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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879004

ABSTRACT

Rhei Radix et Rhizoma is a kind of commonly used Chinese medicinal materials. Due to the overharvesting, the wild resource is endangering. Large market demand caused severely adulterant of commercial Rhei Radix et Rhizoma medicinal materials and decoction pieces. This manuscript reviewed the advances of the original species authentication in the industrial chain of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma during the latest decade, including characteristics and microscopic features, phytochemical analysis on anthraquinones, and molecular authentication based on DNA barcoding. Accordingly, an original species authentication route for the industrial chain of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma was summarized:(1)the identification of seeds and seedlings by DNA barcoding;(2) the selection of high variable sites based on the chloroplast genome;(3)biomonitoring of the Rhei Radix et Rhizoma medicinal materials and decoction pieces by two-dimensional DNA barcode;(4)traceability of Chinese patent medicines by third-generation sequencing. In conclusion, the combination of molecular identification and traditional identification methods provides a new idea for the identification of the original species of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma in the industrial chain and a essential guidance for the research of drug safety and efficacy of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anthraquinones , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Plant Roots , Rheum , Rhizome
2.
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; (24): 465-472, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-857756

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To optimize and improve the quality standard of Qingkailing dropping pills. METHODS Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, geniposide in Gardeniae Fructus and baicalin in Scutellariae Radix of Qingkailing dropping pills were identified by TLC and HPLC respectively. Cholic acid and hydrodeoxycholic acid were determined by HPLC equipped with an ELSD and a column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) packed with ODS bonded silica gel (5 μm particle size). The mobile phase was a mixture of methanol, acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid (68∶17∶15, V/V/V) and the flow rate was 1.0 mL•min-1. Geniposide in Gardeniae Fructus of Qingkailing dropping pills was determined by HPLC equipped with a DAD (238 nm) and a column (4.6 mm×250 mm) packed with ODS bonded silica gel (5 μm particle size). The mobile phase was a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.05% phosphoric acid (10∶90, V/V) and the flow rate was 1.0 mL•min-1. Baicalin in Scutellariae Radix of Qingkailing dropping pills was determined by HPLC equipped with a DAD (275 nm) and a column (4.6 mm×150 mm) packed with ODS bonded silica gel (5 μm particle size), the mobile phase was a mixture of methnol, water and phosphoric acid (47∶53∶0.2, V/V/V), and the flow rate was 1.0 mL•min-1. RESULTS: The developed TLC spots were clear with good reproducibility. Hydrodeoxycholic acid, cholic acid, geniposide and baicalin showed good linear relationship in the ranges of 0.505 0-6.312 μg, 0.515-6.440 μg, 0.029 12-0.582 4 μg, and 0.109 2-1.092 μg, respectively. The average recoveries (n=6) were 101.5%, 101.6%, 98.61% and 99.77%, with RSDs of 1.7%, 1.5%, 1.42% and 0.79%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The method is simple, rapid, accurate, with low toxicity, and can be used to control the quality of Qingkailing dropping pills more effectively and comprehensively.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-824955

