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1.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 460-472, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001954

ABSTRACT

Background@#The genetically predicted lipid-lowering effect of HMGCR or PCSK9 variant can be used to assess drug proxy effects on kidney function. @*Methods@#Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis-identified HMGCR and PCSK9 genetic variants were used to predict the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol-lowering effects of medications targeting related molecules. Primary summary-level outcome data for log-estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; creatinine) were provided by the CKDGen Consortium (n = 1,004,040 European) from a meta-analysis of CKDGen and UK Biobank data. We also conducted a separate investigation of summary-level data from CKDGen (n = 567,460, log-eGFR [creatinine]) and UK Biobank (n = 436,581, log-eGFR [cystatin C]) samples. Summary-level MRs using an inverse variance weighted method and pleiotropy-robust methods were performed. @*Results@#Summary-level MR analysis indicated that the LDL-lowering effect predicted genetically by HMGCR variants (50-mg/dL decrease) was significantly associated with a decrease in eGFR (–1.67%; 95% confidence interval [CI], –2.20% to –1.13%). Similar significance was found in results from the pleiotropy-robust MR methods when the CKDGen and UK Biobank data were analyzed separately. However, the LDL-lowering effect predicted genetically by PCSK9 variants was significantly associated with an increase in eGFR (+1.17%; 95% CI, 0.10%–2.25%). The results were similarly supported by the weighted median method and in each CKDGen and UK Biobank dataset, but the significance obtained by MR-Egger regression was attenuated. @*Conclusion@#Genetically predicted HMG-CoA reductase inhibition was associated with low eGFR, while genetically predicted PCSK9 inhibition was associated with high eGFR. Clinicians should consider that the direct effect of different types of lipid-lowering medication on kidney function can vary.

2.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 519-530, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001946

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have shown that patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are at elevated risk of dementia. However, whether kidney transplantation (KT) lowers the risk for incident dementia remains unclear. Methods: From the Korean National Health Insurance Service database, we identified incident KT recipients aged ≥40 years without any history of dementia between 2007 and 2015. We also established a pair of age-, sex-, and inclusion year-matched control cohorts of patients with incident dialysis-dependent ESRD and members of the general population (GP) without a history of dementia, respectively. Cases of incident all-cause dementia, including Alzheimer disease (AD), vascular dementia (VD), and other kinds of dementia, were obtained from baseline until December 31, 2017. Results: We followed 8,841 KT recipients, dialysis-dependent ESRD patients, and GP individuals for 48,371, 28,649, and 49,149 patient- years, respectively. Their mean age was 52.5 years, and 60.6% were male. Over the observation period, 55/43/19 KT recipients, 230/188/75 dialysis-dependent ESRD patients, and 38/32/14 GP individuals developed all-cause dementia/AD/VD. The risks of incident all-cause dementia, AD, and VD in KT recipients were similar to those in GP (hazard ratio: 0.74 [p = 0.20], 0.74 [p = 0.24], and 0.59 [p = 0.18], respectively) and significantly lower than those in dialysis-dependent ESRD patients (hazard ratio: 0.17 [p < 0.001], 0.16 [p < 0.001], and 0.16 [p < 0.001], respectively). Older age and diabetes mellitus at the time of KT were risk factors for incident all-cause dementia and AD in KT recipients. Conclusion: This is the first study to show a beneficial impact of KT on incident dementia compared to dialysis dependency.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e46-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967405

