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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931065

ABSTRACT

Small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) are necessary structural ingredients of the cornea, which are vital for the establishment and maintenance of corneal transparency.SLRPs are mainly located in the corneal stroma and can be divided into class Ⅰ, class Ⅱ, and class Ⅲ.The compensatory and cooperative interactions among SLRPs regulate the formation and assembly of stromal collagen fibrils, thereby maintaining the highly ordered arrangement of collagen fibrils, and establishing corneal transparency.Decorin and lumican are the main functional components of class Ⅰ and class Ⅱ SLRPs, respectively, and changes in their expression or abnormities in the structure of their core proteins affect the natural content and arrangement of other stromal extracellular matrix components, ultimately resulting in abnormal fibril formation, assembly, and arrangement, causing corneal opacity.SLRPs can regulate corneal wound healing and stromal matrix remodeling via binding to fibrotic molecules and their receptors, which provides bases for corneal diseases therapy and study of molecular mechanisms of corneal transparency.The bioactivities and the role of SLRPs in corneal transparency were reviewed in this article.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926326

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the test-retest reliability of a contour-based stereoacuity test using a head-mounted display (HMD) and compare it with other stereotests. @*Methods@#Thirty-two healthy adults aged 23-47 years were recruited from a tertiary hospital between August 2017 and July 2018. Two separate contour-based circles (crossed disparity: 135-1,350 arcsecs) were generated on a high-resolution phone display (Galaxy S7; Samsung, Seoul, Korea) using an HMD (Galaxy Gear VR). Two images were independently projected to each eye as graded circles with a random dot background. The results of the new HMD stereotest were compared to those of the standard Randot and TNO stereotests. The test-retest reliability was assessed using the Bland-Altman plot and Cohen’s kappa statistics. @*Results@#Among the 32 study participants, 17 (53%) were males and the mean age was 30.1 ± 4.8 years (range: 23-47). The mean stereoacuity was 160.3 ± 53.5 arcsecs in the first HMD stereotest (HMD1), 28.4 ± 12.5 arcsecs in the Randot stereotest, 96.1 ± 83.5 arcsecs in the TNO stereotest, and 143.3 ± 47.7 arcsecs in the second HMD stereotest (HMD2). The Bland-Altman plot showed a mean difference of 0.042 (-0.189 to +0.272, 95% limits of agreement) between HMD1 and HMD2. The reliability analysis showed an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.499 (p = 0.022) and agreement of 81.25% in Cohen’s kappa statistics (Cohen’s kappa index = 0.119, p = 0.017). @*Conclusions@#The HMD stereotest without monocular cues showed fair test-retest reliability and reproducibility. Further studies using a high resolution display are needed to confirm the validity of the HMD stereotest.

3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916398

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate surgical outcome and effectiveness of inferior oblique (IO) myectomy on unilateral superior oblique palsy (SOP) as a primary treatment. @*Methods@#This study is a retrospective review of the medical records of 99 patients who had undergone IO myectomy due to SOP as a first-line treatment. Sixty-five patients with hyperdeviation of 15 prism diopters (PD) or less were categorized into group 1, 22 patients with hyperdeviation between 16 PD to 20 PD into group 2, and 12 patients with hyperdeviation higher than 20 PD into group 3. Preoperative hyperdeviation, postoperative hyperdeviation, and improvement of head tilting were then compared between the 3 groups. Surgery was determined to be successful when the post-op residual hyperdeviation is less than 5 PD, or when the improvement of hyperdeviation and head tilting was noted, for the patients who had preoperative deviation less than 5 PD, and without hypercorrection. @*Results@#All groups showed significant improvement of hyperdeviation, and the amount of correction was larger in group with larger preoperative hyperdeviation. 80.3%, 95.0%, and 90.9% of patients showed improvement of head tiling and success rate was 87.7%, 77.3%, and 50.0% in group 1, 2, and 3 respectively. Group 1 and 2, group 2 and 3 had no significant difference in success rate but only group 1 and 3 had significant difference. @*Conclusions@#Considering success rate with improvement of head position, self-titrating and possibility of overcorrection, IO myectomy could be an effective option as a first-line surgical treatment for unilateral SOP with hyperdeviation of 20 PD or less. However, due to a 50% success rate in patients with hyperdeviation larger than 20 PD, a secondary operation must be considered following IO myectomy, or a two-muscle procedure must be considered as a primary treatment.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-793272

