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1.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 594-607, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888746

ABSTRACT

Psoraleae Fructus (PF) is a well-known traditional herbal medicine in China, and it is widely used for osteoporosis, vitiligo, and other diseases in clinical settings. However, liver injury caused by PF and its preparations has been frequently reported in recent years. Our previous studies have demonstrated that PF could cause idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI), but the mechanism underlying its hepatotoxicity remains unclear. This paper reports that bavachin isolated from PF enhances the specific stimuli-induced activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and leads to hepatotoxicity. Bavachin boosts the secretion of IL-1β and caspase-1 caused by ATP or nigericin but not those induced by poly(I:C), monosodium urate crystal, or intracellular lipopolysaccharide. Bavachin does not affect AIM2 or NLRC4 inflammasome activation. Mechanistically, bavachin specifically increases the production of nigericin-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species among the most important upstream events in the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Bavachin increases the levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine aminotransferase in serum and hepatocyte injury accompanied by the secretion of IL-1β via a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide-mediated susceptibility to IDILI. These results suggest that bavachin specifically enhances the ATP- or nigericin-induced activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Bavachin also potentially contributes to PF-induced idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. Moreover, bavachin and PF should be evaded among patients with diseases linked to the ATP- or nigericin-mediated activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, which may be a dangerous factor for liver injury.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Animals , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Flavonoids , Humans , Inflammasomes , Mice , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Nigericin
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-753434

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the teaching effect of standardized patient teaching model in the practice teaching of emergency medicine. Methods A total of 50 standardized training residents were randomly divided into experimental group and control group during the process of medical history collection and special physical examination. The residents in the experimental group were taught with the standardized patient teaching model, and those in the control group were taught with the model of traditional theory teaching followed by clinical practice. Assessment was performed after the course was completed. Results Compared with the control group, the experimental group had significantly higher scores of medical history collection and physical examination (P<0.05). The experimental group also had significantly higher scores of communication and humanistic concern than the control group (P<0.05). The questionnaire survey showed that the medical students preferred the standardized patient teaching model, and they thought such model could improve doctor-patient communication ability and clinical practice ( P<0 . 05 ) . Conclusion The standardized patient teaching model can significantly improve the effect of practice teaching of emergency medicine and plays an important role in improving the clinical skills of medical students in emergency.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-806274

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To understand the nutritional status among Chinese students of five ethnic minorities aged 7-18 years.@*Methods@#Chinese National Survey on Students Constitution and Health in 2014 applied multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling, including 214 354 students from 31 province of China mainland. 73 students whose height or weight information were missing, were excluded. 25 968 minority students aged 7-18 years from Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Jilin Provinces were included for data analysis, including Mongolian (n=5 107), Hui (n=5 308), Uygur (n=5 740), Zhuang (n=5 267) and Korean (n=4 546) students. According to the BMI standard of Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) and the new students' health standard of Screening Standard for Malnutrition of School-age Children and Adolescents (WS/T 456-2014) , students were defined as wasting, normal weight, overweight and obesity groups and the nutritional status in different minorities and other characteristics was described and analyszed.@*Results@#The prevalences of wasting in Zhuang, Hui, Uygur, Korean and Mongolian students were 6.1% (318/5 267), 5.1% (266/5 308), 3.2% (187/5 740), 2.6% (116/4 546) and 1.3% (65/5 107) in descending order (χ2=212.60, P<0.001), respectively. The prevalences of overweight in Korean, Mongolian, Hui, Uygur and Zhuang students were 15.2% (686/4 546), 13.1% (669/5 107), 10.3% (549/5 308), 7.8% (446/5 740) and 7.8% (413/5 267) in descending order (χ2=220.80, P<0.001), respectively. The prevalences of obesity in Korean, Mongolian, Hui, Zhuang and Uygur students were 15.3% (695/4 546), 9.5% (488/5 107), 5.7% (304/5 308), 4.6% (242/5 267) and 3.6% (206/5 740) in descending order (χ2=647.02, P<0.001), respectively. The prevalences of wasting in Mongolian, Uygur and Korean rural students were 1.7% (44/2 623), 3.9% (113/2 868) and 3.4% (74/2 154), higher than urban students (all P values <0.05) which were 0.8% (21/2 484), 2.6% (74/2 872) and 1.8% (42/2 392) in Mongolian, Uygur and Korean students. The prevalence of obesity in Mongolian, Hui, Uygur, Zhuang and Korean urban students were 10.8% (269/2 484), 7.6% (193/2 554), 4.1% (117/2 872), 5.9% (153/2 601) and 16.6% (396/2 392), higher than rural students (all P values <0.05) which were 8.3% (219/2 623), 4.0% (111/2 754), 3.1% (89/2 868), 3.3% (89/2 666) and 13.9% (299/2 154) in Mongolian, Hui, Uygur, Zhuang and Korean students. The prevalence of obesity in Hui, Zhuang and Korean boys were 7.2% (188/2 570), 6.0% (157/2 628) and 17.2% (394/2 282), respectively, higher than that of girls which were 4.2% (116/2 738), 3.3% (85/2 639) and 13.3% (301/2 264) (all P values <0.05).@*Conclusion@#The prevalence of wasting, overweight and obesity varied by ethnic minorities in mainland China. The prevalence of overweight and obesity appears higher among mongolian and Korean students, while the prevalence of wasting was higher in Zhuang students.