ABSTRACT

Background@#Due to impaired cell-mediated immunity, solid organ transplantation (SOT) recipients are at increased risk of developing nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD). However, the clinical course of NTM-PD in SOT patients and the impact of SOT on the prognosis of NTM-PD remain unclear. @*Methods@#We analyzed patients who developed NTM-PD after receiving SOT between January 2001 and December 2020, at a tertiary referral hospital in South Korea. Baseline characteristics, clinical course, and prognosis were evaluated. Propensity score-matched analysis was performed to assess the impact of SOT on long-term survival in patients with NTM-PD. @*Results@#Among 4,685 SOT recipients over 20 years, 12 patients (median age, 64 years;interquartile range [IQR], 59–67 years; men, 66.7%) developed NTM-PD. Seven (58.3%) and five (41.7%) patients underwent kidney and liver transplantation, respectively, before the diagnosis of NTM-PD. The incidence of NTM-PD was 35.6 cases per 100,000 person-years among kidney transplant recipients and 28.7 cases per 100,000 person-years among liver transplant recipients. The median time between transplantation and the diagnosis of NTMPD was 3.3 (IQR, 1.5–10.8) years. The most common mycobacterial species was Mycobacterium avium (50.0%). Antibiotic treatment was initiated in five (41.7%) patients, and two patients (40.0%) achieved microbiological cure. Two patients died during a median follow-up of 4.2 (IQR, 2.3–8.8) years and NTM-PD was assumed to be the cause of death in one patient. When matched to patients without a history of SOT, patients with a history of SOT did not show worse survival (P value for log-rank test = 0.62). @*Conclusion@#The clinical course of NTM-PD in SOT recipients was comparable to that of patients without SOT, and SOT did not increase the risk of all-cause mortality in patients with NTM-PD.

4.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 102-113, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926503

ABSTRACT

Long-term outcomes of live kidney donors remain controversial, although this information is crucial for selecting potential donors. Thus, this study compared the long-term risk of all-cause mortality between live kidney donors and healthy control. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study including donors from seven tertiary hospitals in South Korea. Persons who underwent voluntary health screening were included as controls. We created a matched control group considering age, sex, era, body mass index, baseline hypertension, diabetes, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and dipstick albuminuria. The study outcome was progression to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), and all-cause mortality as identified in the linked claims database. Results: We screened 1,878 kidney donors and 78,115 health screening examinees from 2003 to 2016. After matching, 1,701 persons remained in each group. The median age of the matched study subjects was 44 years, and 46.6% were male. Among the study subjects, 2.7% and 16.6% had underlying diabetes and hypertension, respectively. There were no ESKD events in the matched donor and control groups. There were 24 (1.4%) and 12 mortality cases (0.7%) in the matched donor and control groups, respectively. In the age-sex adjusted model, the risk for all-cause mortality was significantly higher in the donor group than in the control group. However, the significance was not retained after socioeconomic status was included as a covariate (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.87–3.80). Conclusion: All-cause mortality was similar in live kidney donors and matched non-donor healthy controls with similar health status and socioeconomic status in the Korean population.

5.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 472-483, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917064

ABSTRACT

Background@#Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is improving as a renal replacement therapy for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We analyzed the main outcomes of PD over the last three decades at a single large-scale PD center with an established high-quality care system. @*Methods@#As a retrospective cohort study, we included participants (n = 1,203) who began PD between 1990 and 2019. Major PD-related outcomes were compared among the three 10-year cohorts. @*Results@#The 1,203 participants were 58.3% male with a mean age of 47.9 ± 13.8 years. The median PD treatment duration was 45 months (interquartile range, 19–77 months); 362 patients (30.1%) transferred to hemodialysis, 289 (24.0%) received kidney transplants, and 224 (18.6%) died. Overall, the 5- and 8-year adjust patient survival rates were 64% and 49%, respectively. Common causes of death included infection (n = 55), cardiac (n = 38), and cerebrovascular (n = 17) events. The 5- and 8-year technique survival rates were 77% and 62%, respectively, with common causes of technique failure being infection (42.3%) and solute/water clearance problems (22.7%). The 5-year patient survival significantly improved over time (64% for the 1990–1999 cohort vs. 93% for the 2010–2019 cohort). The peritonitis rate also substantially decreased over time, from 0.278 episodes/patient-year (2000–2004) to 0.162 episodes/patient-year (2015–2019). @*Conclusion@#PD is an effective treatment option for ESRD patients. There was a substantial improvement in the patient survival and peritonitis rates over time. Establishing adequate infrastructure and an effective system for high-quality PD therapy may be warranted to improve PD outcomes.