ABSTRACT

Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the intake of salt and salted food and the infection of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) among 40-69 years old local residents in a county with high gastric cancer risk in Anhui province. Methods From July 2015 to August 2018, we conducted a questionnaire and a serological test for Hp among 40-69 years old local residents in Lujiang county, Anhui province. The questionnaire focused on the consumptions of salt and salted food. The relationship between Hp infection and risk factors was analyzed by gender. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the relevant influencing factors. Results The Hp infection rate of total local residents was 50.07%. Among male subjects, age, body mass index(BMI), marital status, educational level, job, labor intensity and income had no link to Hp infection (all P>0.05). But among female subjects, BMI was associated with Hp infection ( 2=13.454,P=0.001). Besides, alcohol consumption was a risk factor for Hp infection in male subjects(OR=1.789,95% CI:1.188-2.694,P=0.003). But, high intake of salt and salted food had no effect on Hp infection after adjustment for alcohol consumption variable in men using multivariate analysis (all P>0.05). After adjusted for BMI variable among female individuals, high salt intake (≥9 g/day) (OR=1.462,95% CI:1.060-2.015,P=0.021) and the high salted food intake (≥1 times /day) were risk factors for Hp infection in women(OR=1.560,95% CI:1.021-2.383,P=0.040). Conclusions In one county with high gastric cancer risk in Anhui province, high salt intake (≥9 g/day) and high salted food intake (≥1 times/day) are risk factors for Hp infection among 40-69 years old female local residents.

5.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 1174-1177, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-869545

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the relationship of glycated hemoglobin(HbA1c)and brain natriuretic peptide(BNP)levels with clinical prognosis of acute myocardial infarction.Methods:A total of 108 patients with acute myocardial infarction combined with diabetes mellitus, who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI)from March 2016 to June 2017 in our hospital, were enrolled.According to the HbA1c level, patients were divided into three groups: Group A(HbA1c≤6.9%, n=36), Group B(7%≤HbA1c≤7.9%, n=31)and Group C(HbA1c≥8%, n=41). HbA1c and NT-proBNP levels, cardiac function classification at admission and discharge, the incidence of adverse cardiac events during hospitalization and left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF)at admission, discharge and 3 months after discharge were analyzed.Results:Among the three groups, plasma NT-proBNP levels were higher in Group C than in Group B and Group A( P<0.05), and there was no significant difference between Group B and Group C( P<0.05). Furthermore, HbA1c levels were positively correlated with NT-proBNP levels in Group C( P<0.05). Cardiac function grading was better in Group A and Group B than in Group C at discharge.During hospitalization, the incidence of adverse cardiac events in Group C was 29.3%, which was higher than in Group A(8.3%)and Group B(9.7%)( P<0.05). LVEF levels were significantly improved in Group A and Group B at discharge and 3 months after discharge, compared with those at admission, while Group C had no significant improvement in LVEF levels and had lower LVEF than Group A and Group B( P<0.05). Conclusions:HbA1c and NT proBNP levels can be used as a joint monitoring indicator in patients with acute myocardial infarctions after PCI, to help prevent and reduce the incidence of complications and mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction after PCI and improve clinical prognosis.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835048

