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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906329

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the effects of Cnidii Fructus hypnotic active components (CHC) on the behaviors of rats with p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA)-induced insomnia and melatonin (MT) synthesis rate-limiting enzyme arylalkylamine <italic>N</italic>-acetyltransferase (AANAT), and explore the protective mechanism of CHC on the pineal gland. Method:Male SD rats of SPF grade were randomly divided into a blank control group, a model group, a MT group, and high-, medium-, and low-dose CHC groups with 10 rats in each group. Except for the blank control group, other groups received 4.5% PCPA suspension at 10 mL·kg<sup>-1</sup>, intragastric administration, for two consecutive days. After PCPA model of insomnia was established, normal and model groups were gavaged at the same volume of 2% Tween-80, MT control group (10 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>), CHC was high, medium and low (60, 30, 15 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>), 10 mL·kg<sup>-1</sup>, once a day, for consecutive 7 days. Four days after administration, open field, elevated cross maze, and pentobarbital sodium-induced sleep tests were conducted, respectively. Serum MT was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mRNA expression level of AANAT was determined by real-time fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR). The expression of AANAT protein in the pineal gland was detected by Western blot. Result:Compared with the results in the blank control group, the total distance of open field activity and standing times and duration in the central area were increased (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), the proportions of open arm entry (OE%) and open arm time (OT%) were decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.05), and the sleep latency was prolonged (<italic>P</italic><0.01) in the model group. Compared with the model group, no significant difference was observed in the low-dose CHC group, while other groups exhibited reduced total distance of activity (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), elevated OE% (<italic>P</italic><0.05), shortened sleep latency, and prolonged sleep time (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the serum MT in the blank control group, that in the model group was decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, no significant difference was observed in the low-dose CHC group, while other groups displayed increased serum MT (<italic>P</italic><0.05). The mRNA and protein expression of AANAT was decreased in the model group as compared with that in the blank control group (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, the MT group and the high-dose CHC group showed up-regulated expression (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Conclusion:CHC improved the behavioral indexes of PCPA-induced insomnia, increased the synthesis and secretion of MT in pineal cells, and elevated the serum MT level, which was related to the up-regulation of the mRNA and protein expression of AANAT in the pineal gland.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888657

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the mechanism of Tojapride, a Chinese herbal formula extract, on strengthening the barrier function of esophageal epithelium in rats with reflux esophagitis (RE).@*METHODS@#Ten out of 85 SD rats were randomly selected as the sham group (n10), and 75 rats were developed a reflux esophagitis model (RE) by the esophageal and duodenal side-to-side anastomosis. Fifty successful modeling rats were divided into different medicated groups through a random number table including the model, low-, medium-, and high-dose of Tojapride as well as omeprazole groups (n10). Three doses of Tojapride [5.73, 11.46, 22.92 g/(kg•d)] and omeprazole [4.17 mg/(kg•d)] were administrated intragastrically twice daily for 3 weeks. And the rats in the sham and model groups were administered 10 mL/kg distilled water. Gastric fluid was collected and the supernatant was kept to measure for volume, pH value and acidity. Esophageal tissues were isolated to monitor the morphological changes through hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, and esophageal epithelial ultrastructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The expressions of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells p65 (NF-KBp65), κB kinase beta (IKKß), occludin, and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) in the esophageal tissues were measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, respectively.@*RESULTS@#The gastric pH value in the model group was significantly lower than the sham group (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, gastric pH value in the omeprazole and medium-dose of Tojapride groups were significantly higher (P<0.05). A large area of ulceration was found on the esophageal mucosa from the model rats, while varying degrees of congestion and partially visible erosion was observed in the remaining groups. Remarkable increase in cell gap width and decrease in desmosome count was seen in RE rats and the effect was reversed by Tojapride treatment. Compared with the sham group, the IKKß levels were significantly higher in the model group (P<0.05). However, the IKKß levels were down-regulated after treatment by all doses of Tojapride (P<0.01 or P<0.05). The occluding and ZO-1 levels decreased in the model group compared with the sham group (Ps0.01 or Ps0.05), while both indices were significantly up-regulated in the Tojapride-treated groups (P<0.01 or P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Tojapride could improve the pathological conditions of esophageal epithelium in RE rats. The underlying mechanisms may involve in down-regulating the IKKß expression and elevating ZO-1 and occludin expression, thereby alleviating the inflammation of the esophagus and strengthening the barrier function of the esophageal epithelium.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827088

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of Chang'an II Decoction ( II ))-containing serum on intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction in rats.@*METHODS@#Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced injury of Caco-2 monolayers were established as an inflammatory model of human intestinal epithelium. Caco-2 monolayers were treated with blank serum and Chang'an II Decoction-containing serum that obtained from the rats which were treated with distilled water and Chang'an II Decoction intragastrically at doses of 0.49, 0.98, 1.96 g/(kg·d) for 1 week, respectively. After preparation of containing serum, cells were divided into the normal group, the model group, the Chang'an II-H, M, and L groups (treated with 30 ng/mL TNF-α and medium plus 10% high, middle-, and low-doses Chang'an II serum, respectively). Epithelial barrier function was assessed by transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and permeability of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextran. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the ultrastructure of tight junctions (TJs). Immunofluorescence of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), claudin-1 and nuclear transcription factor-kappa p65 (NF-κ Bp65) were measured to determine the protein distribution. The mRNA expression of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of MLCK, myosin light chain (MLC) and p-MLC were determined by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#Chang'an II Decoction-containing serum significantly attenuated the TER and paracellular permeability induced by TNF-α. It alleviated TNF-α-induced morphological alterations in TJ proteins. The increases in MLCK mRNA and MLCK, MLC and p-MLC protein expressions induced by TNF-α were significantly inhibited in the Chang'an II-H group. Additionally, Chang'an II Decoction significantly attenuated translocation of NF-κ Bp65 into the nucleus.@*CONCLUSION@#High-dose Chang'an II-containing serum attenuates TNF-α-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction. The underlying mechanism may be involved in inhibiting the MLCK-MLC phosphorylation signaling pathway mediated by NF-κ Bp65.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872758