6.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 645-659, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917044

ABSTRACT

Background@#Considering the growing prevalence of Western lifestyles and related chronic diseases occurring in South Korea, this study aimed to explore the progression of metabolic risk factors in living kidney donors compared to a control group. @*Methods@#This study enrolled living kidney donors from seven hospitals from 1982 to 2016. The controls were individuals that voluntarily received health check-ups from 1995 to 2016 that were matched with donors according to age, sex, diabetes status, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate, and date of the medical record. Data on hyperuricemia, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and overweight/obesity were collected to determine metabolic risks. The proportion of individuals with three or more metabolic risk factors was evaluated. Logistic regressions with interaction terms between the medical record date and donor status were used to compare the trends in metabolic risks over time in the two groups. @*Results@#A total of 2,018 living kidney donors and matched non-donors were included. The median age was 44.0 years (interquartile range, 34.0–51.0 years) and 54% were women. The living kidney donors showed a lower absolute prevalence for all metabolic risk factors, except for those that were overweight/obese, than the non-donors. The proportion of subjects that were overweight/obese was consistently higher over time in the donor group. The changes over time in the prevalence of each metabolic risk were not significantly different between groups, except for a lower prevalence of metabolic risk factors ≥ 3 in donors. @*Conclusion@#Over time, metabolic risks in living kidney donors are generally the same as in non-donors, except for a lower prevalence of metabolic risk factors ≥ 3 in donors.

7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1015-1023, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913809

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Acute kidney injury (AKI) in cancer patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The incidence of AKI in lung cancer seems to be relatively higher compared with other solid organ malignancies, although its impact on patient outcomes remains unclear. @*Materials and Methods@#The patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer from 2004 to 2013 were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. The patients were categorized according to the presence and severity of AKI. We compared all-cause mortality and long-term renal outcome according to AKI stage. @*Results@#A total of 3,202 patients were included in the final analysis. AKI occurred in 1,783 (55.7%) patients during the follow-up period, with the majority having mild AKI stage 1 (75.8%). During the follow-up of 2.6±2.2 years, total 1,251 patients (53.7%) were died and 5-year survival rate was 46.9%. We found that both AKI development and severity were independent risk factors for all-cause mortality in lung cancer patients, even after adjustment for lung cancer-specific variables including the stage or pathological type. In addition, patients suffered from more severe AKI tend to encounter de novo chronic kidney disease development, worsening kidney function, and end-stage kidney disease progression. @*Conclusion@#In this study, more than half of the lung cancer patients experienced AKI during their diagnosis and treatment period. Moreover, AKI occurrence and more advanced AKI were associated with a higher mortality risk and adverse kidney outcomes.

8.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 77-88, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901533

ABSTRACT

Background@#Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis (AAGN) is a common cause of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and requires prompt and proper immunosuppressive therapy to improve renal prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of two different classifications for renal outcomes in Korean AAGN patients. @*Methods@#Ninety-two patients who were diagnosed with AAGN at two tertiary hospitals between 2004 and 2018 were retrospectively analyzed retrospectively. The histopathologic classification according to glomerular pathology and the clinicopathologic classification according to normal glomeruli ratio, degree of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy, and baseline renal function were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model. @*Results@#Forty-five patients (48.9%) progressed to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) during the observation period. The mean age was 61.0 ± 15.3 years, and most patients had myeloperoxidase-ANCA (93.5%). In the histopathologic classification, the best renal survival occurred in the focal class, whereas the sclerotic class had the worst renal survival (sclerotic class vs. focal class; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 5.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32–19.31; p = 0.018). The mixed class had intermediate renal outcomes (mixed class vs. focal class; aHR, 4.23; 95% CI, 1.23–14.58; p = 0.022). In the clinicopathologic classification, the high-risk group had poor renal outcomes compared with the low-risk group (aHR, 6.56; 95% CI, 1.25–34.26; p = 0.026), but renal outcomes did not differ between the low- and medium-risk groups. @*Conclusion@#In Korean AAGN patients, histopathologic and clinicopathologic classifications had predictive value for renal outcomes, especially in the sclerotic class or the high-risk group with higher risk of progression to ESRD despite treatment.