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To compare refractive error measured by hand-held wavefront aberrometers with postcycloplegic autorefraction (AR) and cycloplegic refraction (CR). @*Methods@#The medical records of patients who received refractive measurements using the wavefront aberrometer, postcycloplegic AR, and CR between January 2014 and January 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. The mean differences, 95% confidence intervals, and limits of agreement (LOA) were calculated for the refractive vector components (M, J0, and J45). @*Results@#Fifty-one patients (9.0 ± 5.5 years, male 41.2%) were enrolled in this study, and only the right eye of each was included. Refractive errors ranged from -9.25 to +7.25 diopters (D) for spherical equivalent (median, 0.75 D). The M component was not significantly different among the three methods (p = 0.080). However, the J0 vector component was significantly different (p < 0.001). After post hoc analysis, the wavefront aberrometer obtained more positive values for J0 compared to the other methods. The J45 component was not significantly different among the three methods (p = 0.143). The mean difference between the wavefront aberrometer and postcycloplegic AR was -0.115 D (LOA, -1.578 to 1.348 D) for M, 0.239 D (LOA, -0.371 to 0.850 D) for J0, and -0.015 D (LOA, -0.768 to 0.738 D) for J45. The mean difference between the wavefront aberrometer and CR was -0.220 D (LOA, -1.790 to 1.350 D) for M, 0.300 D (LOA, -0.526 to 1.127 D) for J0, and -0.079 D (-0.662 to 0.504 D) for J45. @*Conclusions@#The wavefront aberrometer showed good agreement with postcycloplegic AR and CR in spherical equivalents, but tended to produce slightly myopic results. The wavefront aberrometer also overestimated with-the-rule astigmatism. Therefore, we recommend that the device be used for estimations of refractive error, which may be useful for patients who have postural difficulties, live in undeveloped countries, or are bedridden.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833265

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the correlation of superior oblique (SO) atrophy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with clinical features including surgical success in unilateral SO palsy. @*Methods@#This study was a retrospective review of the records of 38 patients who had undergone inferior oblique (IO) myectomy due to SO palsy between January 2017 and March 2019 at our hospital. The patients with more than a 40% decrease of cross-section areas using preoperative orbital MRI were categorized into the atrophic group (16 patients). We compared surgical outcomes between the atrophic and non-atrophic groups. @*Results@#Preoperative IO over-action and vertical deviation showed no significant difference, but the excyclotorsion in paralytic eyes were more frequent in the atrophic group and the surgical success (62.5% vs. 95.5%), and the degree in improvement of vertical deviation (7.17 ± 5.19 prism diopters [PD] vs. 11.05 ± 5.59 PD) was significantly lower in the atrophic group. The degree of SO atrophy showed a weak correlation with the degree of improvement of hypertropia or diopter differences of bilateral head tilting. @*Conclusions@#SO atrophy, detected using preoperative MRI of unilateral SO palsy patients did not show a definite correlation with clinical features except for excyclotorsion in paralytic eyes but did show a clinically significant correlation with surgical outcomes. Preoperative MRI can therefore be used for predicting surgical outcomes of IO myectomy in unilateral SO palsy patients.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779416

ABSTRACT

Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and hypertension in Henan rural residents, and to explore the association between vitamin D and risk of hypertension. Methods 2 013 Henan rural participants aged 18-80 years were recruited from a cross-sectional study. Logistic regression models and restricted cubic spline model were used to evaluate odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and dose-response relationship between vitamin D and risk of hypertension. Results In total population, the prevalence of hypertension was 40.34% (30.64% after age-standard), and the mean serum 25-(OH)D was (24.50 ± 16.18) ng/ml, and 53.95% of all participants were presenting vitamin D deficiency. Compared with non-hypertension, a lower level of serum 25-(OH)D was observed in people with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was 45.21% in vitamin D deficient group which was higher than in the vitamin D sufficient group (31.07%). Compared with the vitamin D sufficient group, the risk of hypertension was increase in the vitamin D deficient group (OR=1.59, 95% CI: 1.21-2.10), and the risk of hypertension decreased by 14% for every 10 ng/ml increase in serum 25-(OH) D levels. Moreover, an L-shaped relationship was observed between 25-(OH)D concentration and risk of hypertension. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency is associated with risk of hypertension and there is an L-shaped relationship between 25-(OH)D concentration and risk of hypertension.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760024

