Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 56
Filter
1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833756

ABSTRACT

Free-living amoebas (FLAs) can cause severe disease in humans and animals when they become infected. However, there are no accurate survey reports on the prevalence of FLAs in Korea. In this study, we collected 163 tap water samples from buildings, apartments, and restrooms of highway service areas in 7 Korean provinces with high population density. All these buildings and facilities have water storage tanks in common. The survey was separated into categories of buildings, apartments, and highway service areas. Five hundred milliliters of tap water from each building was collected and filtered with 0.2 µm pore filter paper. The filters were incubated in agar plates with heated E. coli at 25°C. After axenization, genomic DNA was collected from each FLA, and species classification was performed using partial 18S-rDNA PCR-sequencing analysis. We found that 12.9% of tap water from buildings with storage tanks in Korea was contaminated with FLAs. The highway service areas had the highest contamination rate at 33.3%. All of the FLAs, except one, were genetically similar to Vermamoeba vermiformis (Hartmannella vermiformis). The remaining FLA (KFA21) was very similar to Acanthamoeba lugdunensis (KA/E26). Although cases of human infection by V. vermiformis are very rare, we must pay attention to the fact that one-third of tap water supplies in highway service areas have been contaminated.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833753

ABSTRACT

Echinococcosis occurs mainly in areas with heavy livestock farming, such as Central Asia, America, and Australia. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) infection causes echinococcosis in intermediate hosts, such as sheep, cattle, goats, camels, and horses. Numerous cases of echinococcosis occur in Uzbekistan as stock farming is a primary industry. Epidemiological and genetic studies of E. granulosus s.l. are very important for mitigating its impact on public health and the economy; however, there are no such studies on E. granulosus s.l. in Uzbekistan. In the present study, to determine which genotypes exist and are transmitted, we isolated Echinococcus sp. from definitive hosts (one isolate each from jackal and dog) and intermediate hosts (52 isolates from humans and 6 isolates from sheep) in Uzbekistan and analyzed the isolates by sequencing 2 mitochondrial DNA components (cox1 and nad1). The results showed that all of isolates except one belonged to the E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) G1 and G3 genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis based on cox1 sequences showed that 42 isolates from humans, 6 isolates from sheep, and one isolate from jackal were the G1 genotype, whereas the remaining 8 isolates from human and the one isolate from dog were the G3 genotype. These results suggest that the G1 and G3 genotypes of E. granulosus s.s. are predominant in Uzbekistan, and both wild animals and domestic animals are important for maintaining their life cycle. Only one isolate from human sample was confirmed to be E. eqiinus (G4 genotype), which is known to be for the first time.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833233

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To compare the anti-staphylococcal effect of nephrite-containing contact lens (CL) storage cases and conventional CLstorage cases.Method: The degree of proliferation and adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) on first- to third-generation silicone hydrogelcontact lenses (SHCLs) was analyzed through comparison of 5% nephrite-containing CL storage cases and conventionalCL storage cases. The degree of adhesion of S. aureus to the CL was also compared between 1% or 5% nephrite solution andmultipurpose solution (MPS).Result: Nephrite-containing CL storage cases showed a significant inhibitory effect on S. aureus proliferation (p = 0.004) and significantlyreduced the number of adherent S. aureus on all first- to third generation SHCLs compared with conventional CL storagecases (p = 0.026, p = 0.043, and p = 0.001, respectively). The anti-staphylococcal effect of 1% and 5% nephrite solutionswas not significantly better than that of MPS. @*Conclusions@#Nephrite shows potential as a next-generation substance for reducing infectious keratitis caused by S. aureuswhen added to CL storage cases.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903841

ABSTRACT

Strongyloidiasis is caused by Strongyloides stercoralis and is one of the most neglected tropical diseases in tropical and subtropical regions. Although several strongyloidiasis cases have been reported in Korea, genetic analysis of Korean isolates is still incomplete. In this study, a parasite was isolated from a 61-year-old man diagnosed with strongyloidiasis during the treatment of lymphoma on his retroperitoneal lymph node. Diffuse symmetric wall thickening from the ascending to descending colon and a nematode-infected intestine was observed following microscopic examination. Genomic DNA was isolated from a patient tissue block, and S. stercoralis was identified by PCR and sequencing (18S rDNA). In order to determine phylogenetic location of a Korean isolate (named KS1), we analyzed cox1 gene (500-bp) and compared it with that from 47 previous S. stercoralis isolates (28 human isolates and 19 canid isolates) from Asian countries. Our results showed that phylogenetic tree could clearly be divided into 5 different groups according to hosts and regions. KS1 was most closely related with the Chinese isolates in terms of genetic distance.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896137

