure of 8 β-sheets, as verified by multiple sequence alignment. Finally, through the analysis of the transcriptome of S. chinensis fruit at different development stages, the expression pattern of DIR was clarified. Combined with the accumulation of lignans in fruits at different stages, DIR might be related to the synthesis of lignans in S. chinensis. This study lays a theoretical basis for exploring the biological functions of DIR genes and elucidating the biosynthesis pathway of lignans in S. chinensis.


Subject(s)
Fruit/genetics , Lignans/analysis , Phylogeny , Schisandra , Sequence Alignment
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1393-1398, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008584

ABSTRACT

An UPLC method was established for the direct determination of six major bioactive isosteroidal alkaloids, namely peimisine, imperialine, sipeimine-3-D-glucoside, verticinone, verticine and hupehenine from the bulbus of Fritillaria(Beimu), a commonly used antitussive traditional Chinese medicinal(TCM) herb. An Acquity UPLC~(TM) CSH C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) was used for all analysis. The investigated six compounds were all separated with gradient mobile phase consisting of 0.02% diethylamine-water-methanol at a flow rate of 0.3 mL·min~(-1). The temperature of sample manager was set at 20 ℃. Drift tube temperature was 45 ℃, and spray parameter was 40% with injection volume of 1 μL. Then, the further quality assessment of Beimu was carried out by cluster analysis(CA) and principal component analysis(PCA). The investigated all had good linearity(r≥0.998 9) over the tested ranges. The method is simple, accurate and reproducible, and can be used for determining the content of six major bioactive isosteroidal alkaloids.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/isolation & purification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Fritillaria/chemistry , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Plant Roots/chemistry
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1208-1211, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-796451

ABSTRACT

Background:@#Blood purification (BP) is one of the most important rescue measures for patients with critical illness in the intensive care unit (ICU), especially for those with acute kidney injury. The purpose of this nationwide survey was to reveal the real world of current BP practice in different ICUs all over China. This study was designed to be a multi-center cross-sectional study.@*Methods:@#All adult patients (over 18 years of age), who were admitted to ICU and required BP in 35 sub-centers across China were included during 30-day survey period in 2018. Demographic characteristics and clinical data were recorded including the timing of treatment initiation, indications, modality, relative contraindication, establishment of vascular access, selection of filter/membrane, settings, anti-coagulation, executive department, complication, intake, and output.@*Discussion:@#This nationwide survey may contribute to reveal the real world of current BP practice in different ICUs all over China.@*Trial registration:@#Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-EOC-17013119; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=22487.

7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4405-4411, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008206

ABSTRACT

The application of chemical fingerprint to evaluate the quality of traditional Chinese medicine has been widely accepted and used in many countries. However,only by analyzing the type and content of its chemical components to evaluate the quality of traditional Chinese medicines,the gold standard of quality evaluation by evaluating pharmacodynamic effects is ignored. The study of Chinese medicinal spectrum-effect relationships combining the chemical composition with the pharmacodynamic activity of traditional Chinese medicine,which can evaluate the quality of traditional Chinese medicine from more comprehensive and different angles,has been applied in many fields of traditional Chinese medicine research. This paper mainly summarizes the research methods of the Chinese medicinal spectrum-effect relationships and its application in the field of traditional Chinese medicine study,and provides reference for the research,development and application of the Chinese medicinal spectrum-effect relationships.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Records , Research Design
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4053-4059, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008326

ABSTRACT

Nanwuweizi( Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus) and Wuweizi( Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus) have long-term history of use as common traditional Chinese medicines since the Eastern Han Dynasty( AD.25-220 year).However their information are always confused in ancient literature because they were both used as " Wuweizi". Nanwuweizi and Wuweizi are faced with problems such as confused distribution of producing areas,unclear source plants and efficacy characteristics,which limit modern resource development and application. Based on ancient literatures of materia medica,this study conducted a systematic review from several aspects,i.e. the name,distribution of producing areas,source plants,efficacy characteristics and processing of the two medicines in ancient time. This study clarified five main aspects,as following,ancient production areas and corresponding modern distribution areas; source plants used for medicinal purposes in ancient time; application period and application scope; efficacy characteristics in clinical application;processing method. This study provides a reference for evaluating the quality and for their clinical application and reasonable development of Nanwuweizi and Wuweizi.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/history , Herbal Medicine/history , History, Ancient , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Phytotherapy , Plants, Medicinal , Schisandra
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1623-1634, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774513