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare long-term refractive outcomes associated with intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) versus laser photocoagulation treatment for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHODS: A total of 52 eyes from 27 ROP patients treated at two tertiary referral-based hospitals from August 2006 to December 2013 were reviewed. The primary outcome was refractive error measured at the age of 4 years, accounting for within-patient inter-eye correlation. Secondary outcomes included the recurrence rate and treatment complications. RESULTS: The mean age at refraction was 4.7 ± 0.3 years in the laser group (n = 30) and 4.4 ± 0.3 years in the anti-VEGF group (n = 22). No significant differences were noted in gestational age, birthweight, post-menstrual age at treatment, or ROP stage/zone distribution between groups. Mean spherical equivalent was also not significantly different (−1.0 diopters in the laser group and −0.3 diopters in the injection group, p = 0.603). Clustered regression analysis revealed that only gestational age was significantly correlated with mean spherical equivalent (p < 0.001; 95% confidence interval, −0.007 to −0.002). Recurrence was noted in four eyes (13.3%) in the laser group, but this difference was not significant (p = 0.128). There were no major systemic complications reported in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment type, whether laser or anti-VEGF injection, does not appear to influence long-term refractive outcomes in ROP. Concern regarding refractive outcomes should not be the most important factor when selecting ROP treatment modality.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Endothelial Growth Factors , Gestational Age , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Laser Therapy , Light Coagulation , Recurrence , Refractive Errors , Retinopathy of Prematurity , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766894

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of adjusted Kestenbaum surgery in patients with idiopathic infantile nystagmus who were affected by both strabismus and face turn. METHODS: This retrospective consecutive case series included 12 patients with infantile nystagmus who had face turn and strabismus. All patients underwent adjusted Kestenbaum surgery between 1996 and 2014, and primary outcome measures were the postoperative degree of face turn and strabismus. RESULTS: All patients had jerky nystagmus with compensatory face turn and strabismus. Of the 12 patients, eight patients were exotropes and four patients were esotropes. The mean age at surgery was 12.5 ± 10.7 years (range, 2–36 years). The mean postoperative follow-up was 17.8 ± 12.0 months (range, 7–43 months). Surgery was successful in eight (66.7%) out of 12 patients. Improvement of anomalous head posture was satisfactory in all patients, but an angle of deviation within 10 prism diopters was not achieved in four patients. CONCLUSIONS: Adjusted Kestenbaum surgery simultaneously improved both ocular misalignment and face turn with one-stage surgery. Two or three rectus muscles surgery can be considered in these patients because it is not only simpler than four muscles surgery but also can preserve one or two rectus muscles.


Subject(s)
Follow-Up Studies , Head , Humans , Muscles , Oculomotor Muscles , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Posture , Retrospective Studies , Strabismus
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787504

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have reported that multimorbidity is associated with suicidality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between physical multimorbidity and suicidal ideation (SI) among the elderly.METHODS: A total of 6,712 subjects aged over 65 years without depression were analyzed from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey databases (2010–2013, 2015). In our study, multimorbidity was defined as being diagnosed with two or more chronic diseases. The association between multimorbidity and SI was evaluated through multiple logistic regression analysis.RESULTS: Through our analysis, 40.7% of participants had multimorbidity and the 14.6% had SI. Multimorbidity was associated with suicidal ideation when adjusting for sociodemographic and health behavior covariates (odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14–1.55). However, no association between multimorbidity and SI existed after adjusting for additional health status factors. In subgroup analyses performed according to education level and health status, the risk of SI was high in subjects with multimorbidity only in those with below elementary school education level (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.14–1.63). Further subgroup analysis indicated that the group without stress and the group without depressiveness both showed association of multimorbidity with SI (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.02–1.59; OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05–1.56).CONCLUSION: The study findings suggest that elderly with multimorbidity must be identified, evaluated, and managed for SI with special attention to those with education levels below elementary school. Physicians should also focus on assessing mental health status in the case of multimorbidity in the elderly without depression.


Subject(s)
Aged , Chronic Disease , Comorbidity , Depression , Education , Health Behavior , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Mental Health , Nutrition Surveys , Suicidal Ideation
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-800155