ABSTRACT

Strongyloidiasis is caused by Strongyloides stercoralis and is one of the most neglected tropical diseases in tropical and subtropical regions. Although several strongyloidiasis cases have been reported in Korea, genetic analysis of Korean isolates is still incomplete. In this study, a parasite was isolated from a 61-year-old man diagnosed with strongyloidiasis during the treatment of lymphoma on his retroperitoneal lymph node. Diffuse symmetric wall thickening from the ascending to descending colon and a nematode-infected intestine was observed following microscopic examination. Genomic DNA was isolated from a patient tissue block, and S. stercoralis was identified by PCR and sequencing (18S rDNA). In order to determine phylogenetic location of a Korean isolate (named KS1), we analyzed cox1 gene (500-bp) and compared it with that from 47 previous S. stercoralis isolates (28 human isolates and 19 canid isolates) from Asian countries. Our results showed that phylogenetic tree could clearly be divided into 5 different groups according to hosts and regions. KS1 was most closely related with the Chinese isolates in terms of genetic distance.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761767

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth parasitic infections and associated risk factors for the human infection among the people of Samarkand, Uzbekistan. Infection status of helminths including Echinococcus granulosus was surveyed in domestic and wild animals from 4 sites in the Samarkand region, Uzbekistan during 2015–2018. Fecal samples of each animal were examined with the formalin-ether sedimentation technique and the recovery of intestinal helminths was performed with naked eyes and a stereomicroscope in total 1,761 animals (1,755 dogs, 1 golden jackal, and 5 Corsac foxes). Total 658 adult worms of E. granulosus were detected in 28 (1.6%) dogs and 1 (100%) golden jackal. More than 6 species of helminths, i.e., Taenia hydatigena, Dipylidium caninum, Diplopylidium nolleri, Mesocestoides lineatus, Toxocara canis, and Trichuris vulpis, were found from 18 (1.0%) dogs. Six (T. hydatigena, Toxascaris leonina, Alaria alata, Uncinaria stenocephala, D. caninum, and M. lineatus) and 2 (D. nolleri and M. lineatus) species of helminths were also detected from 5 Corsac foxes and 1 golden jackal, respectively. Taeniid eggs were found in 2 (20%) out of 10 soil samples. In the present study, it was confirmed that the prevalences of helminths including E. granulosus are not so high in domestic and wild animals. Nevertheless, the awareness on the zoonotic helminth infections should be continuously maintained in Uzbekistan for the prevention of human infection.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ancylostomatoidea , Animals , Animals, Wild , Dogs , Echinococcus granulosus , Eggs , Foxes , Helminths , Humans , Jackals , Mesocestoides , Ovum , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Soil , Taenia , Toxascaris , Toxocara canis , Trichuris , Uzbekistan
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738506

