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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937435

ABSTRACT

Background@#No consensus exists regarding the early use of subcutaneous (SC) basal insulin facilitating the transition from continuous intravenous insulin infusion (CIII) to multiple SC insulin injections in patients with severe hyperglycemia other than diabetic ketoacidosis. This study evaluated the effect of early co-administration of SC basal insulin with CIII on glucose control in patients with severe hyperglycemia. @*Methods@#Patients who received CIII for the management of severe hyperglycemia were divided into two groups: the early basal insulin group (n=86) if they received the first SC basal insulin 0.25 U/kg body weight within 24 hours of CIII initiation and ≥4 hours before discontinuation, and the delayed basal insulin group (n=79) if they were not classified as the early basal insulin group. Rebound hyperglycemia was defined as blood glucose level of >250 mg/dL in 24 hours following CIII discontinuation. Propensity score matching (PSM) methods were additionally employed for adjusting the confounding factors (n=108). @*Results@#The rebound hyperglycemia incidence was significantly lower in the early basal insulin group than in the delayed basal insulin group (54.7% vs. 86.1%), despite using PSM methods (51.9%, 85.2%). The length of hospital stay was shorter in the early basal insulin group than in the delayed basal insulin group (8.5 days vs. 9.6 days, P=0.027). The hypoglycemia incidence did not differ between the groups. @*Conclusion@#Early co-administration of basal insulin with CIII prevents rebound hyperglycemia and shorten hospital stay without increasing the hypoglycemic events in patients with severe hyperglycemia.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914203

ABSTRACT

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common complication during pregnancy and is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. GDM is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and long-term offspring and maternal complications. For GDM screening and diagnosis, a two-step approach (1-hour 50 g glucose challenge test followed by 3-hour 100 g oral glucose tolerance test) has been widely used. After the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome study implemented a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test in all pregnant women, a one-step approach was recommended as an option for the diagnosis of GDM after 2010. The one-step approach has more than doubled the incidence of GDM, but its clinical benefit in reducing adverse pregnancy outcomes remains controversial. Long-term complications of mothers with GDM include type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, and complications of their offspring include childhood obesity and glucose intolerance. The diagnostic criteria of GDM should properly classify women at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes and long-term complications. The present review summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of the one-step and two-step approaches for the diagnosis of GDM based on recent randomized controlled trials and observational studies. We also describe the long-term maternal and offspring complications of GDM.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924914

ABSTRACT

Background@#Screening for diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is important to prevent severe foot complication, but the detection rate of DPN is unsatisfactory. We investigated whether SUDOSCAN combined with Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) could be an effective tool for screening for DPN in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in clinical practice. @*Methods@#We analysed the data for 144 people with T2DM without other cause of neuropathy. The presence of DPN was confirmed according to the Toronto Consensus criteria. Electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) of the feet was assessed using SUDOSCAN. We compared the discrimination power of following methods, MNSI only vs. SUDOSCAN only vs. MNSI plus SUDOSCAN vs. MNSI plus 10-g monofilament test. @*Results@#Confirmed DPN was detected in 27.8% of the participants. The optimal cut-off value of feet ESC to distinguish DPN was 56 μS. We made the DPN screening scores using the corresponding odds ratios for MNSI-Questionnaire, MNSI-Physical Examination, SUDOSCAN, and 10-g monofilament test. For distinguishing the presence of DPN, the MNSI plus SUDOSCAN model showed higher areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) than MNSI only model (0.717 vs. 0.638, P=0.011), and SUDOSCAN only model or MNSI plus 10-g monofilament test showed comparable AUC with MNSI only model. @*Conclusion@#The screening model for DPN that includes both MNSI and SUDOSCAN can detect DPN with acceptable discrimination power and it may be useful in Korean patients with T2DM.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874542