9.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 52-61, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901531

ABSTRACT

Background@#The Korean Society of Nephrology (KSN) has maintained a nationwide end-stage renal disease (ESRD) registry data from Korean Renal Data System (KORDS) since 1985, as the representative registry of ESRD patients in Korea. This review is aimed to update the status of domestic ESRD and to provide evidence on the direction of dialysis therapy. @*Methods@#The KORDS Committee of KSN has collected data on dialysis centers and patients through an online registry program, and the data from 1986 to 2019 were analyzed. @*Results@#The incidence and prevalence of ESRD patients in Korea are increasing. The ESRD population numbered more than 100,000 in 2019, doubling during the 10 years since 2010. The proportion of diabetes mellitus as a major cause of ESRD seems to have reached a plateau. The increasing number of elderly dialysis patients is a constant trend, with more than half for the proportion of patients older than 65 years old in 2019. All-cause mortality decreased for the last approximately 20 years, regardless of sex, age, and cause of ESRD. The 5-year patient survival rate in both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis increased from 2001 to 2013. Since 2013, the patient survival rates in peritoneal dialysis were similar to those in hemodialysis. Cardiovascular complications were the leading cause of death in ESRD patients. @*Conclusions@#The incidence and prevalence of Korean ESRD patients have increased over time, although patient survival has also steadily increased. The establishment of a surveillance method to address the major cause of mortality in ESRD patients will help improve outcomes.

10.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 282-293, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901525

ABSTRACT

Background@#An inverse observational association between alcohol use and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) has been reported. The causal effect of alcohol use on the risk of ESKD warrants additional investigation. @*Methods@#The study was an observational cohort study investigating the UK Biobank and performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. Amounts of alcohol use were collected using a touchscreen questionnaire. In the observational analysis, 212,133 participants without prevalent ESKD were studied, and the association between alcohol use and the risk of prevalent CKD or incident ESKD was investigated. The genetic analysis included 337,138 participants of white British ancestry. For one-sample MR, an analysis based on a polygenic risk score (PRS) was conducted with genetically predicted alcohol intake. The MR analysis investigated ESKD outcome and related comorbidities. @*Results@#Lower alcohol use was observationally associated with a higher risk of prevalent CKD or incident ESKD. However, the genetic risk of CKD was significantly associated with lower alcohol use, suggesting reverse causation. A higher PRS for alcohol use was significantly associated with a higher risk of ESKD (per units of one phenotypical alcohol drink; adjusted odds ratio of 1.16 [95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.31]) and related comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and central obesity. @*Conclusion@#The inverse observational association between alcohol use and the risk of CKD or ESKD may have been affected by reverse causation. Our study supports a causal effect of alcohol use on a higher risk of ESKD and related predisposing comorbidities.

11.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 77-88, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893829

ABSTRACT

Background@#Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis (AAGN) is a common cause of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and requires prompt and proper immunosuppressive therapy to improve renal prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of two different classifications for renal outcomes in Korean AAGN patients. @*Methods@#Ninety-two patients who were diagnosed with AAGN at two tertiary hospitals between 2004 and 2018 were retrospectively analyzed retrospectively. The histopathologic classification according to glomerular pathology and the clinicopathologic classification according to normal glomeruli ratio, degree of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy, and baseline renal function were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model. @*Results@#Forty-five patients (48.9%) progressed to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) during the observation period. The mean age was 61.0 ± 15.3 years, and most patients had myeloperoxidase-ANCA (93.5%). In the histopathologic classification, the best renal survival occurred in the focal class, whereas the sclerotic class had the worst renal survival (sclerotic class vs. focal class; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 5.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32–19.31; p = 0.018). The mixed class had intermediate renal outcomes (mixed class vs. focal class; aHR, 4.23; 95% CI, 1.23–14.58; p = 0.022). In the clinicopathologic classification, the high-risk group had poor renal outcomes compared with the low-risk group (aHR, 6.56; 95% CI, 1.25–34.26; p = 0.026), but renal outcomes did not differ between the low- and medium-risk groups. @*Conclusion@#In Korean AAGN patients, histopathologic and clinicopathologic classifications had predictive value for renal outcomes, especially in the sclerotic class or the high-risk group with higher risk of progression to ESRD despite treatment.