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on the behaviors of rat with anxiety disorder, and the expressions of hippocampal neurotransmitters including 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA), and the expressions of hippocampal B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2 associated X (Bax).Methods: Forty-six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group (n=10), a model group (n=12), an EA group (n=12), and a drug group (n=12). Except the control group, the other three groups were established into rat models of anxiety disorder using uncertain empty bottle stimulation. Rats in the EA group and the drug group received corresponding interventions for 15 consecutive days [EA group was given EA at Baihui (GV 20) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6); the drug group was given aqueous solution of alprazolam via intragastric administration]. After intervention, all four groups received open-field test (OFT) and elevated plus-maze (EPM) for behavioral evaluations. The expressions of 5-HT, NE and DA in hippocampus were determined by fluorescence spectroscopy (FS) while the expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins in hippocampus were determined by Western blot (WB). Results: The OFT horizontal scores in the control group, EA group and drug group were significantly higher than that in the model group (all P<0.05), and the difference between the EA group and the drug group was statistically insignificant (P>0.05); the OFT vertical scores in the model group, EA group and drug group were significantly lower than the score in the control group (all P<0.05). The EPM percent of open-arm entries (OE%) in the control group, EA group and drug group was higher than that in the model group (P<0.05), and the differences among these three groups were statistically insignificant (P>0.05); though the percent of open-arm total time (OT%) in the EA group was lower than that in the control group (P<0.05), the difference was statistically insignificant when compared with the drug group (P>0.05), and it was significantly higher than that in the model group (P<0.05). The expression of 5-HT in the EA group was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05); the expression of 5-HT in the EA group was significantly lower than that in the model group (P<0.05); the difference between the EA group and the drug group was statistically insignificantly (P>0.05). The expression of NE in the model group was significantly higher than that in the other three groups (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference among these three groups (P>0.05). The expression of DA in the EA group was significantly higher than that in the control group and the drug group (both P<0.05), while the difference between the EA group and the model group was statistically insignificant (P>0.05). The expression of Bax in the model group was significantly higher than that in the other three groups (all P<0.05), whereas the expression of Bcl-2 in the model group was significantly lower than that in the other three groups (all P<0.05), and the differences in both Bax and Bcl-2 among the other three groups were statistically insignificant (all P>0.05). Bax/Bcl-2 in the EA group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05) and lower than that in the model group (P<0.05), and the difference was statistically insignificant when compared with the drug group (P>0.05). Conclusion: EA shows promising effects in attenuating rats' anxiety disorder, which may be achieved by the down-regulation of the expressions of 5-HT and NE in the hippocampus and/or inhibition of hippocampal neuronal apoptosis. The efficacy is comparable to that of intervention with alprazolam.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872418

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on cognitive function in D-galactose (D-gal)-induced aging rats, and the correlation between the effect and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3)-ASC-Caspase-1 signaling pathway. Methods: Forty-six male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into a control group (n=10), a model group (n=12), an EA-7 d group (n=12) and an EA-21 d group (n=12). Except the control group, the other three groups received 42 consecutive days of intraperitoneal injection of D-gal to establish aging rat models with cognitive dysfunction. The control group received the same amount of normal saline via intraperitoneal injection. Two EA groups were given EA therapy for 21 consecutive days (began from the 22nd day of modeling) or 7 consecutive days (began from the 36th day of modeling) accordingly at Dazhui (GV 14), Baihui (GV 20), Shenshu (BL 23) and Zusanli (ST 36). After modeling/ intervention, all four groups received behavioral evaluations by Morris water maze (MWM) test, novel object recognition (NOR) test and step-down passive avoidance (SDPA) test followed by the Western blot (WB) detection of the expression levels of hippocampal NLRP3 inflammasome-associated proteins NLRP3, ASC and Caspase-1. Results: MWM (place navigation test, PNT) results showed that the escape latency in the model group was significantly longer than that in the other three groups (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference among the other three groups on the 1st day of the test (P>0.05). From the 2nd day to the 4th day of the test, there was no significant difference between the EA-21 d group and the control group (P>0.05) in the escape latency; the escape latency was significantly shorter in the EA-21 d group than in the model group and the EA-7 d group (P<0.05). MWM (spatial probe test, SPT) results showed that the time spent in the target quadrant was significantly shorter and platform crossover number was significantly lower in the model group than in the other three groups (P<0.05). The time spent in the target quadrant was longer in the EA-7 d group than in the model group (P<0.05), but was shorter than that in the control group and the EA-21 d group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the swimming speed among the four groups (P>0.05). NOR results showed that there was no significant difference in the recognition ratio between the EA-7 d group and the EA-21 d group (P>0.05), and the recognition ratio was significantly higher in the two EA groups than in the model group (P<0.05), but was lower than in the control group (P<0.05). SDPA results showed that the electric shock number was higher in the model group than in the other three groups (P<0.05), and the differences among the other three groups were statistically insignificant (P>0.05). The model group had the shortest step-down latency, followed by the EA-7 d group, the EA-21 d group and the control group in order (P<0.05). The WB results indicated that the expression level of NLRP3 was significantly lower in the control group and the EA-21 d group than in the model group and the EA-7 d group (P<0.05). The expression levels of ASC and Caspase-1 were significantly higher in the model group than in the other three groups (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference among these three groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: NLRP3 inflammasome may be involved in the development of cognitive decline in aging rats; 7 consecutive days of EA intervention can partially improve the cognitive impairment in aging rats though the effect is rather limited; 21 consecutive days of EA intervention may improve the learning and memory abilities in aging rats via downregulating the expression levels of NLRP3 inflammasome-associated proteins in hippocampus.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-756715