ABSTRACT

Background@#The influence of serial changes of adipokines on maternal glucose metabolism from pregnancy to postpartum periods in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) has not been thoroughly explored. We tried to examine the relationship between the serial changes of adipokines and the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in women with pGDM. @*Methods@#We longitudinally measured following adipokines: high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4), lipocalin-2, and chemerin, during pregnancy, and at 2 months and 3 years after delivery. Based on glucose status at postpartum 3 years, we divided into three groups: normal glucose tolerance (GDM-NGT, n=20), impaired glucose tolerance (GDM-IGT, n=23), and GDM-DM (n=22). We analyzed the correlations between adipokines and various metabolic parameters. @*Results@#Plasma HMW adiponectin levels were not different among the three groups during pregnancy. However, HMW adiponectin levels increased at 3 years after the delivery in women with GDM-NGT compared with women with GDM-DM. In the GDM-IGT group, HMW adiponectin levels increased at 2 months postpartum compared to pregnancy period. In contrast, HMW adiponectin levels showed no alternation after parturition in women with GDM-DM. HMW adiponectin was negatively correlated with body mass index and a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Other adipokines such as RBP-4, lipocalin-2, and chemerin neither showed any differences among the groups nor any significant correlations with 3 years postpartum status of glucose intolerance. @*Conclusion@#Serial changes of HMW adiponectin are associated with the maintenance of glucose metabolism in women with pGDM after delivery.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898116

ABSTRACT

Background@#The effect of intrauterine hyperglycemia on fat mass and regional fat proportion of the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (OGDM) remains to be determined. @*Methods@#The body composition of OGDM (n=25) and offspring of normoglycemic mothers (n=49) was compared using dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry at age 5 years. The relationship between maternal glucose concentration during a 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and regional fat mass or proportion was analyzed after adjusting for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). @*Results@#BMI was comparable between OGDM and control (median, 16.0 kg/m2 vs. 16.1 kg/m2 ). Total, truncal, and leg fat mass were higher in OGDM compared with control (3,769 g vs. 2,245 g, P=0.004; 1,289 g vs. 870 g, P=0.017; 1,638 g vs. 961 g, P=0.002, respectively), whereas total lean mass was lower in OGDM (15,688 g vs. 16,941 g, P=0.001). Among OGDM, total and truncal fat mass were correlated with fasting and 3-hour glucose concentrations of maternal 100 g OGTT during pregnancy (total fat mass, r=0.49, P=0.018 [fasting], r=0.473, P=0.023 [3-hour]; truncal fat mass, r=0.571, P=0.004 [fasting], r=0.558, P=0.006 [3-hour]), but there was no correlation between OGDM leg fat mass and maternal OGTT during pregnancy. Regional fat indices were not correlated with concurrent maternal 75 g OGTT values. @*Conclusion@#Intrauterine hyperglycemia is associated with increased fat mass, especially truncal fat, in OGDM aged 5 years.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898110

ABSTRACT

Background@#On March 22, 2020, intense social distancing (SD) was implemented in Korea to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). This study examined the impact of SD on diabetes control in older adults with diabetes. @*Methods@#Adults aged 60 to 90 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were physically and mentally independent were recruited. Participants who had complete blood chemistry data from April to July 2019 (pre-SD era) and April to July 2020 (SD era) were enrolled. Data were obtained about physical activity, nutrition, sarcopenia, and psychological and mental health from questionnaires in April to July 2020. Calf circumference was measured. @*Results@#In total, 246 people (100 men, 146 women; mean age, 73.8±5.7 years) participated in this study. The levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, 7.4%±1.0% vs. 7.1%±0.8%, P<0.001), fasting glucose (142.2±16.7 mg/dL vs. 132.0±27.7 mg/dL, P<0.001), and body weight (62.6±9.4 kg vs. 61.8±10.1 kg, P<0.01) were higher in the SD era than in the pre-SD era. Total physical activity was lower in the SD era (2,584.6±2,624.1 MET-min/week–1 vs. 1,987.3±2,295.0 MET-min/week–1, P<0.001). A larger increase in HbA1c level was associated with increased body weight and decreased physical activity. @*Conclusion@#SD had negative effects on diabetes management in older adults with diabetes. Fasting glucose and HbA1c levels and body weight increased during the SD era. Participants with reduced physical activity gained more weight and had higher blood glucose levels. Given that the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing, health professionals and diabetes educators should monitor changes in lifestyle factors in older adults with diabetes.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890412