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a case of Thelazia callipaeda infection with preseptal cellulitis. CASE SUMMARY: A 24-year-old female presented with symptoms of conjunctival injection and ocular pain in her left eye and a parasite was found in her conjunctival sac. Using light microscopy, we identified Thelazia callipaeda and many larvae were observed in the vulva of an adult female worm. Three days later, erythematous swelling occurred in the left upper eyelid and four adult worms were found and removed with forceps. Third-generation cephalosporin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were administered orally; the eyelid swelling improved but the conjunctival injection remained. Later five and seven adult worms were removed every 4 weeks and the conjunctival injection improved with no parasites detected after the final extraction. CONCLUSIONS: In the case of Thelazia callipaeda infection, it is necessary to identify eggs and larvae and to observe the patient for more than 1 month because of postextraction growth of the larvae. In addition, the possibility of preseptal cellulitis by Thelazia callipaeda should be considered.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cellulitis , Eggs , Eyelids , Female , Humans , Lacrimal Apparatus , Larva , Microscopy , Ovum , Parasites , Surgical Instruments , Thelazioidea , Vulva , Young Adult
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the adhesion of Acanthamoeba trophozoites on cosmetic contact lenses (CLs) with and without CL care multipurpose solution (MPS) treatment. METHODS: Acanthamoeba lugdunensis L3a trophozoites were inoculated onto disks trimmed from CLs: 1-day Acuvue moist, 1-day Acuvue define, Acuvue 2, and Acuvue 2 define. After 18-hour inoculation, the number of adherent trophozoites was counted under phase contrast microscopy. The effects of MPS, Opti-Free Express, soaking CLs for 6 hours, on Acanthamoeba adhesion were analyzed. Scanning electron microscopic examination was performed for assessment of Acanthamoeba attached on the lens surface. RESULTS: Acanthamoeba trophozoites showed greater adhesion to cosmetic CL (P = 0.017 for 1-day CL and P = 0.009 for 2-week CL) although there was no significant difference between the types of cosmetic CL. On all lenses, the number of adherent Acanthamoeba was significantly reduced after treatment with MPS (P < 0.001 for 1-day Acuvue moist, P = 0.046 for 1-day Acuvue define, P < 0.001 for Acuvue 2, and P = 0.015 for Acuvue 2 define), but there was still significant difference between conventional and cosmetic CLs (P = 0.003 for 1-day CL and P < 0.001 for 2-week CL, respectively). More attachment of Acanthamoeba was observed on colored area and the acanthopodia of Acanthamoeba was placed on the rough surface of colored area. CONCLUSION: Acanthamoeba showed a greater affinity for cosmetic CL and mostly attached on colored area. Although MPS that contained myristamidopropyl dimethylamine reduced the adhesion rate, there was a significant difference between conventional and cosmetic CLs.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba , Contact Lenses , Microscopy, Phase-Contrast , Trophozoites
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193508

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the amoebicidal effects of nephrite containing contact lens (CL) storage cases with conventional CL storage cases. METHODS: Acanthamoeba lugdunensis were inoculated onto 5% nephrite containing CL storage cases as well as conventional CL storage cases both with and without silicone hydrogel contact lenses (SHCLs). Then the amount of Acanthamoeba proliferation on CL storage cases and the number of adherent Acanthamoeba on SHCLs were determined and compared. The effects of multipurpose solution (MPS) with and without 1% or 5% nephrite solution on Acanthamoeba adhesion were analyzed. RESULTS: Nephrite containing CL storage cases showed more inhibitory effects on Acanthamoeba proliferation (p = 0.02) and significantly reduced the number of adherent Acanthamoeba on SHCLs compared with conventional CL storage cases, regardless of SHCLs generation (p = 0.001, p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). The number of adherent Acanthamoeba on the first generation of SHCLs was significantly reduced by MPS with 1% and 5% nephrite solutions (p = 0.03 and p = 0.004, respectively), but the numbers for the second and third generation SHCLs were not. CONCLUSIONS: Nephrite could be used as a new additive component for CL storage cases and multipurpose solutions to improve the disinfection effects on Acanthamoeba.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba , Contact Lenses , Disinfection , Hydrogels , Silicon , Silicones
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58755

ABSTRACT

Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a causative agent of cystic echinococcosis or cystic hydatid disease in humans and domestic and wild animals. The disease is a serious health problem in countries associated with poverty and poor hygiene practices, particularly in livestock raising. We introduced a practical algorism for genotyping the parasite, which may be useful to many developing countries. To evaluate the efficiency of the algorism, we genotyped 3 unknown strains isolated from human patients. We found that unknowns 1 and 3 were included in G1, G2, and G3 genotypes group and unknown 2 was included in G4 genotype (Echinococcus equinus) according to the algorisms. We confirmed these results by sequencing the 3 unknown isolates cox1 and nad1 PCR products. In conclusion, these new algorisms are very fast genotype identification tools that are suitable for evaluating E. granulosus s.l. isolated from livestock or livestock holders, particularly in developing countries.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Wild , Developing Countries , Echinococcosis , Echinococcus granulosus , Echinococcus , Genotype , Humans , Hygiene , Livestock , Parasites , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Poverty
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57435

