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1.
Journal of Movement Disorders ; : 140-145, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926096

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aims to develop an automated and objective tool to evaluate postural abnormalities in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. @*Methods@#We applied a deep learning-based pose-estimation algorithm to lateral photos of prospectively enrolled PD patients (n = 28). We automatically measured the anterior flexion angle (AFA) and dropped head angle (DHA), which were validated with conventional manual labeling methods. @*Results@#The automatically measured DHA and AFA were in excellent agreement with manual labeling methods (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.95) with mean bias equal to or less than 3 degrees. @*Conclusion@#The deep learning-based pose-estimation algorithm objectively measured postural abnormalities in PD patients.

2.
Journal of Movement Disorders ; : 124-131, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926084

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients does not halt disease progression, as these patients will progress and develop disabling non-levodopa responsive symptoms. These features may act as milestones that represent the overall functionality of patients after DBS. The objective of this study was to investigate the development of clinical milestones in advanced PD patients who underwent bilateral STN-DBS. @*Methods@#The study evaluated PD patients who underwent STN-DBS at baseline up to their last follow-up using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale and Hoehn and Yahr scale. The symptoms of hallucinations, dysarthria, dysphagia, frequent falls, difficulty walking, cognitive impairment and the loss of autonomy were chosen as the clinical milestones. @*Results@#A total of 106 patients with a mean age of 47.21 ± 10.52 years at disease onset, a mean age of 58.72 ± 8.74 years at surgery and a mean disease duration of 11.51 ± 4.4 years before surgery were included. Initial improvement of motor symptoms was seen after the surgery with the appearance of clinical milestones over time. Using the moderately disabling criteria, 81 patients (76.41%) developed at least one clinical milestone, while 48 patients (45.28%) developed a milestone when using the severely disabling criteria. @*Conclusion@#STN-DBS has a limited effect on axial and nonmotor symptoms of the PD patients, in contrast to the effect on motor symptoms. These symptoms may serve as clinical milestones that can convey the status of PD patients and its impact on the patients and their caregivers. Therefore, advanced PD patients, even those treated with bilateral STN-DBS, will still require assistance and cannot live independently in the long run.

3.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 1334-1340, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893685

ABSTRACT

Amyloidosis has been reported to be associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Amyloidosis and lymphoma can be related in two ways: lymphoma-associated systemic amyloidosis and peritumoral amyloidosis with lymphoma. We report a rare case of peritumoral amyloidosis in a patient with head and neck mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. On CT, the oropharyngeal mass showed an irregularly shaped soft-tissue density with multifocal amorphous calcifications and heterogeneous enhancement. On MRI, the mass showed heterogeneous low signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted images. On contrast-enhanced MR images, the mass showed good enhancement with several inner non-enhancing foci. Concurrent pathologies, such as peritumoral amyloidosis, should be considered when calcifications are noted in patients with pre-treatment lymphoma.

4.
Journal of Movement Disorders ; : 221-225, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892667

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To assess nocturnal hypokinesia using the Korean version of the Nocturnal Hypokinesia Questionnaire (NHQ-K) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients across disease stages. @*Methods@#We developed the NHQ-K and performed questionnaire-based interviews with 108 PD patients from three referral hospitals. Clinical associations of nocturnal hypokinesia and its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were also analyzed. @*Results@#The NHQ-K showed acceptable internal consistency (0.83) and interrater reliability (0.95). Nocturnal hypokinesia significantly affected HRQoL in PD patients at both the early and advanced stages (adjusted p < 0.001). Increased severity of nocturnal hypokinesia was associated with dyskinesias, off-period disability, apathy, and anxious mood in PD patients (adjusted p < 0.01) after controlling for disease severity and medication dose. @*Conclusion@#The NHQ-K is useful for screening nocturnal hypokinesia in PD patients. Given the high impact of nocturnal hypokinesia on HRQoL, comprehensive management of nocturnal disability is needed for PD patients.