ABSTRACT

Background@#The effect of intrauterine hyperglycemia on fat mass and regional fat proportion of the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (OGDM) remains to be determined. @*Methods@#The body composition of OGDM (n=25) and offspring of normoglycemic mothers (n=49) was compared using dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry at age 5 years. The relationship between maternal glucose concentration during a 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and regional fat mass or proportion was analyzed after adjusting for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). @*Results@#BMI was comparable between OGDM and control (median, 16.0 kg/m2 vs. 16.1 kg/m2 ). Total, truncal, and leg fat mass were higher in OGDM compared with control (3,769 g vs. 2,245 g, P=0.004; 1,289 g vs. 870 g, P=0.017; 1,638 g vs. 961 g, P=0.002, respectively), whereas total lean mass was lower in OGDM (15,688 g vs. 16,941 g, P=0.001). Among OGDM, total and truncal fat mass were correlated with fasting and 3-hour glucose concentrations of maternal 100 g OGTT during pregnancy (total fat mass, r=0.49, P=0.018 [fasting], r=0.473, P=0.023 [3-hour]; truncal fat mass, r=0.571, P=0.004 [fasting], r=0.558, P=0.006 [3-hour]), but there was no correlation between OGDM leg fat mass and maternal OGTT during pregnancy. Regional fat indices were not correlated with concurrent maternal 75 g OGTT values. @*Conclusion@#Intrauterine hyperglycemia is associated with increased fat mass, especially truncal fat, in OGDM aged 5 years.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890406

ABSTRACT

Background@#On March 22, 2020, intense social distancing (SD) was implemented in Korea to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). This study examined the impact of SD on diabetes control in older adults with diabetes. @*Methods@#Adults aged 60 to 90 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were physically and mentally independent were recruited. Participants who had complete blood chemistry data from April to July 2019 (pre-SD era) and April to July 2020 (SD era) were enrolled. Data were obtained about physical activity, nutrition, sarcopenia, and psychological and mental health from questionnaires in April to July 2020. Calf circumference was measured. @*Results@#In total, 246 people (100 men, 146 women; mean age, 73.8±5.7 years) participated in this study. The levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, 7.4%±1.0% vs. 7.1%±0.8%, P<0.001), fasting glucose (142.2±16.7 mg/dL vs. 132.0±27.7 mg/dL, P<0.001), and body weight (62.6±9.4 kg vs. 61.8±10.1 kg, P<0.01) were higher in the SD era than in the pre-SD era. Total physical activity was lower in the SD era (2,584.6±2,624.1 MET-min/week–1 vs. 1,987.3±2,295.0 MET-min/week–1, P<0.001). A larger increase in HbA1c level was associated with increased body weight and decreased physical activity. @*Conclusion@#SD had negative effects on diabetes management in older adults with diabetes. Fasting glucose and HbA1c levels and body weight increased during the SD era. Participants with reduced physical activity gained more weight and had higher blood glucose levels. Given that the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing, health professionals and diabetes educators should monitor changes in lifestyle factors in older adults with diabetes.

9.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1243-1253, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914234

ABSTRACT

Background@#Farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a bile acid–activated nuclear receptor, is a potent regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism as well as of bile acid metabolism. Previous studies have demonstrated that FXR deficiency is associated with metabolic derangements, including atherosclerosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of FXR in atherosclerosis and NAFLD and the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists in mouse models with FXR deficiency. @*Methods@#En face lipid accumulation analysis, liver histology, serum levels of glucose and lipids, and mRNA expression of genes related to lipid metabolism were compared between apolipoprotein E (ApoE)−/− and ApoE−/−FXR−/− mice. The effects of PPARα and PPARγ agonists were also compared in both groups of mice. @*Results@#Compared with ApoE−/− mice, ApoE−/−FXR−/− mice showed more severe atherosclerosis, hepatic steatosis, and higher levels of serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, accompanied by increased mRNA expression of FAS, ApoC2, TNFα, IL-6 (liver), ATGL, TGH, HSL, and MGL (adipocytes), and decreased mRNA expressions of CPT2 (liver) and Tfam (skeletal muscle). Treatment with a PPARα agonist, but not with a PPARγ agonist, partly reversed atherosclerosis and hepatic steatosis, and decreased plasma triglyceride levels in the ApoE−/−FXR−/− mice, in association with increased mRNA expression of CD36 and FATP and decreased expression of ApoC2 and ApoC3 (liver). @*Conclusion@#Loss of FXR is associated with aggravation of atherosclerosis and hepatic steatosis in ApoE-deficient mice, which could be reversed by a PPARα agonist through induction of fatty acid uptake, β-oxidation, and triglyceride hydrolysis.