ABSTRACT

As most infections by the helminth parasite elicit the recruitment of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T (T(reg)) cells, many scientists have suggested that these cells could be used for the treatment of immune-mediated inflammation and associated diseases. In order to investigate the distribution and alteration of activated T(reg) cells, we compared the expression levels of T(reg) cell activation markers in the ileum and gastrocnemius tissues 1, 2, and 4 weeks after infection. The number of T(reg) cells was monitored using GFP-coded Foxp3 transgenic mice. In mice at 1 week after Trichinella spiralis infection, the number of activated T(reg) cells was higher than in the control group. In mice at 2 weeks after infection, there was a significant increase in the number of cells expressing Foxp3 and CTLA-4 when compared to the control group and mice at 1 week after infection. At 4 weeks after infection, T. spiralis was easily identifiable in nurse cells in mouse muscles. In the intestine, the expression of Gzmb and Klrg1 decreased over time and that of Capg remained unchanged for the first and second week, then decreased in the 4th week. However, in the muscles, the expression of most chemokine genes was increased due to T. spiralis infection, in particular the expression levels of Gzmb, OX40, and CTLA-4 increased until week 4. In addition, increased gene expression of all chemokine receptors in muscle, CXCR3, CCR4, CCR5, CCR9, and CCR10, was observed up until the 4th week. In conclusion, various chemokine receptors showed increased expressions combined with recruitment of T(reg) cells in the muscle tissue.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gene Expression , Helminths , Ileum , Inflammation , Intestines , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Muscles , Parasites , Receptors, Chemokine , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Trichinella spiralis , Trichinella
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225154

ABSTRACT

In Trichinella spiralis infection, type 2 helper T (Th2) cell-related and regulatory T (T(reg)) cell-related immune responses are the most important immune events. In order to clarify which Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are closely associated with these responses, we analyzed the expression of mouse TLR genes in the small intestine and muscle tissue during T. spiralis infection. In addition, the expression of several chemokine- and cytokine-encoding genes, which are related to Th2 and T(reg) cell mediated immune responses, were analyzed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) isolated from myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/TIR-associated proteins (TIRAP) and Toll receptor-associated activator of interferons (TRIF) adapter protein deficient and wild type (WT) mice. The results showed significantly increased TLR4 and TLR9 gene expression in the small intestine after 2 weeks of T. spiralis infection. In the muscle, TLR1, TLR2, TLR5, and TLR9 gene expression significantly increased after 4 weeks of infection. Only the expression of the TLR4 and TLR9 genes was significantly elevated in WT MEF cells after treatment with excretory-secretory (ES) proteins. Gene expression for Th2 chemokine genes were highly enhanced by ES proteins in WT MEF cells, while this elevation was slightly reduced in MyD88/TIRAP-/- MEF cells, and quite substantially decreased in TRIF-/- MEF cells. In contrast, IL-10 and TGF-beta expression levels were not elevated in MyD88/TIRAP-/- MEF cells. In conclusion, we suggest that TLR4 and TLR9 might be closely linked to Th2 cell and T(reg) cell mediated immune responses, although additional data are needed to convincingly prove this observation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gene Expression , Humans , Interleukin-10/genetics , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Th2 Cells/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptors/genetics , Trichinella spiralis/genetics , Trichinellosis/genetics
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225144

ABSTRACT

To determine whether pinworm infections and head lice infestations spread among children in orphanages, 117 children from 4 orphanages in Busan-si and Ulsan-si, Korea, were examined for enterobiasis and head lice infestation between January and February 2014. The overall rate of Enterobius vermicularis egg positivity was 0.85%, whereas none of the children had head lice infestations. The rate of pinworm infection was much lower among the orphanage children compared to the rates observed in previous studies among kindergarten and primary school students. Moreover, the risk factors for enterobiasis were less frequent among these subjects than previously reported. The personal hygiene and health of the orphanage children were supervised by a regular, employed nurse through a health education program. In conclusion, pinworm infection was efficiently controlled among the children in orphanages, and this might be related to good personal hygiene practices in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Enterobiasis/epidemiology , Enterobius/genetics , Female , Humans , Hygiene , Lice Infestations/epidemiology , Male , Orphanages/statistics & numerical data , Pediculus/genetics , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-219587