12.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 52-61, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893827

ABSTRACT

Background@#The Korean Society of Nephrology (KSN) has maintained a nationwide end-stage renal disease (ESRD) registry data from Korean Renal Data System (KORDS) since 1985, as the representative registry of ESRD patients in Korea. This review is aimed to update the status of domestic ESRD and to provide evidence on the direction of dialysis therapy. @*Methods@#The KORDS Committee of KSN has collected data on dialysis centers and patients through an online registry program, and the data from 1986 to 2019 were analyzed. @*Results@#The incidence and prevalence of ESRD patients in Korea are increasing. The ESRD population numbered more than 100,000 in 2019, doubling during the 10 years since 2010. The proportion of diabetes mellitus as a major cause of ESRD seems to have reached a plateau. The increasing number of elderly dialysis patients is a constant trend, with more than half for the proportion of patients older than 65 years old in 2019. All-cause mortality decreased for the last approximately 20 years, regardless of sex, age, and cause of ESRD. The 5-year patient survival rate in both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis increased from 2001 to 2013. Since 2013, the patient survival rates in peritoneal dialysis were similar to those in hemodialysis. Cardiovascular complications were the leading cause of death in ESRD patients. @*Conclusions@#The incidence and prevalence of Korean ESRD patients have increased over time, although patient survival has also steadily increased. The establishment of a surveillance method to address the major cause of mortality in ESRD patients will help improve outcomes.

13.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 282-293, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893821

ABSTRACT

Background@#An inverse observational association between alcohol use and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) has been reported. The causal effect of alcohol use on the risk of ESKD warrants additional investigation. @*Methods@#The study was an observational cohort study investigating the UK Biobank and performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. Amounts of alcohol use were collected using a touchscreen questionnaire. In the observational analysis, 212,133 participants without prevalent ESKD were studied, and the association between alcohol use and the risk of prevalent CKD or incident ESKD was investigated. The genetic analysis included 337,138 participants of white British ancestry. For one-sample MR, an analysis based on a polygenic risk score (PRS) was conducted with genetically predicted alcohol intake. The MR analysis investigated ESKD outcome and related comorbidities. @*Results@#Lower alcohol use was observationally associated with a higher risk of prevalent CKD or incident ESKD. However, the genetic risk of CKD was significantly associated with lower alcohol use, suggesting reverse causation. A higher PRS for alcohol use was significantly associated with a higher risk of ESKD (per units of one phenotypical alcohol drink; adjusted odds ratio of 1.16 [95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.31]) and related comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and central obesity. @*Conclusion@#The inverse observational association between alcohol use and the risk of CKD or ESKD may have been affected by reverse causation. Our study supports a causal effect of alcohol use on a higher risk of ESKD and related predisposing comorbidities.

14.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1457-1467, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831891

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Detailed nationwide information regarding the recent status and time trends of kidney transplantation (KT) in South Korea is limited. @*Methods@#We performed a nationwide, population-based cohort study using the national claims database of Korea. We included KT recipients from 2008 to 2016, and their demographic and clinical characteristics were collected. The prognostic outcome was graft failure consisted of patient death and death-censored graft failure (DCGF). @*Results@#We studied 14,601 KT recipients with median follow-up duration of 3.96 years. The median age at the time of transplantation consistently increased from the past, and proportion of underlying diabetes mellitus prominently increased, reaching 35.6% in 2016. The preemptive KT accounted for approximately 30% of the total transplantation cases. The recipients showed a 10-year cumulative graft survival rate of 71.8%, consisting of 10-year DCGF free survival of 77.6% and patient survival of 92.8%. Age ≥ 20 and 60,000,000$ in 2016. However, the expansion was mainly burdened by the national insurance service but not by the patients. @*Conclusions@#In South Korea, the number of kidney transplantation in elderly or in patients with comorbidities has been increasing. Complex clinical factors were associated with medication compliance and patient prognosis.