10.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 227-234, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903506

ABSTRACT

Diabetic muscle infarction (DMI), also known as diabetic myonecrosis, is a rare complication of diabetes mellitus (DM); hence, it is often underdiagnosed. Thus, timely diagnosis and treatment are essential for a better prognosis. We describe a 24-year-old woman with Prader-Willi syndrome and an 8-year history of uncontrolled type 2 DM, who presented with a sudden onset of fever and subacute painful swelling of her left thigh. She was finally diagnosed with DMI based on magnetic resonance imaging and muscle biopsy after excluding other infectious and inflammatory diseases of proximal muscles. The patient was treated with bed rest, strict glycemic control, and analgesics, and her symptoms gradually resolved. DMI should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with poorly controlled DM, who present with subacute pain and swelling of lower extremity muscles, without a history of trauma.

11.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 227-234, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895802

ABSTRACT

Diabetic muscle infarction (DMI), also known as diabetic myonecrosis, is a rare complication of diabetes mellitus (DM); hence, it is often underdiagnosed. Thus, timely diagnosis and treatment are essential for a better prognosis. We describe a 24-year-old woman with Prader-Willi syndrome and an 8-year history of uncontrolled type 2 DM, who presented with a sudden onset of fever and subacute painful swelling of her left thigh. She was finally diagnosed with DMI based on magnetic resonance imaging and muscle biopsy after excluding other infectious and inflammatory diseases of proximal muscles. The patient was treated with bed rest, strict glycemic control, and analgesics, and her symptoms gradually resolved. DMI should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with poorly controlled DM, who present with subacute pain and swelling of lower extremity muscles, without a history of trauma.

12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918893

ABSTRACT

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a major medical complication of pregnancy, and it is related with poor perinatal outcomes and long-term risk of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, adequate diagnosis and treatment are essential to improve pregnancy outcome. Both one-step, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and two-step, 50- and 100-g OGTTs can be used for diagnosing GDM. The cut-off points of 100-g OGTT are used for the criteria of Carpenter–Coustan. The incidence of GDM can be increased about 2 to 3 times using the one-step method compared to the two-step approach. The mainstay of treatment is composed of life-style management, including exercise and medical nutritional therapy, and insulin therapy. Considering the Korean health-care system, oral hypoglycemic agents cannot be the firstline choice, and intensification of insulin treatment depends on patient self-monitoring of blood glucose. Furthermore, all treatments should be tailored to patient condition.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919109

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Depression and allergic diseases, including asthma, are frequently reported as comorbid conditions. However, their associations have been rarely examined in community-based elderly populations.@*METHODS@#The analyses were performed using the baseline data set of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Health and Aging, which consists of 1,000 elderly participants (aged > 65 years) randomly recruited from an urban community. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Major and minor depressive disorders were diagnosed by psychiatrists. Allergic conditions were assessed using structured questionnaires, lung function, and skin prick test. Quality of life and comorbidities were assessed using structured questionnaires.@*RESULTS@#Prevalence of asthma and major depressive disorder were 5.4% and 5.3%, respectively. The rate of depression was not significantly different between the non-asthmatic and asthmatic groups. No correlation was observed between the scores obtained using the depression scales and self-reported asthma. However, chronic, frequent, and nocturnal cough were significantly associated with depression and scores obtained using the depression scales, which remained significant in multivariate logistic regression analyses (chronic cough: odds ratio [OR], 3.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57 to 12.74; p = 0.04). Rhinitis was independently associated with high Mini-Mental State Examination scores (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.17; p < 0.001) and low 36-item short-form (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.98; p = 0.002).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Depression may not be significantly associated with asthma and allergic diseases in elderly populations, but cough is a significant factor affecting depression.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713172

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thyrotoxicosis is a common disease resulting from an excess of thyroid hormones, which affects many organ systems. The clinical symptoms and signs are relatively nonspecific and can vary depending on age, sex, comorbidities, and the duration and cause of the disease. Several symptom rating scales have been developed in an attempt to assess these symptoms objectively and have been applied to diagnosis or to evaluation of the response to treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the hyperthyroidism symptom scale (K-HSS). METHODS: Twenty-eight thyrotoxic patients and 10 healthy subjects completed the K-HSS at baseline and after follow-up at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. The correlation between K-HSS scores and thyroid function was analyzed. K-HSS scores were compared between baseline and follow-up in patient and control groups. Cronbach's α coefficient was calculated to demonstrate the internal consistency of K-HSS. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 34.7±9.8 years and 13 (34.2%) were men. K-HSS scores demonstrated a significant positive correlation with serum free thyroxine concentration and decreased significantly with improved thyroid function. K-HSS scores were highest in subclinically thyrotoxic subjects, lower in patients who were euthyroid after treatment, and lowest in the control group at follow-up, but these differences were not significant. Cronbach's α coefficient for the K-HSS was 0.86. CONCLUSION: The K-HSS is a reliable and valid instrument for evaluating symptoms of thyrotoxicosis in Korean patients.