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Through the study of angiotensinⅡ- type 2 receptor agonist (AT2R) after pretreatment of mechanical ventilation lung injury (VILI) in rats model, to clarify the role of angiotensin Ⅱ - type 2 receptor agonist (C21) in alleviating VILI inflammation and the damage of immune function and its possible mechanism.@*Methods@#In this experiment, the acute lung injury model was established by mechanical spring-volume ventilation in SD rats, and C21 pretreatment was performed to observe the pathological condition of lung tissue in rats with different ventilation duration, and to detect the inflammatory changes of BALF lavage fluid. Flow cytometry was used to detect the CD68+/iNOS+ labeled M1 type AMφ and the CD68+/Arg-1+ labeled M2 type AMφ in alveolar lavage fluid.@*Results@#The mechanical VILI rat model was successfully established. The pathological injury score of the mechanical ventilation 4 h model, the wet/dry weight of lung tissue, the number of cells and protein in BALF lavage fluid were increased significantly, the levels of TNF-α and IL - 1 were increased significantly, the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were decreased significantly, and the level of inflammatory reaction decreased with the increase of ventilation time. The M1/M2 ratio in the 4 h ventilation model group was the highest, which was significantly different from the control group (P<0.05). Compared to the model group, the C21 pretreatment significantly reduced the levels of proinflammatory factors TNF-αand IL-1, and increased the levels of anti-inflammatory factors IL-4 and IL-10 in BALF (P<0.01). After the intervention of AT2R agonist at 4 h, 6 h and 8 h, the M1/M2 ratio of the model was lower than that of the model without AT2R agonist at 4 h, 6 h and 8 h.@*Conclusion@#Mechanical ventilation for 4 h in SD rats can establish a mechanical ventilation lung injury model. AT2R agonist C21 can promote the polarization of macrophages to m2-type, and C21 pretreatment may alleviate VILI inflammation and immune damage by altering the polarization of macrophages.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-823624

ABSTRACT

Objective Through the study of angiotensin Ⅱ-type 2 receptor agonist(AT2R)after pretreatment of mechanical ventilation lung injury(VILI)in rats model,to clarify the role of angiotensin Ⅱ-type 2 receptor agonist(C21)in alleviating VILI inflammation and the damage of immune function and its possible mechanism.Methods In this experiment,the acute lung injury model was established by mechanical spring-volume ventilation in SD rats,and C21 pretreatment was performed to observe the pathological condition of lung tissue in rats with different ventilation duration,and to detect the inflammatory changes of BALF lavage fluid.Flow cytometry was used to detect the CD68+/INOS+labeled M 1 type Amφ and the CD68+/Arg-1+labeled M2 type Amφ in alveolar lavage fluid.Results The mechanical VILI rat model was successfully established.The pathological injury score of the mechanical ventilation 4 h model,the wet/dry weight of lung tissue,the number of cells and protein in BALF lavage fluid were increased significantly,the levels of TNF-α and IL-1 were increased significantly,the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were decreased significantly,and the level of inflammatory reaction decreased with the increase of ventilation time.The M1/M2 ratio in the 4 h ventilation model group was the highest,which was significantly different from the control group(P<0.05).Compared to the model group,the C21 pretreatment significantly reduced the levels of proinflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-1,and increased the levels of anti-inflammatory factors IL-4 and IL-10 in BALF(P<O.O1).After the intervention of AT2R agonist at 4 h,6 h and 8 h,the M1/M2 ratio of the model was lower than that of the model without AT2R agonist at 4 h,6 h and 8 h.Conclusion Mechanical ventilation for 4 h in SD rats can establish a mechanical ventilation lung injury model.AT2R agonist C21 can promote the polarization of macrophages to m2-type,and C21 pretreatment may alleviate VILI inflammation and immune damage by altering the polarization of macrophages.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773566

ABSTRACT

The steroidal saponins are one of the saponin types that exist in an unbound state and have various pharmacological activities, such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial and nerves-calming properties. Cancer is a growing health problem worldwide. Significant progress has been made to understand the antitumor effects of steroidal saponins in recent years. According to reported findings, steroidal saponins exert various antitumor activities, such as inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis and autophagy, and regulating the tumor microenvironment, through multiple related signaling pathways. This article focuses on the advances in domestic and foreign studies on the antitumor activity and mechanism of actions of steroidal saponins in the last five years to provide a scientific basis and research ideas for further development and clinical application of steroidal saponins.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Saponins , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Steroids , Chemistry , Pharmacology
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-704335