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture (EA) plus Luohua Anshen oral liquid for patients with perimenopausal insomnia. Methods: A total of 66 participants who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the randomized controlled trial and allocated to a treatment group and a control group at a ratio of 1:1, with 33 cases in each group. Both groups were given Luohua Anshen oral liquid as a basic treatment. The treatment group was additionally given EA every other day, three times a week. Both groups were treated for four weeks and a four-week follow-up was conducted. The scores of Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), Kupperman index (KI) and traditional Chinese medicine sleep syndrome scale (TCMSSS) were recorded at pre- and post-treatment, and at the follow-up. Meanwhile, adverse effects were monitored and recorded. Results: After four-week treatment, the global scores of PSQI, KI and TCMSSS in both groups declined significantly (all P<0.05), and the decreases in the treatment group were more significant than those in the control group (allP<0.05). The global scores of PSQI, KI and TCMSSS in both groups at the follow-up visit were significantly different from the corresponding baseline (allP<0.05), while insignificantly different from those assessed at post-treatment (allP>0.05). The total effective rate was 93.9% in the treatment group, significantly higher than 72.2% in the control group (P<0.05). No significant adverse event was reported in this trial excepted one patient experienced slight dizziness in the first acupuncture treatment. Conclusion: EA plus Luohua Anshen oral liquid is safe for perimenopausal insomnia with satisfactory short- and long-term effectiveness, and it shows certain advantage compared with using Luohua Anshen oral liquid alone.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-746366

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the efficacy and safety of dexzopiclone plus auricular acupressure in intervening primary insomnia.Methods:A total of 72 participants who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial,with 36 cases allocated to a treatment group and 36 cases allocated to a control group.Both groups were given dexzopiclone as the routine treatment.Patients in the treatment group were given auricular acupressure with Wang Bu Liu Xing (Semen Vaccariae) seeds at the auricular acupoints related to sleep and emotion based on meridian theory,whereas for patients in the control group,the medical plasters with Wang Bu Liu Xing (Semen Vaccariae) seeds were only gently stuck to acupoints unrelated to sleep without stimulation.Patients in both groups were required to visit the hospital once a week for replacing the seeds and plasters.The course of intervention lasted for 8 weeks and the patients were followed up for another 4 weeks.Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and Karolinska sleep diary (KSD) were used to evaluate the outcomes.Meanwhile,adverse effects were monitored and recorded.Results:In the enrolled 72 cases,4 patients (one in the treatment group and three in the control group) reported thirst and a bitter taste,and one case in the control group reported nausea and vomiting.At last,3 cases in the control group dropped out for adverse reactions,and 69 cases completed the clinical trial.After 8 weeks of treatment,the global scores of PSQI in both treatment and control groups decreased significantly compared with the baseline (both P<0.001).Furthermore,the global score of PSQI in the treatment group was lower than that in the control group (P<0.01).The global scores of PSQI in both groups at the follow-up were significantly different from the baseline (both P<0.001),but insignificantly different compared with the post-treatment results (both P>0.05).According to KSD,both treatment protocols could prolong the total sleep time,shorten sleep-onset latency,improve sleep efficacy and sleep quality significantly,and the changes in the treatment group were more significant.The total effective rate was 88.9% in the treatment group,higher than 81.8% in the control group,though the difference was statistically insignificant (P>0.05).Conclusion:Dexzopiclone plus auricular acupressure is effective and safe for patients with primary insomnia both in short and long terms,and it is more effective than monotherapy of dexzopiclone.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-707079

ABSTRACT

Objective To provide technical support for market supervision of TCM decoction pieces in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei districts; To facilitate the medical treatment of people in the three districts. Methods A comparative study and analysis on processing procedures of TCM decoction pieces in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei districts was conducted. Results There were some differences in TCM decoction pieces in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei districts. The quality of TCM decoction pieces is easy to be contradictory according to different standards. Conclusion It is badly in need of a unified standard for the preparation of TCM decoction pieces.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-735150