ABSTRACT

Antithrombus is one of the effective methods to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases. Based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine,the author's previous research and relevant literature,it was found that the alkaloids in Houttuynia cordata has potential antithrombotic effect. However,the pharmacological substance basis and antithrombotic mechanism of H. cordata have not been clarified. In this study,molecular docking was used for virtual screening of antithrombotic alkaloids from H. cordata. Seventy alkaloids selected from H. cordata were screened in the docking ligand data-base with teen thrombosis targets with known crystal structures as the receptors. In addition,the small-molecule approved or to be approved drugs of targets from Drug Bank database were set as a positive reference with minimum score(S value) of each target's approved or to be approved drugs as threshold. The Dock module in Molecular Operating Environment(Version 2016) software was applied to screen the potential active compounds which their scores(S value) were lower than the minimum score of reference. At last the mechanism of antithrombotic effect was preliminarily revealed by compared the main active sites of the test alkaloids with original ligands and references. This study provided some useful information to development of antithrombus drugs.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Pharmacology , Fibrinolytic Agents , Pharmacology , Houttuynia , Chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phytochemicals , Pharmacology
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1208-1211, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772228

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Blood purification (BP) is one of the most important rescue measures for patients with critical illness in the intensive care unit (ICU), especially for those with acute kidney injury. The purpose of this nationwide survey was to reveal the real world of current BP practice in different ICUs all over China. This study was designed to be a multi-center cross-sectional study.@*METHODS@#All adult patients (over 18 years of age), who were admitted to ICU and required BP in 35 sub-centers across China were included during 30-day survey period in 2018. Demographic characteristics and clinical data were recorded including the timing of treatment initiation, indications, modality, relative contraindication, establishment of vascular access, selection of filter/membrane, settings, anti-coagulation, executive department, complication, intake, and output.@*DISCUSSION@#This nationwide survey may contribute to reveal the real world of current BP practice in different ICUs all over China.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-EOC-17013119; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=22487.

11.
Chinese Medical Equipment Journal ; (6): 64-66,82, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-700019

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the value of intra-voxel incoherent motion diffusion weighted imaging(IVIM-DWI)in brain perfusion of early hypertensive patients. Methods Totally 36 hypertensive patients and 14 volunteers were recruited and scanned using routine MRI sequences including axial T2WI, T1WI, T2FLAIR, TOF-MRA and IVIM-DWI sequence. Perfusion-related diffusion coefficient (D*) values and perfusion fraction (f) values in various regions were measured separately.The independent sample t test was used to analyze the data.Results Compared with the volunteers,both D*values and f values in lenticular nucleus,thalamus,superior frontal gyrus,occipital lobe,genu of corpus callosum(CC)and posterior horns of periventricular WM, were found to be lower (P<0.05) in hypertensive patients. For other regions, there were no significant difference(P>0.05).Conclusion IVIM-DWI has the ability to detect subtle brain perfusion abnormalities at early stages of hypertension.It has an important value to the prevention and treatment of hypertensive encephalopathy.

12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3963-3968, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335756

ABSTRACT

To provide a scientific evidence for the quality control of Codonopsis Radix, a method was established for determining the content of three free carbohydrates of Codonopsis Radix. The developed method showed good linearity. The calibration curves were linear within the range of 2.312 5-18.500 0 μg for sucrose, 1.500 0-12.000 0 μg for glucose, and 2.000 0-16.000 0 μg for fructose, resgectwely. The recoveries varied between 96.31%-101.8%. The method is simple, accurate and reproducible, and can be used for determining the content of sucrose, glucose and fructose of Codonopsis Radix. The results showed that different cultivation measures had an effect on the content of three free carbohydrates of Codonopsis Radix. According to the content of sucrose, using Zhuanggenling>not using Zhuanggenling. While, not pinching, shelving>not pinching, not shelving>pinching, not shelving>pinching, shelving. According to the content of glucose and fructose, not using Zhuanggenling>using Zhuanggenling. While, pinching, shelving>not pinching, not shelving>not pinching, shelving>pinching, not shelving. In consideration of the differences of sweetness and content of the three free carbohydrates in Codonopsis Radix, we recommend that the content of free carbohydrates could be considered as the marker to evaluate the quality of Codonopsis Radix.