5.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 1334-1340, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901389

ABSTRACT

Amyloidosis has been reported to be associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Amyloidosis and lymphoma can be related in two ways: lymphoma-associated systemic amyloidosis and peritumoral amyloidosis with lymphoma. We report a rare case of peritumoral amyloidosis in a patient with head and neck mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. On CT, the oropharyngeal mass showed an irregularly shaped soft-tissue density with multifocal amorphous calcifications and heterogeneous enhancement. On MRI, the mass showed heterogeneous low signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted images. On contrast-enhanced MR images, the mass showed good enhancement with several inner non-enhancing foci. Concurrent pathologies, such as peritumoral amyloidosis, should be considered when calcifications are noted in patients with pre-treatment lymphoma.

6.
Journal of Movement Disorders ; : 221-225, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900371

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To assess nocturnal hypokinesia using the Korean version of the Nocturnal Hypokinesia Questionnaire (NHQ-K) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients across disease stages. @*Methods@#We developed the NHQ-K and performed questionnaire-based interviews with 108 PD patients from three referral hospitals. Clinical associations of nocturnal hypokinesia and its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were also analyzed. @*Results@#The NHQ-K showed acceptable internal consistency (0.83) and interrater reliability (0.95). Nocturnal hypokinesia significantly affected HRQoL in PD patients at both the early and advanced stages (adjusted p < 0.001). Increased severity of nocturnal hypokinesia was associated with dyskinesias, off-period disability, apathy, and anxious mood in PD patients (adjusted p < 0.01) after controlling for disease severity and medication dose. @*Conclusion@#The NHQ-K is useful for screening nocturnal hypokinesia in PD patients. Given the high impact of nocturnal hypokinesia on HRQoL, comprehensive management of nocturnal disability is needed for PD patients.

7.
Journal of Movement Disorders ; : 225-228, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836189

ABSTRACT

F-box only protein 7 (FBXO7) is a rare monogenic cause of hereditary Parkinson’s disease (PD) with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance and a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. Here, we report a de novo PD patient with onset at the age of 28 with novel compound heterozygous variants in the FBXO7 gene (c.1162C>T, p.Gln388X; c.80G>A, p.Arg27His). The clinical features of the patient were problematic impulse control disorder behaviors and pyromania, and pyramidal signs were negative. We describe the novel pathogenic variants of the FBXO7 gene with detailed clinical pictures to report the expanding genotypes and phenotypes of FBXO7-associated parkinsonism.

8.
Journal of Movement Disorders ; : 11-19, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836165

ABSTRACT

α-Synuclein and tau deposition in the central nervous system is responsible for various parkinsonian syndromes, including Parkinson’s disease, multiple system atrophy, dementia with Lewy bodies, progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration. Emerging evidence has suggested that pathologic α-synuclein and tau are transmitted from cell to cell and further accelerate the aggregation of pathologic proteins in neighboring cells. Furthermore, extracellular pathologic proteins have also been reported to provoke inflammatory responses that lead to neurodegeneration. Therefore, immunotherapies targeting extracellular α-synuclein and tau have been proposed as potential disease-modifying strategies. In this review, we summarize completed phase I trials and ongoing phase II trials of immunotherapies against α-synuclein and tau and further discuss concerns and hurdles to overcome in the future.

9.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 633-645, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833666

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: The Movement Disorder Society-Sponsored Revision of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) is widely used for estimating the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Translation and validation of the MDS-UPDRS is necessary for non-English speaking countries and regions. The aim of this study was to validate the Korean version of the MDS-UPDRS. @*Methods@#Altogether, 362 patients in 19 centers were recruited for this study. We translated the MDS-UPDRS to Korean using the translation-back translation method and cognitive pretesting. We performed both confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses to validate the scale.We calculated the comparative fit index (CFI) for confirmatory factor analysis, and used unweighted least squares for exploratory factor analysis. @*Results@#The CFI was higher than 0.90 for all parts of the scale. Exploratory factor analysis also showed that the Korean MDS-UPDRS has the same number of factors in each part as the English version. @*Conclusions@#The Korean MDS-UPDRS has the same overall structure as the English MDSUPDRS. Our translated scale can be designated as the official Korean MDS-UPDRS.