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effectiveness and safety of manual acupuncture for memory loss and sleep quality in chronic insomniacs.Methods:A total of 60 eligible participants were enrolled and randomized into either a treatment group or a control group,with 30 cases in each group.The treatment group was intervened by manual acupuncture whereas the control group was given sham acupuncture.In the two groups,the interventions were offered once every other day and three times a week,for 8 weeks in total.Before and after the treatment,Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and eventrelated potentials (ERPs) were used to assess the patients' sleep quality and memory,respectively.Meanwhile,adverse events were monitored and recorded.Results:After 8-week treatment,both the treatment group and the control group showed a significant decrease in the PSQI global score (P<0.001,P<0.01),and the decrease in the treatment group was more significant than that in the control group (P<0.001).The intra-group comparisons of ERPs indicated that,the latencies of N1 and P3 were shortened and the amplitudes of N1 and P3 were increased in the treatment group after the intervention,and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05,P<0.001);in the control group,there were no significant changes in the latency and amplitude after the treatment (P>0.05).The between-group comparisons of ERPs showed that the treatment group was more effective than the control group in shortening the latency of P3 (P<0.01).Conclusion:Acupuncture can be a safe and effective treatment option for chronic insomnia coupled with memory impairment.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-301015

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To develop an effective Chinese Medicine (CM) diagnostic model of coronary heart disease (CHD) and to confifirm the scientifific validity of CM theoretical basis from an algorithmic viewpoint.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Four types of objective diagnostic data were collected from 835 CHD patients by using a self-developed CM inquiry scale for the diagnosis of heart problems, a tongue diagnosis instrument, a ZBOX-I pulse digital collection instrument, and the sound of an attending acquisition system. These diagnostic data was analyzed and a CM diagnostic model was established using a multi-label learning algorithm (REAL).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>REAL was employed to establish a Xin (Heart) qi defificiency, Xin yang defificiency, Xin yin defificiency, blood stasis, and phlegm fifive-card CM diagnostic model, which had recognition rates of 80.32%, 89.77%, 84.93%, 85.37%, and 69.90%, respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The multi-label learning method established using four diagnostic models based on mutual information feature selection yielded good recognition results. The characteristic model parameters were selected by maximizing the mutual information for each card type. The four diagnostic methods used to obtain information in CM, i.e., observation, auscultation and olfaction, inquiry, and pulse diagnosis, can be characterized by these parameters, which is consistent with CM theory.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Algorithms , Coronary Disease , Diagnosis , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Support Vector Machine , Syndrome
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-272718

ABSTRACT

Using the latest 454 GS FLX platform and Titanium regent, a substantial expressed sequence tag (ESTs) dataset of Ephedra sinica was produced, and the profile of gene expression and function gene of which were investigated. A total of 48 389 reads with an average length of 373 bp were generated. These 454 reads were assembled into 18 801 unigenes, which were all 454 sequencing identified. A total number of 10 531 unigenes(56.0%) were annotated using BLAST searches (E-value≤1×10⁻⁵) against the Nr, Nt, TAIR, SwissProt and KEGG databases. With respect to genes related to ephedrine biosynthesis, 19 unigenes(encoding 9 enzymes) were found. A total of 97 putative genes encoding cytochrome P450s were also discovered. Data presented in this study will provide an important resource for the scientific community that is interested in the functional genomics and secondary metabolism of E. sinica.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-262623

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the diagnostic consistency of Chinese medicine (CM) specialists in patients with cardiovascular disease and to study syndrome classification and identification based on the multi-label learning method.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Using self-developed CM clinical scales to collect cases, inquiry information, complexity, tongue manifestation and pulse manifestation were assessed. The number of cases collected was 2,218. Firstly, each case was differentiated by two CM specialists according to the same diagnostic criteria. The consistency of the diagnosis based on Cohen's Kappa coefficient was analyzed. Secondly, take the same diagnosis syndromes of two specialists as the results of the cases. According to injury information in the CM scale "yes" or "no" was assigned "1" or "0", and according to the syndrome type in each case "yes" or "no" was assigned "1" or "0". CM information data on cardiovascular disease cases were established. We studied CM syndrome classification and identification based on the relevant feature for each label (REAL) learning method, and the diagnostic rate of the syndrome was studied using the REAL method when the number of features selected was 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 50, 70, and 100, respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The syndromes with good diagnostic consistency were Heart (Xin)-qi deficiency, Heart-yang deficiency, Heart-yin deficiency, phlegm, stagnation of blood and stagnation of qi. Syndromes with poor diagnostic consistency were heart-blood deficiency and blood deficiency of Heart and Liver (Gan). The highest diagnostic rates using the REAL method were Heart-yang deficiency followed by Heart-qi deficiency. A different number of features, such as 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 70, and 100, respectively, were selected and the diagnostic accuracy based on five features showed the highest diagnostic accuracy. The top five features which had a strong correlation with the syndromes were in accordance with the CM theory.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>CM syndrome differentiation is strongly subjective and it is difficult to obtain good diagnostic consistency. The REAL method fully considers the relationship between syndrome types and injury symptoms, and is suitable for the establishment of models for CM syndrome classification and identification. This method can probably provide the prerequisite for objectivity and standardization of CM differentiation.</p>