13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3753-3760, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307090

ABSTRACT

To observe the influence of different cultivation measures on the chemical constituents of Codonopsis Radix and provide reference for its reasonable cultivation, Codonopsis Radix samples cultivated by different cultivation measures were collected from the planting base in Min county,and their quality were evaluated by establishing HPLC fingerprint and determining the content of lobetyolin and Codonopsis Radix polysaccharide. The results show that different cultivation measures have an effect on the quality of Codonopsis Radix and the contents of lobetyolin and Codonopsis Radix polysaccharide are obviously different. According to the content of lobetyolin, not using Zhuanggenling>using Zhuanggenling. While, not pinching, shelving>not pinching, not shelving>pinching, shelving>pinching, not shelving. According to the content of Codonopsis Radix polysaccharide, not using Zhuanggenling>using Zhuanggenling. While, not pinching, shelving>not pinching, not shelving>pinching, not shelving>pinching, shelving. Based on the chemical quality evaluation results, the appropriate cultivation measure of Codonopsis Radix is not using Zhuanggenling, not pinching and shelving.

14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1797-1802, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250487

ABSTRACT

In the present research, 674 wild medicinal material samples of Phellodendri amurensis Cortex were collected from 31 sampling sites in the whole distribution of its original plant Phellodendron amurense. The samples were collected under the premise that the stem diameter of sampling plant, sampling position and time were controlled. And the sampling sites were set at the interval of a latitude. The content of 6 kinds of active ingredients, palmatine chloride, berberine hydrochloride, phellodendrine chloride, jatrorrhizine hydrochloride, magnoflorine, chlorogenic acid, etc in the medicinal material samples were determined, and the results showed that the content of most active ingredients in the medicinal materials showed significant differences due to the difference of sampling sites. Among them, the medicinal materials from Liaoning region had the highest content of active ingredients, followed by Beijing and Jilin regions, and that from Heilongjiang region had the lowest content. The study has important directive significance to the exploration of environmental factors for the formation of active constituent and artificial planting regionalization of high quality Phellodendri amurensis Cortex.

15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4711-4714, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250428

ABSTRACT

The quality of Chinese medicinal materials relates greatly to the clinical curative effect and security. In order to ensure the quality and safety of Chinese medicinal materials, a systematic and operable traceability system needs to be established. It can realize the whole process of quality and safety management of Chinese medicinal materials "from production to consumption" through recording and inquiring information and recalling defective products, which is an important direction for the future development of traditional Chinese medicine. But it is still at the exploration and trial stage. In this paper, a framework of Chinese medicinal materials' quality and safety traceability system was established on the basis of the domestic and international experience about the construction of food and agricultural products traceability systems. The relationship between traceability system of Chinese medicinal materials' quality and GAP, GMP, GSP was analyzed, and the possible problems and the corresponding solutions were discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Reference Standards , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Reference Standards , Quality Control
16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 278-283, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-251783

ABSTRACT

The fruit of Pandanus tectorius (PTF) has a long history of use as a folk medicine to treat hyperlipidemia in Hainan province, South China. Our previous studies have shown that the n-butanol extract of PTF is rich in caffeoylquinic acids and has an adequate therapeutic effect on dyslipidemic animals induced by high-fat diet. In this work, seven caffeoylquinic acids isolated from PTF were screened for the lipid-lowering activity in HepG2 hepatoma cells. Oil-Red O staining, microscopy and intracellular triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) quantification showed that 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA), 3, 5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3,5-CQA), and 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3,4,5-CQA) significantly inhibited lipid accumulation induced by oleic acid and decreased intracellular levels of TC and TG in a dose-dependent manner. These three caffeoylquinic acids showed no significant cytotoxicity at concentrations of 1 -50 μmol x L(-1) as determined by MTT assay. Realtime quantitative PCR revealed that 3-CQA and 3, 5-CQA significantly increased the expression of lipid oxidation-related genes PPARα, CPT-1 and ACOX1 while 3-CQA, 3, 5-CQA and 3,4,5-CQA decreased the expression of lipogenic genes SREBP-1c, SREBP-2, HMGR, ACC, FAS. Overall, 3-CQA, 3, 5-CQA and 3, 4, 5-CQA may be the principal hypolipidemic components in PTF which can decrease intracellular lipid accumulation through up-regulating the expression of lipid oxidative genes and down-regulating the expression of lipogenic genes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Metabolism , China , Cholesterol , Metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Hep G2 Cells , Lipid Metabolism , Liver Neoplasms , Metabolism , Oleic Acid , Pandanaceae , Chemistry , Quinic Acid , Chemistry , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 , Triglycerides , Metabolism
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3239-3244, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304825