ABSTRACT

Osteoarthritis (OA),a common chronic degenerative joint disease,rises gradually with age,which seri-ously affects the quality of life of middle-aged and elderly patients. Currently,the therapeutic medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)and analgesics might improve OA symptoms,but cannot prevent the development of OA. The active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)have unique advantages in the treatment of OA. This article reviews the research progress of active ingredients of TCM in the prevention and treatment of OA reported by domestic and foreign journals in the past five years from the aspects of inhibition of the secretion of inflammation-related factors,improvement of cartilage matrix synthesis and catabolic imbalance, inhibition of chondrocyte apoptosis,promotion of chondrocyte proliferation,and regulation of estrogen levels,with an attempt to provide a theoretical basis for the development of new drugs for OA.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-699610

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the protective effects of tribulus terrestris L (TTL) against light-induced photoreceptor degeneration and its underlying mechanisms.Methods BALB/c mice were randomly divided into normal control group,light exposure group and TTL administration group,with 12 mice in each group,and then exposed to light at the intensity of 10,000 lux for 30 min for the establishment of a retinal damage model of BALB/C mice.And 100 μL TTL decoction was intraperitoneally administered into mice of TTL administration group 30 min prior to illumination.Saline vehicle was administrated into the mice of normal control group and light exposure group.Next,intraperitoneal injection of dihydroethidium (DHE) was performed 22 h after illumination,and the eyes were enucleated 2 h later and subjected to cryosectioning for microscopic detection of the in situ retinal oxidative stress.Then,retinas were dissected 6 and 24 h after illumination,which was followed by total RNA extraction,reverse transcription and RT-PCR to assess the expression level of proinflammatory cytokines.Meanwhile,the expression levels of interleukin-β (IL-1 β),chemokine (Ccl2),cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2),tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) mRNA were determined.Results Prominent oxidative stress was observed in retinal pigment epithelial cells and photoreceptor cells in the light exposure group when compared with the normal control group and TTL administration group,with significant difference (both P < 0.001).Moreover,results of RT-PCR revealed that the expression of IL-1β,Ccl2,COX-2,TNF-α,ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA was significantly elevated as a result of light exposure compared to those from vehicle-treated normal controls with a significant difference (all P < 0.01).TTL treatment resulted in significantly decreased expression of IL-1β,Ccl2,COX-2,TNF-α,ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA compared to those from light-exposed vehicle-treated controls with significant differences (all P <0.01).Conclusion In the retinal degeneration model,TTL protects the photoreceptor cells against fight-induced degeneration in part through suppressing light-induced retinal oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738538

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the surgical outcomes of augmented bilateral medial rectus (BMR) recession in patients with low accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratio tonic convergence excess esotropia (ET) compared to high AC/A ratio convergence excess ET. METHODS: This study included patients with esodeviation ≥10 prism diopter at near than at distance fixation who underwent BMR recession. The medical records of all esotropic patients with convergence excess who underwent strabismus surgery were reviewed. Six patients with tonic convergence excess and 10 patients with a high AC/A ratio met the study inclusion criteria. A successful outcome was defined as a near or distance angle of deviation ≤8 prism diopter and a ≤10 prism diopter difference between the two at the final recorded visit. RESULTS: The mean age at surgery was 5.9 ± 1.6 years in the tonic convergence excess ET group and 7.3 ± 2.9 years in the high AC/A ET group (p = 0.301). The average length of the postoperative follow-up was 2.7 years (range, 0.6–8.4 years) in the tonic convergence excess ET group and 4.0 years (range, 0.6–8.4 years) in the high AC/A ET group (p = 0.426). Near-distance disparities were reduced in all patients with tonic convergence excess ET within 10 prism diopter postoperatively, but in only 6 of 10 patients in the high AC/A ET group. Five of 6 patients (83.3%) had successful outcomes in tonic convergence excess ET group; 5 of 10 patients (50%) had successful outcomes in the high AC/A ET group. CONCLUSIONS: In our series, five patients (83%) obtained successful results in the tonic convergence excess ET group compared with 50% in the high AC/A ET group. Augmented BMR recession can be safely performed in esotropic patients with tonic convergence excess.


Subject(s)
Esotropia , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Medical Records , Ocular Motility Disorders , Strabismus
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812355

ABSTRACT

The steroidal saponins are one of the saponin types that exist in an unbound state and have various pharmacological activities, such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial and nerves-calming properties. Cancer is a growing health problem worldwide. Significant progress has been made to understand the antitumor effects of steroidal saponins in recent years. According to reported findings, steroidal saponins exert various antitumor activities, such as inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis and autophagy, and regulating the tumor microenvironment, through multiple related signaling pathways. This article focuses on the advances in domestic and foreign studies on the antitumor activity and mechanism of actions of steroidal saponins in the last five years to provide a scientific basis and research ideas for further development and clinical application of steroidal saponins.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Saponins , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Steroids , Chemistry , Pharmacology
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-838467

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the occupational risk of nurses in nocturnal hemodialysis (NHD), and to analyze the relevant factors and coping approach to occupational risk. Methods The occupational risk of 25 nurses at conventional hemodialysis (CHD) and 25 nurses at NHD were investigated using Nursing Occupational Risk Assessment Questionnaire. The Likert Scale 5-grade method was used to score the questionnaire, to obtain occupational risk index, and to analyze the relevant risk factors. Results The scores in 3 dimensions, including accidental risk, chemical risk, and ergonomical, psychosocial and organizational risk, in the NHD nurse group were significantly higher than those in the CHD nurse group (P<0.05). The average risk index scores of the harzard of irregular working hours, interpersonal relation disturbance, frequent shift work, overtime, and night shift, and the hazard of understaffing and overworking were in the top 2 of each sub events, and they belonged to the risks which were order not allowed. Conclusion The average risk index of the nurses at NHD is higher than at CHD, and the formative factors are specific. Hospital managers should take active measures to prevent and reduce the occupational risk.

20.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 840-853, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-266899

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Sepsis is a major cause of mortality in Intensive Care Units. Anesthetic dose isoflurane and 100% oxygen were proved to be beneficial in sepsis; however, their application in septic patients is limited because long-term hyperoxia may induce oxygen toxicity and anesthetic dose isoflurane has potential adverse consequences. This study was scheduled to find the optimal combination of isoflurane and oxygen in protecting experimental sepsis and its mechanisms.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The effects of combined therapy with isoflurane and oxygen on lung injury and sepsis were determined in animal models of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or zymosan. Mouse RAW264.7 cells or human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were treated by LPS to probe mechanisms. The nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling molecules were examined by Western blot and cellular immunohistochemistry.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The 0.5 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) isoflurane in 60% oxygen was the best combination of oxygen and isoflurane for reducing mortality in experimental sepsis induced by CLP, intraperitoneal injection of LPS, or zymosan. The 0.5 MAC isoflurane in 60% oxygen inhibited proinflammatory cytokines in peritoneal lavage fluids (tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-β]: 149.3 vs. 229.7 pg/ml, interleukin [IL]-1β: 12.5 vs. 20.6 pg/ml, IL-6: 86.1 vs. 116.1 pg/ml, and high-mobility group protein 1 [HMGB1]: 323.7 vs. 449.3 ng/ml; all P< 0.05) and serum (TNF-β: 302.7 vs. 450.7 pg/ml, IL-1β: 51.7 vs. 96.7 pg/ml, IL-6: 390.4 vs. 722.5 pg/ml, and HMGB1: 592.2 vs. 985.4 ng/ml; all P< 0.05) in septic animals. In vitro experiments showed that the 0.5 MAC isoflurane in 60% oxygen reduced inflammatory responses in mouse RAW264.7 cells, after LPS stimulation (all P< 0.05). Suppressed activation of NF-κB pathway was also observed in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages and human PBMCs after LPS stimulation or plasma from septic patients. The 0.5 MAC isoflurane in 60% oxygen also prevented the increases of phospho-IKKβ/β, phospho-IκBβ, and phospho-p65 expressions in RAW264.7 macrophages after LPS stimulation (all P< 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Combined administration of a sedative dose of isoflurane with 60% oxygen improves survival of septic animals through reducing inflammatory responses.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Anesthesia , Methods , Animals , Blotting, Western , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Drug Therapy , Isoflurane , Therapeutic Uses , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Metabolism , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors , Metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , Pharmacology , Lung Injury , Drug Therapy , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NF-kappa B , Metabolism , Oxygen , Therapeutic Uses , Peroxidase , Metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sepsis , Drug Therapy , Allergy and Immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism
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