Subject(s)
Comorbidity , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Hyperthyroidism , Male , Reproducibility of Results , Seoul , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Hormones , Thyrotoxicosis , Thyroxine , Weights and Measures
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715913

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The performance of the self-monitoring of blood glucose in patients with diabetes should be properly evaluated to ensure strict glycemic control. This study evaluated the self-testing Blood Glucose Monitoring System GlucoDr.S™ (All Medicus Co., Ltd., Korea). METHODS: This study recruited 120 patients. Use of the glucometer was evaluated according to ISO 15197:2013 guidelines. The YSI 2300 STAT PLUS Glucose Analyzer (YSI Life Sciences, USA) was used as the reference device. RESULTS: The standard deviation and coefficients of variation ranges for measurement repeatability and intermediate measurement precision conducted with 10 meters and 3 reagent lots on the same day were 2.7–3.2 mg/dL (0.99. The influence effect of hematocrit and the 24 interference agents was not significant, except for xylose. A system accuracy test was conducted with 100 subjects taking duplicate measurements from each of the 3 reagent lots. When glucose levels were 95% of the samples were within ±15 mg/dL and within ±15% of the average measured values of the reference measurement, respectively. In Consensus Error grid analysis, all results were distributed in zone A and B. The results of the user performance evaluation using 115 lay persons were also included in the acceptance range. CONCLUSION: The GlucoDr.S™ showed acceptable performance according to the ISO 15197:2013 guidelines and could be a clinically useful self-testing glucometer.


Subject(s)
Biological Science Disciplines , Blood Glucose , Consensus , Glucose , Hematocrit , Humans , Xylose
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-29652

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bone strength is impaired in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus despite an increase in bone mineral density (BMD). Thiazolidinedione (TZD), a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ agonist, promotes adipogenesis, and suppresses osteoblastogenesis. Therefore, its use is associated with an increased risk of fracture. The aim of this study was to examine the in vitro and in vivo effects of lobeglitazone, a new TZD, on bone. METHODS: MC3T3E1 and C3H10T1/2 cells were cultured in osteogenic medium and exposed to lobeglitazone (0.1 or 1 µM), rosiglitazone (0.4 µM), or pioglitazone (1 µM) for 10 to 14 days. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, Alizarin red staining, and osteoblast marker gene expression were analyzed. For in vivo experiments, 6-month-old C57BL/6 mice were treated with vehicle, one of two doses of lobeglitazone, rosiglitazone, or pioglitazone. BMD was assessed using a PIXImus2 instrument at the baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: As expected, in vitro experiments showed that ALP activity was suppressed and the mRNA expression of osteoblast marker genes RUNX2 (runt-related transcription factor 2) and osteocalcin was significantly attenuated after rosiglitazone treatment. By contrast, lobeglitazone at either dose did not inhibit these variables. Rosiglitazone-treated mice showed significantly accelerated bone loss for the whole bone and femur, but BMD did not differ significantly between the lobeglitazone-treated and vehicle-treated mice. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that lobeglitazone has no detrimental effects on osteoblast biology and might not induce side effects in the skeletal system.


Subject(s)
Adipogenesis , Alkaline Phosphatase , Animals , Biology , Bone and Bones , Bone Density , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Femur , Gene Expression , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Infant , Mice , Osteoblasts , Osteocalcin , Peroxisomes , RNA, Messenger , Thiazolidinediones , Transcription Factors
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-159420

ABSTRACT

A hospitalist-run acute medical unit (AMU) opened at a tertiary care hospital on August 2015 for the first time in Korea. Patients visiting the emergency department (ED) with acute medical problems are admitted to the AMU. They stay in that unit for less than 72 hours and are discharged or transferred to specialty wards if longer treatment is necessary. We reviewed 19,450 medical admissions through the ED from January 2014 to September 2016. The median length of stay (LOS) significantly decreased from 10.0 days (interquartile range [IQR], 5.5–16.7) to 9.1 days (IQR, 5.1–15.0) (P < 0.001) after the establishment of the AMU. The median waiting time in the ED significantly shortened by 40% (P < 0.001). Future studies on the impact of AMU on in-patient morbidity, mortality, re-admission rate, and patient or staff satisfaction are necessary.