4.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2241-2243, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-612503

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To optimize the extraction technology for organic acids in Crataegi fructus. METHODS:Based on sin-gle factor test,using liquid-solid ratio,extraction time and ethanol volume fraction as independent variables,extraction yield of or-ganic acids as dependent variable,central composite design-response surface method was used to optimize the extraction technology of organic acids in Crataegi fructus. RESULTS:The optimal extraction technology was as follow as liquid-solid ratio of 18.5:1, adding 75% ethanol,reflux extraction twice,2.0 h each time. Average extraction yield of organic acids in verification test was 5.22%(RSD=2.70%,n=3),with 1.75% relative error of the predicted value(5.13%). CONCLUSIONS:Optimized extraction technology for organic acids in Crataegi fructus is simple,with good reproducibility and predictability.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-507463

ABSTRACT

Immune response is one of the main reasons causing neurological deficits in the patients with cere -brovascular diseases , which activates microglia , induces inflammatory reaction and finally results in serious neuronal and endothelial injury .MicroRNAs take part in the regulation of immunoreaction , and simultaneously regulates many target genes and induces faster post-transcriptional regulation to its target genes compared with the traditional transcriptional regu -lation.For providing a basis for the clinical use of microRNAs and applying new therapy , this review mainly focuses on the function and mechanism of microRNAs in the regulation of the immunoreaction caused by cerebrovascular diseases .

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-302014

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To understand the prevalence of myopia in primary and middle school students in 6 provinces and the possible influencing factors.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Primary and middle school students were selected through multistage cluster sampling in 60 primary and middle schools in 6 provinces in China. The questionnaire survey and eyesight test were conducted among all the students selected according to the national student's physique and health survey protocol. Pearson chi-square test and binary multivariate logistic regression analysis were done to identify the influencing factors for myopia in students.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The prevalence of myopia among primary and middle school students surveyed was 55.7%, the gender specific difference was statistically significant (59.7% for girls, 51.9% for boys) (P<0.01). The prevalence of myopia increased with age obviously. The prevalence was 35.8% in age group 6-8 years, 58.9% in age group 10-12 years, 73.4% in age group 13-15 years and 81.2% in age group 16-18 years, the differences were statistically significant (P<0.001). Single factor and multivariate analysis showed that parents' myopia, distance between computer screen and eyes, distance less than 30 cm between eyes and book while reading, distance less than 10 cm between chest and the table edge while studying, distance less than 3 cm between fingers and pen tip, sleep time, average outdoor activity time during last week, school sport activities in the afternoon, the size of television set at home, time spent on watching TV and playing computer were the influencing factors for myopia.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The prevalence of myopia is till high in primary and middle school students. Myopia is associated with both genetic factors and individual eye health related behaviors.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , China , Epidemiology , Female , Health Behavior , Health Surveys , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Myopia , Epidemiology , Parents , Prevalence , Schools , Sleep , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Chongqing Medicine ; (36): 5056-5058, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-508577