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the influence of Chang'an Ⅰ prescription drug-containing serum on IgE-mediated RBL-2H3 cell degranulation model, and explore the mechanism of Chang'an Ⅰ prescription in inhibiting RBL-2H3 activation degranulation and releasing inflammatory mediators with v-yes-1 Yanaguchi sarcoma viral related oncogene homolog (Lyn)/spleen tyrosine protein kinase (Syk)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway. Method:Preparation for Chang'an Ⅰ prescription serum. Animal group, SD male rats were randomly divided into Chang'an Ⅰ prescription serum high, medium, low dose, and blank control groups with 10 rats in each group. Dosage: 10 mL·kg-1 distilled water was given to blank control group, while Chang'an Ⅰ prescription serum high, medium and low dose groups were respectively given to the Chang'an Ⅰ prescription concentrated crude drug with concentration of 1.15,2.30,4.60 g·kg-1, respectively once a day for 7 days continuously and then blood was taken from aorta ventralis and centrifuged. Ketotifen as the positive control drug. Mast cells are counted with toluidine blue staining. Cellular release of β-aminohexose was detected by colorimetric method. Contents of MCT, TNF-α, MCP-1 and histamine were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits, Lyn/Syk/MAPK protein levels were detected by immunoblotting. Result:For cell activation and degranulation, compared with the blank control group, the model group had more cell degranulation (P<0.05), compared with model group, the cell degranulation rate of each dose group of Chang'an Ⅰ prescription decreased (P<0.05). The release rate of β-hexosamine in each dose group of Chang'an Ⅰ prescription decreased significantly (P<0.01). For the release of active mediators, compared with the blank control group, the contents of histamine, MCT, TNF-α and MCP-1 all increased in the model group (P<0.01), compared with the model group, the contents in each dose group of Chang'an Ⅰ prescription all decreased significantly (P<0.01). Compared with the normal group, the phosphorylation levels of Lyn and Syk, extracellular regulatory protein kinase 1/2(ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 increased in the model group (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the Lyn, Syk and ERK1/2, JNK and p38 protein phosphorylation levels reduced in Chang'an Ⅰ prescription group (P<0.05). Conclusion:Chang'an Ⅰ prescription drug-containing serum down-regulates the phosphorylation levels of proteins Lyn, Syk, and ERK1/2, JNK, and p38, inhibits RBL-2H3 cell activation and degranulation, reduces the release of cytokines and chemokines, such as histamine, MCT, TNF-α and MCP-1, it may be one of its mechanisms for treating IBS-D visceral hypersensitivity.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1286-1290, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-232996

ABSTRACT

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory respiratory disease accompanied with airway inflammation, airway remodeling and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Chemokines are important for the recruitment of immune cells to the lung, which play an important role in the formation and development of asthma. Targeting the chemokine receptors to anti-inflammation and anti-asthma is a new strategy and some candidate drugs are discovered recently. This review is focused on the development of chemokine receptor antagonists for anti-asthma, which will promote the compound designations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Asthma , Drug Therapy , Heterocyclic Compounds , Pharmacology , Humans , Phenylurea Compounds , Therapeutic Uses , Piperidines , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Pyridazines , Pharmacology , Receptors, CCR1 , Receptors, CCR3 , Receptors, CCR4 , Receptors, CXCR4 , Receptors, Chemokine
6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 995-1000, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-353395

ABSTRACT

This study is to investigate the influence and the expression of CMTM family of testosterone on spermatogenesis suppression in the male rats treated by gossypol and cyclophosphamide. Gossypol (50 mg kg(-1)) and cyclophosphamide (20 mg kg(-1)) were administered to male rats to induce spermatogenesis suppression. Testosterone propionate was administrated at the dose of 5 mg kg(-1) every other day for 6 times. Sperm was collected from the left caudal epididymis, the count and motility of sperm were analyzed by CASA. Morphological change of testis tissue was observed with HE staining. The expression of CMTM family was examined by Western blotting assay. Gossypol (50 mg kg(-1)) and cyclophosphamide (20 mg kg(-1)) decreased the count and motility of sperm, and the pathological change of testis tissue was also observed. But, testosterone (5 mg kg(-1)) had positive effect. Furthermore, CMTM4 down-expressed remarkably in the gossypol and cyclophosphamide treated rats, the expression of the CMTM4 was up-expressed after testosterone administration. On the contrary, the expression of CMTM2 increased significantly only in gossypol treated male rats, but not in cyclophosphamide treated male rats. The expression of CMTM2 was down-expressed after testosterone administration. However, no obvious change of CMTM2 was observed in cyclophosphamide treated rats. Testosterone did not influence the expression of CKLF1, CMTM3 and CMTM5, the CMTM6, CMTM7 and CMTM8 of CMTM family were not detected in testis tissue. These demonstrated that the spermatogenesis effect of testosterone (5 mg kg(-1)) was associated with the expression of CMTM family, and CMTM2 and CMTM4 may take part in the spermatogenesis process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyclophosphamide , Toxicity , Gene Expression Regulation , Gossypol , Toxicity , Male , Membrane Proteins , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility , Spermatogenesis , Testis , Metabolism , Pathology , Testosterone , Pharmacology
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