ABSTRACT

Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of human multiple sclerosis (MS), reflects pathophysiologic steps in MS such as the influence of T cells and antibodies reactive to the myelin sheath, and the cytotoxic effect of cytokines. Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is a member of animal lectins that plays an essential role in various biological functions. The expression of Gal-9 is significantly enhanced in MS lesions; however, its role in autoimmune disease has not been fully elucidated. To identify the role of Gal-9 in EAE, we measured changes in mRNA and protein expression of Gal-9 as EAE progressed. Expression increased with disease progression, with a sharp rise occurring at its peak. Gal-9 immunoreactivity was mainly expressed in astrocytes and microglia of the central nervous system (CNS) and macrophages of spleen. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that Gal-9+CD11b+ cells were dramatically increased in the spleen at the peak of disease. Increased expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-R1 and p-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was observed in the CNS of EAE mice, suggesting that TNF-R1 and p-JNK might be key regulators contributing to the expression of Gal-9 during EAE. These results suggest that identification of the relationship between Gal-9 and EAE progression is critical for better understanding Gal-9 biology in autoimmune disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Astrocytes , Autoimmune Diseases , Biology , Central Nervous System , Cytokines , Disease Progression , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental , Humans , Lectins , Macrophages , Mice , Microglia , Models, Animal , Multiple Sclerosis , Myelin Sheath , Phosphotransferases , RNA, Messenger , Spleen , T-Lymphocytes , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210963

ABSTRACT

Sparganosis is a parasitic infection caused by the plerocercoid tapeworm larva of the genus Spirometra. Although the destination of the larva is often a tissue or muscle in the chest, abdominal wall, extremities, eyes, brain, urinary tract, spinal canal, and scrotum, intramuscular sparganosis is uncommon and therefore is difficult to distinguish from a soft tissue tumor. We report a case of intramuscular sparganosis involving the gastrocnemius muscle in an elderly patient who was diagnosed using ultrasonography and MRI and treated by surgical excision. At approximately 1 cm near the schwannoma at the right distal sciatic nerve, several spargana worms were detected and removed.


Subject(s)
Aged , Animals , Histocytochemistry , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Microscopy , Muscle, Skeletal/parasitology , Sparganosis/diagnosis , Spirometra/isolation & purification , Ultrasonography
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-190462

ABSTRACT

Ascidian soft tunic syndrome (AsSTS) caused by Azumiobodo hoyamushi (A. hoyamushi) is a serious aquaculture problem that results in mass mortality of ascidians. Accordingly, the early and accurate detection of A. hoyamushi would contribute substantially to disease management and prevention of transmission. Recently, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method was adopted for clinical diagnosis of a range of infectious diseases. Here, the authors describe a rapid and efficient LAMP-based method targeting the 18S rDNA gene for detection of A. hoyamushi using ascidian DNA for the diagnosis of AsSTS. A. hoyamushi LAMP assay amplified the DNA of 0.01 parasites per reaction and detected A. hoyamushi in 10 ng of ascidian DNA. To validate A. hoyamushi 18S rDNA LAMP assays, AsSTS-suspected and non-diseased ascidians were examined by microscopy, PCR, and by using the LAMP assay. When PCR was used as a gold standard, the LAMP assay showed good agreement in terms of sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). In the present study, a LAMP assay based on directly heat-treated samples was found to be as efficient as DNA extraction using a commercial kit for detecting A. hoyamushi. Taken together, this study shows the devised A. hoyamushi LAMP assay could be used to diagnose AsSTS in a straightforward, sensitive, and specific manner, that it could be used for forecasting, surveillance, and quarantine of AsSTS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Euglenozoa Infections/diagnosis , Kinetoplastida/classification , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Predictive Value of Tests , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Urochordata
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-216681

ABSTRACT

Pinworm infection can occur through contact with contaminated surfaces followed by ingestion or even through inhalation of infective eggs. We have limited information regarding environmental contamination by eggs of Enterobius vermicularis. In order to determine environmental risk factors associated with the rate of E. vermicularis infection, we investigated possible environmental risk factors using a questionnaire from 46 kindergartens in 3 different cities of the southeast area of Korea. In total, using the cellotape anal swab technique, 3,422 children were examined for E. vermicularis infection. We evaluated E. vermicularis egg of books, educational materials, toys, room door handles, dusts of window edges, desks, chairs, tables, and dusts of classrooms. The overall egg-positive rate for E. vermicularis was 6.0%, and the prevalence of enterobiasis in each kindergarten ranged between 0% and 16.9%. We found that 78.9% of egg positive kindergartens were managed by private foundations, which was significantly higher, compared with kindergartens managed by public foundations or the nation. Compared with public or national kindergartens, most private kindergartens were located in residential areas and the number of children in these areas was significantly higher. In conclusion, numbers of children in kindergartens was found to be an environmental risk factor associated with transmission of enterobiasis in Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Child Day Care Centers , Child, Preschool , Enterobiasis/epidemiology , Enterobius/isolation & purification , Environmental Exposure , Female , Humans , Korea/epidemiology , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Assessment
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189488