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Diagnosis , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Methods , Models, Theoretical , Specialization , Syndrome
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287158

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore characteristic of pulse signal to distinguish patients with coronary heart diseases (CHD) from patients without CHD and healthy adults, and accordingly evaluate the potential role of pulse signal to diagnosis CHD.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Totally 407 patients enrolled from 4 collaborating medical centers were assigned to a CHD group (205 patients) and a non-CHD group (202 patients). The healthy control group (62 adults) enrolled from Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Pulse signals were collected using the synchronous multiplex pulse signal acquisition system. The pulse signals were analyzed and extracted using Hilbert-Huang transformation (HHT) and time-domain, respectively. The time-domain parameters of pulse signal were processed by the analysis of variance (SNK test).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Special patterns in the CHD group pulse signal were found in this study: (1) time-domain parameters of pulse signal, h1, h3, h4, h3/h1, ts, t4/t were increased and w was wider; (2) 44% of C2 waves in HHT were chaotic and disordered and 72% of C waves were exhibited irregularly with average amplitude over 10 g-forces, which were all significantly different from controls.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Characteristic wave and time-domain parameters of pulse signal were extracted using HHT and time-domain which could be served as a non-invasive approach for assessing patients with CHD.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Algorithms , Coronary Disease , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted , Time Factors
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-322701

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To compare the therapeutic effects between acupuncture and electric stimulation on post-stroke dysphagia on the basis of rehabilitation training.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Ninety-seven patients with post-stroke dysphagia were randomly divided into an acupuncture group (group A, n = 32), an electric stimulation group (group B, n = 35) and a rehabilitation training group (group C, n = 30). In group C, the conventional therapy (conventional therapy of neurologic internal medicine and rehabilitation training) was applied. In group A, the combination of conventional therapy and acupuncture was applied. The acupoints of Fengchi (GB 20), Futu (LI 18), three-needles on the forehead, etc. were selected. In group B, the combination of conventional therapy and electric stimulation was adopted. Watian drinking water experiment, stethocatharsis function scoring and video fluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) were used to evaluate swallowing function of patients.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After treatment, the total effective rate was 96.95 (31/32) in group A and was 94.3% (33/35) in group B, which was superior to that of 66.7% (20/30) in group C (P < 0.01). After treatment, the swallowing function in group A, group B and group C were all improved significantly as compared with that before treatment (all P < 0.05). After treatment, the effects in group A and B were superior to that in group C (both P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The therapeutic effect of the combination of either acupuncture or electric stimulation with rehabilitation training is better than that of simple rehabilitation training. The efficacy on dysphagia is equal between acupuncture and electric stimulation.</p>


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Adult , Aged , Deglutition Disorders , Therapeutics , Electroacupuncture , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Stroke , Treatment Outcome
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-683225

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of electroacupuncture combined with rehabilitation exercises on swallowing function and cerebral perfusion in dysphagic stroke patients.Methods Sixty-two stroke pa- tients with dysphagia were randomly divided into a treatment group(n=32)and a control group(n=30).The treat- ment group received electroacupunture,rehabilitation exercise and conventional medical treatment,while the control group received only rehabilitation exercise and conventional medical treatment.They were treated once a day,6 times a week for 4 weeks.Water drinking test,stethocatharsis scores and swallowing fluorography were used to assess the swallowing function before and after treatment.Single photon emission computed tomography(SPECT)was also em- ployed to observe the status of cerebral perfusion before and after treatment.Results It was shown that the swallo- wing function and cerebral perfusion in the treatment group were significantly better than the control group after treat- ment.The effective rate in the treatment group was 96.88% while that of the control group was 66.67%.Conclu- sion Electroacupuncture combined with rehabilitation exercises is effective in treating the dysphagic stroke patients, and can significantly improve the brain perfusion of these patients.

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