ABSTRACT

This study is to determine the content of three alkaloids and establish the HPLC fingerprint of "Jianlian" Nelumbinis Plumula. The HPLC method of content determination was as follows: Thermo C18 (4. 6 mm x 250 mm, 5 μm) was conducted with acetonitrile-sodium dodecyl sulfonate solution-acetic acid (56: 43: 1) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1). The monitoring wavelength was set at 282 nm and the column temperature was 35 degrees C. The method of HPLC fingerprint was as follows: Agilent ZORBAX SB-Aq C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 μm) was conducted with gradient elution of methanol and water at a flow rate of 0.8 mL x min(-1), the monitoring wavelength was set at 282 nm and the column temperature was 35 degrees C. Similarities evaluation and hierarchical clustering analysis were applied to demonstrate the variability of 12 batches of "Jianlian" Nelumbinis Plumula samples. The results demonstrated that 11 batches showed good similarity on chemical constituents. The method could well display the chemical information of "Jianlian" Nelumbinis Plumula. It was simple, reliable and could be used for the chemical quality control of "Jianlian" Nelumbinis Plumula.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Nelumbo , Chemistry , Quality Control , Seeds , Chemistry
18.
Chinese Herbal Medicines ; (4): 172-197, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-842339

ABSTRACT

Genus Kadsura Kaempf. ex Juss. includes important medicinal plants widely used in the south and southwest of China. The stems and roots are effective in activating blood and resolving stasis, promoting qi circulation to relieve pain, dispelling wind and eliminating dampness, in which lignans and triterpenoids are the major bioactive constituents. Here we summarized the chemical constituents isolated from genus Kadsura Kaempf. ex Juss., which would provide a primary and strategic platform for further exploiting the medicinal value and resources of genus Kadsura Kaempf. ex Juss. © 2014 Tianjin Press of Chinese Herbal Medicines.

19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1296-1303, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-299136

ABSTRACT

To study the chemical constituents of K. oblongifolia, silica gel column chromatography, MCI and Sephadex LH-20 were used to separate the 70% acetone extract of the stems of K. oblongifolia. The structures of the isolated compounds have been established on the basis of physicochemical and NMR spectroscopic evidence as well as ESI-MS in some cases. Twenty compounds were obtained and identified as heteroclitalignan A (1), kadsulignan F (2), kadoblongifolin C (3), schizanrin F (4), heteroclitalignan C (5), kadsurarin (6), kadsulignan O (7), eburicol (8), meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (9), kadsufolin A (10), tiegusanin M (11), heteroclitin B (12), (7'S)-parabenzlactone (13), angeloylbinankadsurin B (14), propinquain H (15), quercetin (16), kadsulignan P (17), schizanrin G (18), micrandilactone C (19) and (-)-shikimic acid (20). Compouds 1, 5, 8, 11-15, 18 and 20 were isolated from this plant for the first time. Toxicity of compounds 1-10 were evaluated with zebrafish model to observe the effect on its embryonic development and heart function. The results showed that compounds 7, 9 and 10 caused edema of zebrafish embryo and decreased the heart rate of zebrafish, which exhibited interference effect on heart development of zebrafish.


Subject(s)
Animals , Embryo, Nonmammalian , Guaiacol , Toxicity , Kadsura , Chemistry , Lignans , Toxicity , Plant Extracts , Toxicity , Quercetin , Toxicity , Triterpenes , Toxicity , Zebrafish , Embryology
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3269-3273, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-244583

ABSTRACT

The systematic position of Fritillaria hupehensis has been in dispute. Phylogentic analyses were conducted on sequences of ITS, rpl16, matK sequences for species of F. hupehensis and allies. Lilium davidii was designed as outgroup. The analyses were performed using MP and ML methods. Conclusions could be achieved as follow. The topologies of MP and ML are consistent. The samples of F. hepehensis from different places form a supported clade with a strong bootstrap. And then form a strongly supported clade with F. anhuiensis, F. monantha. The results suggests that although F. hupehensis has a closet relation with the two ones, it exists some difference.


Subject(s)
DNA, Plant , Chemistry , Genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Genetics , Endoribonucleases , Genetics , Fritillaria , Classification , Genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Nucleotidyltransferases , Genetics , Phylogeny , Plant Leaves , Genetics , Ribosomal Proteins , Genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Species Specificity
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