Subject(s)
Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospital Medicine , Hospitalists , Humans , Korea , Length of Stay , Mortality , Tertiary Healthcare
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138427

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic complications and antagonists of renin-angiotensin system and amlodipine have been reported previously to reduce oxidative stress. In this study, we compared the changes in oxidative stress markers after valsartan and amlodipine treatment in type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension and compared the changes in metabolic parameters. METHODS: Type 2 diabetic subjects with hypertension 30 to 80 years of age who were not taking antihypertensive drugs were randomized into either valsartan (n = 33) or amlodipine (n = 35) groups and treated for 24 weeks. We measured serum nitrotyrosine levels as an oxidative stress marker. Metabolic parameters including serum glucose, insulin, lipid profile, and urine albumin and creatinine were also measured. RESULTS: After 24 weeks of valsartan or amlodipine treatment, systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased, with no significant difference between the groups. Both groups showed a decrease in serum nitrotyrosine (7.74 ± 7.30 nmol/L vs. 3.95 ± 4.07 nmol/L in the valsartan group and 8.37 ± 8.75 nmol/L vs. 2.68 ± 2.23 nmol/L in the amlodipine group) with no significant difference between the groups. Other parameters including glucose, lipid profile, albumin-to-creatinine ratio, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance showed no significant differences before and after treatment in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Valsartan and amlodipine reduced the oxidative stress marker in type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension.


Subject(s)
Amlodipine , Antihypertensive Agents , Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Creatinine , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glucose , Homeostasis , Humans , Hypertension , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Oxidative Stress , Renin-Angiotensin System , Valsartan
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138426

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic complications and antagonists of renin-angiotensin system and amlodipine have been reported previously to reduce oxidative stress. In this study, we compared the changes in oxidative stress markers after valsartan and amlodipine treatment in type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension and compared the changes in metabolic parameters. METHODS: Type 2 diabetic subjects with hypertension 30 to 80 years of age who were not taking antihypertensive drugs were randomized into either valsartan (n = 33) or amlodipine (n = 35) groups and treated for 24 weeks. We measured serum nitrotyrosine levels as an oxidative stress marker. Metabolic parameters including serum glucose, insulin, lipid profile, and urine albumin and creatinine were also measured. RESULTS: After 24 weeks of valsartan or amlodipine treatment, systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased, with no significant difference between the groups. Both groups showed a decrease in serum nitrotyrosine (7.74 ± 7.30 nmol/L vs. 3.95 ± 4.07 nmol/L in the valsartan group and 8.37 ± 8.75 nmol/L vs. 2.68 ± 2.23 nmol/L in the amlodipine group) with no significant difference between the groups. Other parameters including glucose, lipid profile, albumin-to-creatinine ratio, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance showed no significant differences before and after treatment in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Valsartan and amlodipine reduced the oxidative stress marker in type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension.


Subject(s)
Amlodipine , Antihypertensive Agents , Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Creatinine , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glucose , Homeostasis , Humans , Hypertension , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Oxidative Stress , Renin-Angiotensin System , Valsartan
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-123915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this multicenter, randomized, double-blind study was to examine the effect of lobeglitazone, a novel thiazolidinedione, on the changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A 24-week, double-blinded phase was followed by a 28-week, open-label phase, in which the placebo group also started to receive lobeglitazone. A total of 170 patients aged 34 to 76 years were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive lobeglitazone 0.5 mg or a matching placebo orally, once daily. BMD was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at week 24 and at the end of the study (week 52). RESULTS: During the double-blinded phase, the femur neck BMD showed decreasing patterns in both groups, without statistical significance (−0.85%±0.36% and −0.78%±0.46% in the lobeglitazone and placebo groups, respectively). The treatment difference between the groups was 0.07%, which was also not statistically significant. Further, minimal, nonsignificant decreases were observed in both groups in the total hip BMD compared to values at baseline, and these differences also did not significantly differ between the groups. During the open-label phase, the BMD was further decreased, but not significantly, by −0.32% at the femur neck and by −0.60% at the total hip in the lobeglitazone group, and these changes did not significantly differ compared with the original placebo group switched to lobeglitazone. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that treatment with lobeglitazone 0.5 mg over 52 weeks showed no detrimental effect on the BMD compared to the placebo.


Subject(s)
Absorptiometry, Photon , Bone Density , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Double-Blind Method , Femur Neck , Hip , Humans , Thiazolidinediones
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