15.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 25-40, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831755

ABSTRACT

Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is defined by specific clinical characteristics, including microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and pathologic evidence of endothelial cell damage, as well as the resulting ischemic end-organ injuries. A variety of clinical scenarios have features of TMA, including infection, pregnancy, malignancy, autoimmune disease, and medications. These overlapping manifestations hamper differential diagnosis of the underlying pathogenesis, despite recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of several types of TMA syndrome. Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is caused by a genetic or acquired defect in regulation of the alternative complement pathway. It is important to consider the possibility of aHUS in all patients who exhibit TMA with triggering conditions because of the incomplete genetic penetrance of aHUS. Therapeutic strategies for aHUS are based on functional restoration of the complement system. Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody against the terminal complement component 5 inhibitor, yields good outcomes that include prevention of organ damage and premature death. However, there remain unresolved challenges in terms of treatment duration, cost, and infectious complications. A consensus regarding diagnosis and management of TMA syndrome would enhance understanding of the disease and enable treatment decision-making.

16.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e166-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831657

ABSTRACT

Background@#Post-transplant cancer (PTC) is a critical complication after kidney transplantation. However, whether successfully cured PTC affects the long-term graft outcome remains unclear. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed 1,629 kidney transplant recipients from 1995 to 2017 after excluding patients with post-transplant hematologic or advanced non-curable cancers and who underwent allograft nephrectomy because of cancer. Cured PTCs were defined as cancers treated with curative methods and/or adjuvant therapy without recurrence during ≥ 2 years. Propensity score matching was performed to match cured PTC patients with cancer-naïve patients (i.e., non-PTC group). @*Results@#During the median period of 7 years (maximum, 23 years), 70 patients (4.3%) had cured PTCs. The PTC group showed significantly higher risks of death-censored graft failure (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.56 [1.05–6.23]), class II donor-specific antibodies (adjusted HRs, 3.37 [1.30–8.71]), estimated glomerular filtration rate 1 g (adjusted HR, 3.61 [1.92–6.79]) compared to non-PTC group. However, the risk of mortality was not different between the PTC and non-PTC groups. According to the cancer type, only urogenital cancer had a significant association with graft failure (adjusted HR, 4.26 [1.19–15.22]) and the gastrointestinal cancer showed elevated risk of T cell mediated rejection compared to non-PTC (adjusted HR, 20.44 [6.02–69.39]). @*Conclusion@#Appropriate monitoring of graft function is necessary in patients with cured PTCs.

17.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e254-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831596

ABSTRACT

Background@#Serum uric acid (SUA) is recognized as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and mortality. However, there is controversy as to whether a high or low level of SUA is related to the risk of CKD progression or death, and whether it differs between males and females. @*Methods@#We included 143,762 adults who underwent voluntary health screening between 1995 and 2009 in Korea. For each sex, we divided participants into sex-specific quintiles according to SUA levels and compared end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence and mortality between the groups with low and high SUA levels and those with middle SUA levels. Sex-specific Cox proportional hazard analyses were performed for ESRD and all-cause mortality. @*Results@#Among the 143,762 participants, 0.2% (n = 272) developed ESRD. The hazard ratio (HR) of ESRD was higher in the highest (adjusted HR, 2.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18–3.84) and lowest (adjusted HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.02–3.51) SUA quintiles than in the middle SUA quintile in males and the highest SUA quintile in females (adjusted HR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.10–4.84). Four-point three percent (n = 6,215) of participants died during a mean follow-up period of 157 months. The hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality was higher in the highest SUA quintile than in the middle SUA quintile in males (adjusted HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03–1.28) and females (adjusted HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01–1.35). @*Conclusion@#Elevated levels of SUA are associated with increased risk for ESRD and all-cause mortality in both sexes. Low levels of SUA might be related to ESRD and death only in males, showing U-shaped associations. Our findings suggest sex-specific associations between SUA levels and ESRD development and mortality.

18.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e206-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831576