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the effective composition of Aster ageratoides Turcz for relieving asthma and its toxicity . Methods Seventy‐two qualified male guinea pigs ,body mass(300 ± 20)g ,were randomly divided into the control group ,aminophyl‐line group(0 .047 g/kg) and different ratio group of total saponins and total flavonoids (8∶1 ,4∶1 ,2∶1 ,1∶1 ,1∶2 ,1∶4 ,1∶8) . Every group received at dose of 0 .38 g/kg once a day for 3 days by intragastric administration .The effect of relieving asthma was taken as the indicators for the optimization of compositions ,which was detected by observing the latent period of asthma induced by acetylcholine‐histamine in guinea rats .The relaxation percentage of smooth muscle retracted by acetylcholine was detected by Pow‐erlab biological signal collecting system when aminophylline(1 .25 mg/mL) and different matching drugs(0 .02 g/mL) were added in Krebs′solution .The acute toxicities of total saponins ,total flavonoids and mixture of total saponins with total flavonoids (ratio of 1∶2) were detected by classical acute toxicity test of mice .Results Compared with the control group ,aminophylline group ,each group latent period of inducing asthma significantly or very significantly prolonged (P<0 .05) ,among them ,1∶1 ,1∶2 ,1∶4 group and other matching group were significantly different(P<0 .05) ,but 1∶2 group cited the longest incubation period .Aminophylline group and the ratio could significantly relaxe guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle retracted by acetylcholine .Aminophylline group di‐astolic percentage was the largest(24 .12 ± 1 .20)% ,all the groups were less than the percentage of diastolic aminophylline group (P<0 .05) ,but in 1∶2 group with the closest .Aster ageratoides Turcz ,tatarian aster total saponins ,total flavonoids and the ratio of 1∶2 to mice maximum tolerance was respectively 300 ,345 ,325 g/kg .Conclusion For the same total dosage ,the relieving asth‐ma effects of proportions of 1∶2 Aster ageratoides Turcz were obvious .There are no abnormal changes in the acute toxicity trila with total flavonoids ,total saponins ,as well as the ratio of 1∶2 ,safety is relatively good .

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-504530

ABSTRACT

MiRs display an important role in a variety of biological, physiological and pathological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, individual development, occurrence and progress of diseases. Recent studies have discovered that miR?424 is the significant regulatory factor of angiogenesis, and is involved in many diseases such as infectious diseases, vascular diseases, central nervous system diseases and genital system disease. This article reviews the expression, effect and possible mechanisms of miR?424 in non?tumorous diseases.

9.
Chinese Journal of Pathophysiology ; (12): 1909-1915, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-504005

ABSTRACT

MicroRNA-494 (miR-494) is one of the microRNAs from 14q32.31 miR-gene cluster.Recently, miR-494 was found to closely relate with tumors and other diseases .This article reviews the expression changes , roles and possible regulatory mechanisms of miR-494 in multiple tumors and other hypoxia/ischemia diseases .Recent studies demon-strate that the expression of miR-494 is affected by many factors , and miR-494 could be a biomarker of diagnosis , staging and prognosis in tumors and other diseases , and a target of therapy in future .

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-501595

ABSTRACT

A member of miR-16 family, miR-424 has been found to be closely related with tumorigenesis, tumor progrssion, prognosis and therapy.This article reviews the expression changes, roles and possible regulating mechanisms of miR-424 in leukemia and various tumors such as breast, cervical, lung, liver and colorectal cancers.Recent studies have demonstrated that the expression of miR-424 is affected by many factors, and miR-424 could be a biomarker of diagnosis, staging and prognosis in cancers,to identify the area of tumor, and be a target of therapy.

11.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 787-789, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-498992

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic encephalopathy (PE)is one of the severe complications of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).Early diagnosis mostly depends on the history of disease as well as clinical symptoms and signs.PE progresses rapidly and is often complicated by multiple organ dysfunction,and it may finally develop into multiple organ failure with a high fatality rate if not treated in time.It is currently known that de-myelination is one of the important pathological features of this disease,with fat -soluble demyelination of cerebral gray matter and white matter,as well as inflammatory changes such as hemorrhage and edema.The target antigen of demyelinating lesions,however,is myelin basic protein (MBP).This paper reviews the changes in MBP levels in the demyelinating lesions of the central nervous system among PE pa-tients,with the purpose of providing clues for the early diagnosis and prognostic study of demyelinating lesions in PE.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-601021