ABSTRACT

The ascarids, Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina, are probably the most common gastrointestinal helminths encountered in dogs. In order to understand biological differences of 2 ascarids, we analyzed gene expression profiles of female adults of T. canis and T. leonina using CLC Genomics Workbench, and the results were compared with those of free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. A total of 2,880 and 7,949 ESTs were collected from T. leonina and T. canis, respectively. The length of ESTs ranged from 106 to 4,637 bp with an average insert size of 820 bp. Overall, our results showed that most functional gene annotations of 2 ascarids were quite similar to each other in 3 major categories, i.e., cellular component, biological process, and molecular function. Although some different transcript expression categories were found, the distance was short and it was not enough to explain their different lifestyles. However, we found distinguished transcript differences between ascarid parasites and free-living nematodes. Understanding evolutionary genetic changes might be helpful for studies of the lifestyle and evolution of parasites.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dogs , Female , Genomics , Molecular Sequence Annotation , Toxascariasis/parasitology , Toxascaris/genetics , Toxocara canis/genetics , Toxocariasis/parasitology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155351

ABSTRACT

To determine alteration of immune responses during visceral larva migrans (VLM) caused by Toxascaris leonina at several time points, we experimentally infected mice with embryonated eggs of T. leonina and measured T-helper (Th) cell-related serial cytokine production after infection. At day 5 post infection (PI), most larvae were detected from the lungs, spleen, intestine, and muscle. Expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and CCL11 (eotaxin) showed a significant increase in most infected organs, except the intestine. However, expression of the CXCL1 (Gro-alpha) gene was most highly enhanced in the intestine at day 14 PI. Th1-related cytokine secretion of splenocytes showed increases at day 28 PI, and the level showed a decrease at day 42 PI. Th2-related cytokine secretion of splenocytes also showed an increase after infection; in particular, IL-5 level showed a significant increase at day 14 PI, and the level showed a decrease at day 28 PI. However, levels of Th17-related cytokines, IL-6 and IL-17A, showed gradual increases until day 42 PI. In conclusion, Th1, Th2, and Th17-related cytokine production might be important in immune responses against T. leonina VLM in experimental mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain/parasitology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Heart/parasitology , Interleukins/metabolism , Intestines/parasitology , Larva Migrans, Visceral/immunology , Liver/parasitology , Lung/parasitology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Muscles/parasitology , Spleen/parasitology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Toxascaris/immunology
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69768

ABSTRACT

In order to know the effect of pre-existing Trichinella spiralis infection on experimentally induced intestinal inflammation and immune responses, we induced colitis in T. spiralis-infected mice and observed the severity of colitis and the levels of Th1, Th2, and regulatory cytokines and recruitment of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T (regulatory T; Treg) cells. Female C57BL/6 mice were infected with 250 muscle larvae; after 4 weeks, induction of experimental colitis was performed using 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). During the induction period, we observed severity of colitis, including weight loss and status of stool, and evaluated the disease activity index (DAI). A significantly low DAI and degree of weight loss were observed in infected mice, compared with uninfected mice. In addition, colon length in infected mice was not contracted, compared with uninfected mice. We also observed a significant increase in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and IFN-gamma, in spleen lymphocytes treated with DSS; however, such an increase was not observed in infected mice treated with DSS. Of particular interest, production of regulatory cytokines, IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, in spleen lymphocytes showed a significant increase in mice infected with T. spiralis. A similar result was observed in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). Subsets of the population of Treg cells in MLN and spleen showed significant increases in mice infected with T. spiralis. In conclusion, T. spiralis infection can inhibit the DSS-induced colitis in mice by enhancing the regulatory cytokine and Treg cells recruitment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Colitis/chemically induced , Cytokines/genetics , Dextran Sulfate/adverse effects , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Forkhead Transcription Factors/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation , Larva , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Spleen/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Trichinella spiralis/immunology , Trichinellosis/immunology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL