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1.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 53-59, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937783

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The standard care for patients with ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is a total mastectomy (TM); however, there is growing interest in repeating BCS for IBTR. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed patients with IBTR who underwent initial BCS for breast cancer at our institution between January 2000 and December 2018. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare survival rates between the standard BCS-TM treatment group and the repeat-BCS group. @*Results@#We enrolled 209 IBTR patients with a median follow-up of 102.3 months. No significant differences were observed in overall survival (10 years: 87.3% vs. 78.8%; hazard ratio [HR], 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44-2.81; p=0.821), distant metastasis free survival (10 years: 73.9% vs. 77.7%; HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.37-1.72; p=0.727) and disease-free survival (10 years: 57.1% vs. 65.2%; HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.35-1.12; p=0.115) between two groups. Repeat-BCS group showed significantly poorer locoregional recurrence free survival rate than did the TM group (HR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.06-5.56; p=0.029) but the significance was not shown after excluding ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence events. @*Conclusion@#No significant differences were observed in survival outcomes and recurrence rates between patients with IBTR who underwent mastectomy or repeat BCS regardless of molecular subtype, except secondary IBTR rates.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925173

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the axillary recurrence rate and usefulness of axillary ultrasound (AUS) during supplementary whole-breast ultrasound (US) screening in women with a personal history of breast cancer (PHBC). @*Methods@#A retrospective database search identified consecutive asymptomatic women who underwent postoperative supplemental whole-breast US screening, including that of the bilateral axillae, after negative findings on mammography between January and June 2017. Using the pathologic data or at least 1-year follow-up data as reference standards, the axillary recurrence rate, cancer detection rate (CDR), interval axillary recurrence rate per 1,000 screenings, sensitivity, specificity, and abnormal interpretation rate (AIR) were estimated. @*Results@#From the data of 4,430 women (mean age, 55.0 ± 10.1 years) analyzed in this study, there were five axillary recurrence cases (1.1/1,000) in the median follow-up period of 57.2 months. AUS showed a CDR of 0.2 (1/4,430; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01–1.3) and an interval axillary recurrence rate of 0.9 (4/4,402; 95% CI, 0.2–2.3) per 1,000 examinations. The sensitivity and specificity were 20.0% (1/5; 95% CI, 0.5–71.6), and 99.4% (4,398/4,425; 95% CI, 99.1–99.6), respectively, while the AIR was 0.6% (28/4,430; 95% CI, 0.4–0.9%). @*Conclusion@#In asymptomatic women with a PHBC and negative findings on mammography, axillary recurrence after breast cancer and axillary treatment was uncommon, and the supplemental AUS screening yielded 0.2 cancers per 1,000 examinations.

3.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 301-314, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891300

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Trastuzumab is effective in early and advanced human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. However, few studies have reported the effect of trastuzumab on ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), whose incidence is higher in the HER2-positive subtype than in other subtypes. @*Methods@#We retrospectively investigated 959 patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery (BCS), chemotherapy, and radiotherapy for HER2-positive breast cancer between 2000 and 2017. IBTR was compared between the patients who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant trastuzumab (Tmab group) for a total duration of 1 year and those who received no trastuzumab (N-Tmab group). @*Results@#Propensity score matching designated 426 and 142 patients in the Tmab and N-Tmab groups, respectively. The median follow-up period for all patients after matching was 73.79 months. The IBTR-free survival rate was significantly higher in the Tmab group than in the N-Tmab group (10-year IBTR-free survival rate, 92.9% vs. 87.3%; p = 0.002). The multivariate analysis showed a significant association between the N-Tmab and Tmab group (hazard ratio, 3.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–8.59) and IBTR in addition to close or positive resection margin and hormone receptor (HR) positivity. The subgroup analysis showed that adjuvant treatment with trastuzumab significantly reduced IBTR among the patients with HR-negative or lymph node-negative breast cancer. @*Conclusion@#Significantly reduced IBTR after BCS was observed in the patients who received 1 year of adjuvanteoadjuvant trastuzumab treatment for HER2-positive breast cancer.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891293

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become a standard axillary staging surgery for early breast cancer, and the proportion of patients requiring axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is decreasing. We aimed to evaluate the association between the number of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) retrieved and the risk of lymphedema of the ipsilateral arm. @*Methods@#Prospectively collected medical records of 910 patients were reviewed.Lymphedema was defined as a difference in circumference > 2 cm compared to the contralateral arm and/or having clinical records of lymphedema treatment in the rehabilitation clinic. @*Results@#Together with an objective and subjective assessment of lymphedema, 36 patients (6.1%) had lymphedema in the SLNB group and 85 patients (27.0%) had lymphedema in the ALND group (p < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis of the whole cohort, risk factors significantly associated risk with the development of lymphedema were body mass index, mastectomy (vs.breast-conserving surgery), ALND, and radiation therapy. In logistic regression models in the SLNB group only, there was no correlation between the number of retrieved SLNs and the incidence of lymphedema. In addition, in the Pearson correlation analysis, no correlation was observed between the number of retrieved SLNs and the difference in circumference between the ipsilateral and contralateral upper extremities (correlation coefficients = 0.067, p = 0.111). @*Conclusion@#The risk of lymphedema in breast cancer surgery and adjuvant treatments is multifactorial. The number of retrieved lymph nodes during sentinel biopsy was not associated with the incidence of lymphedema.

5.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 175-182, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891278

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a rare autosomal cancer syndrome caused by a germline mutation in the TP53 gene. Breast cancer in LFS patients is of various subtypes;however, limited data are available on the clinicopathological features of these subtypes and their appropriate treatments. This study aimed to review the clinical features and treatments for breast cancer in South Korean patients with germline TP53 mutations. @*Methods@#Data on the clinicopathological features and treatment of all breast cancer patients with LFS were collected retrospectively from the available database of 4 tertiary hospitals in the Republic of Korea. @*Results@#Twenty-one breast cancer cases in 12 unrelated women with confirmed germline TP53 mutations were included in the study. The median age at diagnosis was 33.5 years. The histopathological diagnosis included invasive ductal carcinoma (n = 16), ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 3), and malignant phyllodes tumor (n = 2). While 42% and 31% of the cases were positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors, respectively, 52.6% were human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive, and 21% were triple-negative. The treatments included mastectomy (52%) and breast-conserving surgery (38%). Five patients underwent radiotherapy (RT). The median follow-up period was 87.5 (8–222) months. There were 3 ipsilateral and 4 contralateral breast recurrences during the follow-up, and 8 patients developed new primary cancers. In the post-RT subgroup, there were 2 ipsilateral and 2 contralateral breast recurrences in 1 patient, and 4 patients had a new primary cancer. @*Conclusion@#As reported in other countries, breast cancer in LFS patients in South Korea had an early onset and were predominantly but not exclusively positive for HER2.A multidisciplinary approach with adherence to the treatment guidelines, considering mastectomy, and avoiding RT is encouraged to prevent RT-associated sequelae in LFS patients.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874347

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study investigated the association of insulin, metformin, and statin use with survival and whether the association was modified by the hormone receptor status of the tumor in patients with breast cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#We studied 7,452 patients who had undergone surgery for breast cancer at Seoul National University Hospital from 2008 to 2015 using the nationwide claims database. Exposure was defined as a recorded prescription of each drug within 12 months before the diagnosis of breast cancer. @*Results@#Patients with prior insulin or statin use were more likely to be older than 50 years at diagnosis and had a higher comorbidity index than those without it (p < 0.01 for both). The hazard ratio (HR) for death with insulin use was 5.7 (p < 0.01), and the effect was attenuated with both insulin and metformin exposure with an HR of 1.2 (p=0.60). In the subgroup analyses, a heightened risk of death with insulin was further prominent with an HR of 17.9 (p < 0.01) and was offset by co-administration of metformin with an HR of 1.3 (p=0.67) in patients with estrogen receptor (ER)–negative breast cancer. Statin use was associated with increased overall mortality only in patients with ER-positive breast cancer with HR for death of 1.5 (p=0.05). @*Conclusion@#Insulin or statin use before the diagnosis of breast cancer was associated with an increase in all-cause mortality. Subsequent analyses suggested that metformin or statin use may have been protective in patients with ER-negative disease, which warrants further studies.

7.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 301-314, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899004

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Trastuzumab is effective in early and advanced human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. However, few studies have reported the effect of trastuzumab on ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), whose incidence is higher in the HER2-positive subtype than in other subtypes. @*Methods@#We retrospectively investigated 959 patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery (BCS), chemotherapy, and radiotherapy for HER2-positive breast cancer between 2000 and 2017. IBTR was compared between the patients who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant trastuzumab (Tmab group) for a total duration of 1 year and those who received no trastuzumab (N-Tmab group). @*Results@#Propensity score matching designated 426 and 142 patients in the Tmab and N-Tmab groups, respectively. The median follow-up period for all patients after matching was 73.79 months. The IBTR-free survival rate was significantly higher in the Tmab group than in the N-Tmab group (10-year IBTR-free survival rate, 92.9% vs. 87.3%; p = 0.002). The multivariate analysis showed a significant association between the N-Tmab and Tmab group (hazard ratio, 3.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–8.59) and IBTR in addition to close or positive resection margin and hormone receptor (HR) positivity. The subgroup analysis showed that adjuvant treatment with trastuzumab significantly reduced IBTR among the patients with HR-negative or lymph node-negative breast cancer. @*Conclusion@#Significantly reduced IBTR after BCS was observed in the patients who received 1 year of adjuvanteoadjuvant trastuzumab treatment for HER2-positive breast cancer.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898997

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become a standard axillary staging surgery for early breast cancer, and the proportion of patients requiring axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is decreasing. We aimed to evaluate the association between the number of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) retrieved and the risk of lymphedema of the ipsilateral arm. @*Methods@#Prospectively collected medical records of 910 patients were reviewed.Lymphedema was defined as a difference in circumference > 2 cm compared to the contralateral arm and/or having clinical records of lymphedema treatment in the rehabilitation clinic. @*Results@#Together with an objective and subjective assessment of lymphedema, 36 patients (6.1%) had lymphedema in the SLNB group and 85 patients (27.0%) had lymphedema in the ALND group (p < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis of the whole cohort, risk factors significantly associated risk with the development of lymphedema were body mass index, mastectomy (vs.breast-conserving surgery), ALND, and radiation therapy. In logistic regression models in the SLNB group only, there was no correlation between the number of retrieved SLNs and the incidence of lymphedema. In addition, in the Pearson correlation analysis, no correlation was observed between the number of retrieved SLNs and the difference in circumference between the ipsilateral and contralateral upper extremities (correlation coefficients = 0.067, p = 0.111). @*Conclusion@#The risk of lymphedema in breast cancer surgery and adjuvant treatments is multifactorial. The number of retrieved lymph nodes during sentinel biopsy was not associated with the incidence of lymphedema.

9.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 175-182, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898982

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a rare autosomal cancer syndrome caused by a germline mutation in the TP53 gene. Breast cancer in LFS patients is of various subtypes;however, limited data are available on the clinicopathological features of these subtypes and their appropriate treatments. This study aimed to review the clinical features and treatments for breast cancer in South Korean patients with germline TP53 mutations. @*Methods@#Data on the clinicopathological features and treatment of all breast cancer patients with LFS were collected retrospectively from the available database of 4 tertiary hospitals in the Republic of Korea. @*Results@#Twenty-one breast cancer cases in 12 unrelated women with confirmed germline TP53 mutations were included in the study. The median age at diagnosis was 33.5 years. The histopathological diagnosis included invasive ductal carcinoma (n = 16), ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 3), and malignant phyllodes tumor (n = 2). While 42% and 31% of the cases were positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors, respectively, 52.6% were human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive, and 21% were triple-negative. The treatments included mastectomy (52%) and breast-conserving surgery (38%). Five patients underwent radiotherapy (RT). The median follow-up period was 87.5 (8–222) months. There were 3 ipsilateral and 4 contralateral breast recurrences during the follow-up, and 8 patients developed new primary cancers. In the post-RT subgroup, there were 2 ipsilateral and 2 contralateral breast recurrences in 1 patient, and 4 patients had a new primary cancer. @*Conclusion@#As reported in other countries, breast cancer in LFS patients in South Korea had an early onset and were predominantly but not exclusively positive for HER2.A multidisciplinary approach with adherence to the treatment guidelines, considering mastectomy, and avoiding RT is encouraged to prevent RT-associated sequelae in LFS patients.

10.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 520-530, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914823

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The oncoplastic breast-conserving surgery (OPS) technique, combined with the principles of oncological safety and plastic surgery, results in complete tumor resection while preserving the natural appearance of the breast. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term oncological results after OPS compared with conventional breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for early breast cancer. @*Methods@#The medical records of patients who underwent breast cancer surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy at Seoul National University Hospital between 2011 and 2014 were reviewed. Ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR)-free survival rate and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were compared between the OPS and BCS groups. @*Results@#One-to-one propensity score matching was conducted, yielding 371 patients in each group. The mean tumor distance from the nipple was shorter, and the mean retrieved specimen size and pathologic tumor size, including ductal carcinoma in situ, were larger in the OPS group than in the conventional BCS group (p < 0.001). Surgical margin positivity was not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.777). The surgical technique was not significantly associated with IBTR (OPS versus conventional BCS, 5-year survival rate, 96.9% vs. 98.6%; p = 0.355) and RFS (5-year survival rate, 92.9% vs. 94.5%; p = 0.357) on the log-rank test. Multivariate analysis revealed that OPS versus conventional BCS was not significantly associated with survival outcomes. @*Conclusion@#We observed no significant differences in long-term IBTR and RFS between the OPS and conventional BCS groups in this retrospective analysis. OPS can be an oncologically and surgically safe alternative option for conventional BCS for early breast cancer.

11.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 569-577, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914822

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Intraoperative frozen section biopsy is used to reduce the margin positive rate and re-excision rate and has been reported to have high diagnostic accuracy. A majority of breast surgeons in the Republic of Korea routinely perform frozen section biopsy to assess margins intraoperatively, despite its long turnaround time and high resource requirements. This study aims to determine whether omitting frozen section biopsy for intraoperative margin evaluation in selected patients is non-inferior to performing frozen section biopsy in terms of resection margin positivity rate. @*Methods@#This study is a phase III, randomized controlled, parallel-group, multicenter non-inferiority clinical trial. Patients meeting the inclusion criteria and providing written informed consent will be randomized to the “frozen section biopsy” or “frozen section biopsy omission” group after lumpectomy. Patients with clinical stage T1–T3 disease who are diagnosed with invasive breast cancer by core-needle biopsy and plan to undergo breast-conserving surgery will be included in this study. If a daughter nodule, non-mass enhancement, or microcalcification is identified on preoperative imaging, these features must be within 1 cm of the main mass for inclusion in the trial. The target sample size is 646 patients per arm. The primary endpoint will be the resection margin positive rate, and the secondary endpoints include the reoperation rate, operating time, residual cancer after reoperation, residual cancer after re-excision according to the frozen section biopsy result, resection volume, patient quality of life, and cost-effectiveness.Discussion: This is the first randomized clinical trial utilizing frozen section biopsy for intraoperative margin evaluation and aims to determine the non-inferiority of omitting frozen section biopsy in selected patients compared to performing frozen section biopsy.We expect that this trial will help surgeons perform the procedure more efficiently while ensuring patient safety.

12.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 162-170, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835605

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Paclitaxel is a cytotoxic chemotherapy commonly used in patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC); however, the resistance to paclitaxel is a cause of poor response in the patients. The aim of this study was to examine the role of protein phosphatase 1H (PPM1H) in paclitaxel resistance in breast cancer patients. @*Methods@#To investigate the function of PPM1H in paclitaxel treatment, we conducted in vitro assays and molecular experiments using a stable cell line (MDA-MB-231) in which PPM1H is overexpressed. We also performed molecular analyses on patient tissue samples. Molecular expression related to PPM1H in breast cancer patients was analyzed using TCGA data. @*Results@#We investigated whether PPM1H was associated with paclitaxel resistance in breast cancer. PPM1H expression was upregulated in breast cancer cells treated with paclitaxel. We also observed that overexpression of PPM1H in breast cancer cells resulted in increased sensitivity to paclitaxel in vitro. Additionally, paclitaxel treatment induced dephosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27 (p27), which was more evident in PPM1H-overexpressing cells. To understand how upregulation of PPM1H increases paclitaxel sensitivity, we determined the levels of p27, phospho-p27, and CDK2, since CDK2 exerts antagonistic effects against PPM1H on p27 phosphorylation. The patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumors that did not respond to paclitaxel showed increased levels of CDK2 and phospho-p27 and decreased levels of total p27 compared to the other breast tumor tissues. The use of dinaciclib, a selective CDK inhibitor, significantly inhibited tumor growth in the PDX model. @*Conclusion@#CDK2 kinase activity was significantly upregulated in basal breast cancer tumors and was negatively correlated with p27 protein levels in the TCGA breast cancer dataset, suggesting that targeting CDK2 may be an effective treatment strategy for TNBC patients.

13.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 182-193, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835603

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Endocrine therapy is a standard treatment for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, which accounts for 60%–75% of all breast cancer. Hormone receptor positivity is a prognostic and predictive biomarker in breast cancer. Approximately 50%–80% of breast cancer is also positive for androgen receptor (AR), but the prognostic and predictive value of AR expression in breast cancer is controversial. Here, we investigated AR expression and its prognostic value in patients with surgically resected breast cancer in Korea. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who had surgically resected breast cancer to collect AR expression data and other clinicopathological data. The optimal cut-off for AR positivity was determined using a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. @*Results@#We reviewed 957 patients with surgically resected breast cancer from June 2012 to April 2013. The median follow-up was 62 months, and relapse events occurred in 101 (10.6%) patients. Unlike the cut-off value of 1% or 10% in previous reports, 35% was determined to be best for predicting relapse-free survival (RFS) in this study. At the cut-off value of 35%, 654 (68.4%) patients were AR-positive. AR expression was more prevalent in luminal A (87.6%) and luminal B (73.1%) types than in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (56.2%) or triple-negative (20.6%) types. AR expression of ≥ 35% was significantly related to longer RFS in a multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 0.430; 95% confidence interval, 0.260–0.709; p = 0.001). @*Conclusion@#We propose a cut-off value of 35% to best predict RFS in patients with surgically resected breast cancer. AR expression was positive in 68.4% of patients, and AR positivity was found to be an independent prognostic factor for longer RFS.

14.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831118

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Hereditary cancer syndrome means that inherited genetic mutations can increase a person's risk of developing cancer. We assessed the frequency of germline mutations using an nextgeneration sequencing (NGS)–based multiple-gene panel containing 64 cancer-predisposing genes in Korean breast cancer patients with clinical features of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC). @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 64 genes associated with hereditary cancer syndrome were selected for development of an NGS-based multi-gene panel. Targeted sequencing using the multi-gene panel was performed to identify germline mutations in 496 breast cancer patients with clinical features of HBOC who underwent breast cancer surgery between January 2002 and December 2017. @*Results@#Of 496 patients, 95 patients (19.2%) were found to have 48 deleterious germline mutations in 16 cancer susceptibility genes. The deleterious mutations were found in 39 of 250 patients (15.6%) who had breast cancer and another primary cancer, 38 of 169 patients (22.5%) who had a family history of breast cancer (≥ 2 relatives), 16 of 57 patients (28.1%) who had bilateral breast cancer, and 29 of 84 patients (34.5%) who were diagnosed with breast cancer at younger than 40 years of age. Of the 95 patients with deleterious mutations, 60 patients (63.2%) had BRCA1/2 mutations and 38 patients (40.0%) had non-BRCA1/2 mutations. We detected two novel deleterious mutations in BRCA2 and MLH1. @*Conclusion@#NGS-based multiple-gene panel testing improved the detection rates of deleterious mutations and provided a cost-effective cancer risk assessment.

15.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 113-114, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811190

ABSTRACT

In the article, “A Validation Study of a Multiple Reaction Monitoring-Based Proteomic Assay to Diagnose Breast Cancer” in Volume 22(4), page 579-586 was error in the table. In Table 1, the value of pN0 was incorrectly listed as 29 (56.9) in ‘diagnosed as normal by biomarker’ and corrected to 39 (76.5). The authors apologize for any inconvenience that this may have caused.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896969

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the standard axillary procedure in early breast cancer patients. In a randomized trial, the survival rates were not different when axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was omitted in patients with 1 or 2 lymph node metastases who underwent breast conserving surgery. This study aimed to compare the outcomes in patients who underwent total mastectomy (TM) with 1 or 2 metastatic nodes according to the types of axillary surgery. @*Methods@#In total, 79,058 patients registered in the Korean Breast Cancer Society database who underwent TM were included in the analysis. The inclusion criteria were history of TM and SLNB, pathologic T stage 1 or 2, clinically negative axillary lymph nodes, 1 or 2 metastatic axillary lymph nodes, no radiation therapy, and no neoadjuvant therapy. We divided the patients into the SLNB only and SLNB + ALND groups. The groups were matched by propensity scores. We retrospectively analyzed the differences in the overall survival (OS) between the 2 groups. @*Results@#A total of 883 patients were matched in a 1:4 ratio for the SLNB only and SLNB + ALND groups in the cohort from 1999 to 2014. There were no significant differences in OS between the 2 groups (P = 0.413). Subgroup analysis revealed a significant survival benefit in the SLNB + ALND group in the T2 subgroup (P = 0.013). @*Conclusion@#OS did not differ between the 2 groups in early breast cancer patients with 1 or 2 metastatic axillary lymph nodes who underwent TM. Omission of ALND may be considered in selected patients.

17.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 92-99, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891317

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Palpability is known to be a poor prognostic factor for breast cancer. The present study analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of palpable and nonpalpable breast cancers using big data. @*Methods@#Between January 2005 and May 2019, a total of 15,141 patients were enrolled. All patients were diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinomas. Patients with unclear medical records, multiple tumors, bilateral breast cancers, inflammatory breast cancers, inoperable breast cancers and distant metastasis were excluded. Patients were divided into the palpable and nonpalpable breast cancer groups based on physicians’ clinical examinations. The clinicopathological characteristics and disease-specific survivals (DSS) were analyzed. @*Results@#Patients with palpable breast cancers were younger, had larger tumors, and higher tumor-node-metastasis stage (p<0.001) than patients with nonpalpable breast cancers. Palpable breast cancer cases had higher rates of lympho-vascular invasion, higher histologic and nuclear grades than nonpalpable breast cancer cases (p<0.001). The positive proportion of hormone receptor was higher in the nonpalpable breast cancer group than in the palpable breast cancer group, but that of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 was higher in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). The Ki-67 index was higher in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). Total mastectomy and axillary dissection were performed more frequently in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered more frequently in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group. However, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy were performed more frequently in nonpalpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). According to a multivariate analysis, younger age, lower body mass index, larger tumor size, tumor location, higher stage, higher histologic grade and higher Ki-67 index were associated with palpability (p<0.001). DSS was significantly lower in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). @*Conclusion@#Palpable breast cancers tend to be triple negative breast cancers and have higher histologic grade and, Ki-67 index and worse prognosis than nonpalpable breast cancers. Therefore, based on the results of the present study, treating palpable breast cancers requires careful attention.

18.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 647-655, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891255

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#BRCA1/2 mutations are associated with risks of breast and ovarian cancer. In Korea, incidences of BRCA1/2 genetic testing and risk-reducing surgery (RRS) have increased with insurance coverage and the Angelina Jolie effect. The aim of this study was to identify trends in RRS performed in Korean women with the BRCA1/2 mutation. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with (affected carriers) and without (unaffected carriers) breast cancer until August 2018 from 25 Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA)-affiliated hospitals. @*Results@#The numbers of contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) and risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRBSO) in affected carriers have increased 5.8- and 3.6-fold, respectively, since 2013. The numbers of RRBSO in unaffected carriers has increased 8-fold since 2013. The number of institutions that perform RRS has increased gradually. The number of hospitals that perform contralateral RRM on affected carriers increased from 3 in 2012 to 11 in 2018, and that of those that perform RRBSO increased from 7 to 17. The number of hospitals that perform bilateral RRM on unaffected carriers increased from 1 in 2012 to 2 in 2018, and that of those that perform RRBSO increased from 1 to 8. However, the hospitals showed differences in the rates of RRM or RRBSO performed. @*Conclusion@#The incidence of RRS increased each year throughout the study period. However, in Korea, the rate of RRS procedures depended on the hospital.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889265

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the standard axillary procedure in early breast cancer patients. In a randomized trial, the survival rates were not different when axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was omitted in patients with 1 or 2 lymph node metastases who underwent breast conserving surgery. This study aimed to compare the outcomes in patients who underwent total mastectomy (TM) with 1 or 2 metastatic nodes according to the types of axillary surgery. @*Methods@#In total, 79,058 patients registered in the Korean Breast Cancer Society database who underwent TM were included in the analysis. The inclusion criteria were history of TM and SLNB, pathologic T stage 1 or 2, clinically negative axillary lymph nodes, 1 or 2 metastatic axillary lymph nodes, no radiation therapy, and no neoadjuvant therapy. We divided the patients into the SLNB only and SLNB + ALND groups. The groups were matched by propensity scores. We retrospectively analyzed the differences in the overall survival (OS) between the 2 groups. @*Results@#A total of 883 patients were matched in a 1:4 ratio for the SLNB only and SLNB + ALND groups in the cohort from 1999 to 2014. There were no significant differences in OS between the 2 groups (P = 0.413). Subgroup analysis revealed a significant survival benefit in the SLNB + ALND group in the T2 subgroup (P = 0.013). @*Conclusion@#OS did not differ between the 2 groups in early breast cancer patients with 1 or 2 metastatic axillary lymph nodes who underwent TM. Omission of ALND may be considered in selected patients.

20.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 92-99, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899021

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Palpability is known to be a poor prognostic factor for breast cancer. The present study analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of palpable and nonpalpable breast cancers using big data. @*Methods@#Between January 2005 and May 2019, a total of 15,141 patients were enrolled. All patients were diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinomas. Patients with unclear medical records, multiple tumors, bilateral breast cancers, inflammatory breast cancers, inoperable breast cancers and distant metastasis were excluded. Patients were divided into the palpable and nonpalpable breast cancer groups based on physicians’ clinical examinations. The clinicopathological characteristics and disease-specific survivals (DSS) were analyzed. @*Results@#Patients with palpable breast cancers were younger, had larger tumors, and higher tumor-node-metastasis stage (p<0.001) than patients with nonpalpable breast cancers. Palpable breast cancer cases had higher rates of lympho-vascular invasion, higher histologic and nuclear grades than nonpalpable breast cancer cases (p<0.001). The positive proportion of hormone receptor was higher in the nonpalpable breast cancer group than in the palpable breast cancer group, but that of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 was higher in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). The Ki-67 index was higher in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). Total mastectomy and axillary dissection were performed more frequently in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered more frequently in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group. However, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy were performed more frequently in nonpalpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). According to a multivariate analysis, younger age, lower body mass index, larger tumor size, tumor location, higher stage, higher histologic grade and higher Ki-67 index were associated with palpability (p<0.001). DSS was significantly lower in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). @*Conclusion@#Palpable breast cancers tend to be triple negative breast cancers and have higher histologic grade and, Ki-67 index and worse prognosis than nonpalpable breast cancers. Therefore, based on the results of the present study, treating palpable breast cancers requires careful attention.

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