ABSTRACT

Alcohol is closely related to the occurrence and prognosis of cerebral ischemia.Researches on the relationship between alcohol and cerebral ischemia using different animal models draw different conclusions.This paper summarizes the common alcohol intervention methods in making animal models of cerebral ischemia, and evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of these models to provide reference for the future research.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-457342

ABSTRACT

Objectives To observe the effect of Luoyutong capsule on neurological function following focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats and to preliminarily study the protective mechanism of Luoyutong capsule for focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Methods A rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)was induced by the modified Longa method. After 1. 5 h of ischemia,reperfusion started. Ten male SD rats were selected as sham operation group,and forty male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups:Model (MCAO),Luoyutong moderate-dose (LYTM),Luoyutong high-dose (LYTH),and citicoline sodium (CS)groups (n=10 in each group). At day 3 and 7 after modeling,the neurological function of the rats was evaluated by using 12 neurological score and forelimb placing test. Western blotting was used to detect the expression levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF),basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF),and phosphor/protein kinase (p-AKT/AKT)on the ischemic side of the rats and in the ipsilateral brain tissue at day 3 after modeling,as well as the expression level of Caspase-12 at day 7 after modeling in the ipsilateral brain tissue,and a comparison was performed among the groups. Results (1 )Neurological score:At day 3 after modeling,there was no significant difference between the 12 neurological score and the forelimb placing test score (all P>0. 05);At day 7 after modeling, there were obvious improvement in the LYTM,LYTH,and CS groups compared with model group (all P0. 05);the expression levels of proCaspase-12 and cleavage Caspase-12 in the CS group were obviously lower than those of the MCAO group (P<0. 05). Conclusion Luoyutong capsule may play a protective effect for focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats by promoting neural survival and regeneration,and this protective effect may be associated with the inhibition of neuronal apoptosis.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-450467

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the dynamic trends of physical development,constitutional fitness,and prevalence of obesity among Han children and adolescents in Ningxia aged 7-18 years from 1985 to 2010.Methods Data were collected from the National Survey on Students Constitution and Health in 1985,1991,1995,2000,2005 and 2010,respectively.Height,weight and chest circumference were used to evaluate physical development,vital capacity,50-meter running and vital capacity versus weight ratio for the evaluation of constitutional fitness.Results 1.Weight and chest circumference increased faster than height.The average annual increase of weight among the urban girls was significantly faster than those in rural areas.2.The tempo per year of vital capacity in both boys and girls decreased during 25 years,especially after 2005.The rural students had a faster tempo than those in the urban students,and the rate in boys was higher than those in girls.Vital capacity to weight ratio in boys decreased from 2005 much more than before,and had a decreasing trend in each age group except for a few groups in girls.There was a decrease in the mean time of 50-meter running in both boys and girls from 1985 to 2005,whereas the decrease became slow during 1995-2005.The prolonged trend in 50-meter-run time existed during 2005-2010.The average prolonged speeds per decade in boys and urban students was higher than that in girls and rural areas.3.From 1985 to 2010 year,the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among boys and girls was 15.0%,25.0% and 28.1%,12.4%,respectively.The average increasing rate was much higher in the obese than in the over-weighted children,and there were more in boys than in girls.There was a similar positive trend of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity with the increased gross domestic product.Conclusions The physical growth and development among students in Ningxia increased rapidly,along with the descending trend of average annual rate of physical fitness as well as the rising trend of prevalence obesity.Some measures should be taken by the government to tackle with the situation,and the healthy intervention should be applied to the high risk population.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-429792

ABSTRACT

Severe acute biliary pancreatitis can be treated by nonsurgical and surgical approaches,and choice of the surgical techniques as well as its timing are the keys points to the whole therapy.Early enteral nutrition via placing nasointestinal feeding tube plays an important role in the nutritional support for patients with severe acute pancreatitis.This paper intends to explore the experience in standardizing the therapy for all similar cases via reviewing and summarizing the treating process of a typical patient with severe acute biliary pancreatitis.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-419040

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo identify the status of quality of life in breast cancer patients and explore the impact of environmental factors on quality of life in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. MethodsTotally 201 primary breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy after surgery were investigated.Self-developed demographic and clinical character investigation questionnaire,WHO Disability Assessment Schedule Ⅱ(WHODAS Ⅱ),and environmental factors in International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health(ICF)core sets for breast cancer patients were adopted to collect relevant data. ResultsBreast cancer patients had different levels of difficulties on each domain of WHODAS Ⅱ.Multiple stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that“material and emotional support and interrelationship with friends”, “social security service,system and policies” and“social norms,practices and ideologies” were factors influencing quality of life of breast cancer patients. ConclusionsIn addition to the strengthen of rehabilitation exercise training,nurses should advocate more services from society through policy making,prompt public awareness and scientific cognition,as well as construct effective nursing interventions to help enlarge social support resources and improve social support level.