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although emerging evidence suggest acute kidney injury (AKI) progress to chronic kidney disease (CKD), long-term renal outcome of AKI still remains unclear. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is the most common cause of AKI due to ischemia, toxin or sepsis. Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN), caused by drugs or autoimmune diseases is also increasingly recognized as an important cause of AKI. Unlike glomerular diseases, AKI is usually diagnosed in the clinical context without kidney biopsies, and lack of histology might contribute to this uncertainty. @*Methods@#Among 8,769 biopsy series, 253 adults who were histologically diagnosed with ATN and AIN from 1982 to 2018 at five university hospitals were included. Demographic and pathological features that are associated with the development of end stage renal disease (ESRD) were also examined. @*Results@#Rate of non-recovery of renal function at 6 month was significantly higher in the AIN (ATN vs AIN 49.3 vs 69.4%, P = 0.007) with a 2.71-fold higher risk of non- recovery compared to ATN (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–6.47). During the mean follow up of 76.5 ± 91.9 months, ESRD developed in 39.4% of patients with AIN, and 21.5% patients of ATN. The risk of ESRD was significantly higher in AIN (23.05; 95% CI, 2.42–219.53) and also in ATN (12.14; 95% CI, 1.19–24.24) compared to control with non-specific pathology. Older age, female gender, renal function at the time of biopsy and at 6 months, proteinuria and pathological features including interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, tubulitis, vascular lesion were significantly associated with progression to ESRD. @*Conclusion@#Our study demonstrated that patients with biopsy proven ATN and AIN are at high risk of developing ESRD. AIN showed higher rate of non-renal recovery at 6 month than ATN.

19.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 180-191, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834935

ABSTRACT

Background@#Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is linked to various chronic comorbidities, including chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, few large studies have addressed whether recovery from MetS is associated with reduction in the risks of such comorbidities. @*Methods@#This nationwide population-based study in Korea screened 10,664,268 people who received national health screening ≥ 3 times between 2012 and 2016. Those with a history of major cardiovascular events or preexisting CKD were excluded. We classified study groups into four, according to the course of MetS state, as defined by the harmonizing criteria. The main study outcome was incidental CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 which was persistent until the last health exams). The study outcomes were investigated using multivariable logistic regression analysis, which was adjusted for clinical variables and the previous severity of MetS. @*Results@#Four study groups included 6,315,301 subjects: 4,537,869 people without MetS, 1,034,605 with chronic MetS, 438,287 who developed MetS, and 304,540 who recovered from preexisting MetS. Those who developed MetS demonstrated higher risk of CKD (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.26 [1.23-1.29]) than did those who did not develop MetS. In contrast, MetSrecovery was associated with decreased risk of CKD (adjusted OR, 0.84 [0.82-0.86]) than that in people with chronic MetS. Among the MetS components, change in hypertension was associated with the largest difference in CKD risk. @*Conclusion@#Reducing or preventing MetS may reduce the burden of CKD on a population-scale. Clinicians should consider the clinical importance of altering MetS status for risk of CKD.

20.
Electrolytes & Blood Pressure ; : 36-44, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The 24-hour mean blood pressure (mBP) is the best predictor of organ damage; however, it is not easily applicable in clinical practice. The APrODiTe study suggested that systolic blood pressure (SBP) values at 7:00 AM and 9:30 PM were associated with the 24-hour mSBP in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We investigated the association of the SBP values at these time-points with the renal outcomes in patients with diabetic CKD during 1-year follow-up.@*METHODS@#Ninety-six patients with diabetic CKD were included at 1-year follow-up. The renal outcomes were an increase in the random urine protein/creatinine ratio or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) deterioration, which means a decrease in eGFR ≥5 mL/min/1.73 m² compared to the baseline values.@*RESULTS@#The baseline SBP values at 7:00 AM, and 9:30 PM, and the 24-hour mSBP were 135.6±24.9 mmHg, 141.7±25.6 mmHg, and 136.4±20.7 mmHg, respectively. The SBP values measured at the same time-points after 1 year were similar to those at baseline. The SBP at 7:00 AM was significantly associated with eGFR deterioration in the univariate and multivariate analyses (odds ratio [OR]: 1.032; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.006–1.059; p=0.016). The SBP at 7:00AM and 24-hour mSBP did not show a concordant association with sustained proteinuria in the linear and logistic analyses. In the subgroup analysis, the association between the SBP at 7:00 AM and eGFR deterioration persisted in patients with CKD stage 3–5 (OR: 1.041; 95% CI: 1.010–1.073; p=0.010).@*CONCLUSION@#The SBP at 7:00 AM, in addition to the 24-hour mSBP, is also associated with eGFR deterioration in patients with diabetic CKD, particularly in those with CKD stage 3–5.

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