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 256-60, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-414965

ABSTRACT

This study is to investigate the effect of ferulic acid on learning and memory impairments of vascular dementia (VD) rats and its mechanism of action. VD rats model was replicated by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO). The learning and memory capability of VD rats was evaluated by Morris water maze. The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the content of glutamic acid (Glu) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in hippocampus of VD rats' brain were determined, separately. The results showed that ferulic acid could alleviate learning and memory deficits of VD rats significantly. Ferulic acid was found to inhibit the activity of AChE and increased the activity of SOD in rat hippocampus. In addition, ferulic acid could also decrease the content of Glu and MDA in rat hippocampus. These results suggested that ferulic acid could alleviate VD rats' learning and memory deficits, which might be due to antioxidation, the improvement of cholinergic system in brain, or the inhibitory of nerve injury by excitatory amino acids.

18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 350-4, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-382424

ABSTRACT

Rhubarb anthraquinone derivatives (AQs) have been documented to have both therapeutic and toxic effect on liver and kidney, leading to a complex puzzle to assess their benefits and risks. In this study, the tissue distributions of AQs in SD rats after orally administrated extracts of raw and prepared rhubarb were examined whether they undergo different uptake. The total rhubarb extract (14.49 g x kg(-1) of body weight per day od, counted on the quantity of crude material) was administrated orally for 12 weeks. The concentrations of the AQs in different tissues were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The five major AQs, aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophynol and physcion, could all be detected in the liver, kidney and spleen, while only rhein, aloe-emodin and emodin reached the quantitative limit. The tissue concentrations of AQs in raw rhubarb group were higher than that in steamed rhubarb group with rhein > emodin > aloe-emodin in the same tissue. On the whole, the tissue distribution of rhein was higher than that of emodin and aloe-emodin in liver, spleen and kidney. AQs could not be detected in those tissues after drug withdraw for 4 weeks, which suggested scarcely any accumulative toxicity of rhubarb. The result indicated that raw rhubarb had more tissue toxicity than steamed rhubarb and rhein may be one of the major poisonous ingredients. The results were concordant with the traditional Chinese medicine theory of toxicity-attenuating effect of processing.

19.
Chinese Herbal Medicines ; (4): 211-215, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-499826

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish an objective method for evaluating the intrinsic characteristics between cold and hot nature of Chinese materia medica(CMM)through the different effects of Mahuang decoction(MHD)and Maxing Shigan decoction(MSD)on animal temperature tropism.Methods The equipment with cold/hot pads was used to investigate the variety ofthe temperature tropism between two groups of mice treated by MHD and MSD,respectively.Meanwhile,the activities ofadenosine triphosphatase(ATPase),superoxide dismutase,succinate dehydrogenase,and malondialdehyde were measured.Results After treated by MHD,the macroscopic behavioral index of remaining rate on warm pad(40 ℃)of mice decreasedsignificantly(P < 0.05),suggesting the enhancement of cold tropism,meanwhile,the internal indices of ATPase activity and oxygen consuming volume increased significantly(P < 0.05),suggesting the enhancement of energy metabolism.On theother hand,the above-mentioned indices in MSD group changed on the inverse way.Conclusion The relative drug natureof MHD and MSD revealed in this study is consistent with the theoretical prognostication or definition.It indicates that theinternal cold and hot nature of CMM could be reflected in ethological way on the changes of animal temperature tropismwhich might be internally regulated by body energy metabolism.

20.
Virologica Sinica ; (6): 77-79, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-406740

ABSTRACT

To investigate the distribution of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes among the population of Dai nationality in Xishuangbanna, Yurman Province HBV genotypes of the Serum samples were tested by PCR-RFLP. This is the first time to discover the B+E genotypes in China. This finding provides new information for understanding the distribution of HBV genotype in China and a provides a basis for establishing a Chinese gene bank.

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