10.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 261-269, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833609

ABSTRACT

Background@#and PurposeThe first-line medications for the symptomatic treatment of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) are clonazepam and melatonin taken at bedtime. We aimed to identify the association between depression and treatment response in patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD). @*Methods@#We reviewed the medical records of 123 consecutive patients (76 males; age, 66.0±7.7 years; and symptom duration, 4.1±4.0 years) with iRBD who were treated with clonazepam and/or melatonin. Clonazepam and melatonin were initially administered at 0.25–0.50 and 2 mg/day, respectively, at bedtime, and the doses were subsequently titrated according to the response of individual patients. Treatment response was defined according to the presence or absence of any improvement in dream-enacting behaviors or unpleasant dreams after treatment. @*Results@#Forty (32.5%) patients were treated with clonazepam, 56 (45.5%) with melatonin, and 27 (22.0%) with combination therapy. The doses of clonazepam and melatonin at followup were 0.5±0.3 and 2.3±0.7 mg, respectively. Ninety-six (78.0%) patients reported improvement in their RBD symptoms during a mean follow-up period of 17.7 months. After adjusting for potential confounders, depression was significantly associated with a negative treatment response (odds ratio=3.76, 95% confidence interval=1.15–12.32, p=0.029). @*Conclusions@#We found that comorbid depression is significantly associated with a negative response to clonazepam and/or melatonin in patients with iRBD. Further research with larger numbers of patients is needed to verify our observations and to determine the clinical implications of comorbid depression in the pathophysiology of iRBD.

11.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 245-253, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833603

ABSTRACT

Background@#and PurposeImpulse-control disorder is an important nonmotor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) that can lead to financial and social problems, and be related to a poor quality of life. A nationwide multicenter prospective study was performed with the aim of validating the Korean Version of the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (K-QUIP-RS). @*Methods@#The K-QUIP-RS was constructed using forward and backward translation, and pretesting of the prefinal version. PD patients on stable medical condition were recruited from 27 movement-disorder clinics. Participants were assessed using the K-QUIP-RS and evaluated for parkinsonian motor and nonmotor statuses and for PD-related quality of life using a predefined evaluation battery. The test–retest reliability of the K-QUIP-RS was assessed over an interval of 10–14 days, and correlations between the KQUIP-RS and other clinical scales were analyzed. @*Results@#This study enrolled 136 patients. The internal consistency of the K-QUIP-RS was indicated by a Cronbach's α coefficient of 0.846, as was the test–retest reliability by a Guttman split-half coefficient of 0.808. The total K-QUIP-RS score was positively correlated with the scores for depression and motivation items on the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale, and Rapid-Eye-Movement Sleep-Behavior-Disorders Questionnaire. The total K-QUIP-RS score was also correlated with the scores on part II of the UPDRS and the PD Quality of Life-39 questionnaire, and the dopaminergic medication dose. @*Conclusions@#The K-QUIP-RS appears to be a reliable assessment tool for impulse-control and related behavioral disturbances in the Korean PD population.

12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e203-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831578

ABSTRACT

Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by recurrent paroxysmal hemiplegic attacks that affect one or the other side of the body. Up to 74% of patients with AHC have a pathologic variant in the ATP1A3 gene. After the introduction of next-generation sequencing, intermediate cases and atypical cases have expanded the clinical spectrum of ATP1A3-related disorders. Herein, we report the first case of AHC in Korea. A 33-year-old man visited our hospital with recurrent hemiplegic and dystonic episode after his first birthday. He was completely normal between episodes and did not have any ataxia, but brain magnetic resonance imaging showed cerebellar atrophy. He also had pes planovalgus deformity. Whole exome sequencing revealed a heterozygous G947R variant in the ATP1A3 gene (c.2839G > C, rs398122887), which is a known pathologic variant. This atypical case of AHC demonstrates the importance of the clinical approach in diagnosing ATP1A3-related disorders.

14.
Journal of Movement Disorders ; : 190-191, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765858

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Humans , Deep Brain Stimulation , Dystonia
15.
Journal of Movement Disorders ; : 103-112, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765851

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: It is unclear whether the decline in dopamine transporters (DAT) differs among idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) patients with different levels of olfactory impairment. This study aimed to characterize DAT changes in relation to nonmotor features in iRBD patients by olfactory loss. METHODS: This prospective cohort study consisted of three age-matched groups: 30 polysomnography-confirmed iRBD patients, 30 drug-naïve Parkinson's disease patients, and 19 healthy controls without olfactory impairment. The iRBD group was divided into two groups based on olfactory testing results. Participants were evaluated for reported prodromal markers and then underwent 18F-FP-CIT positron emission tomography and 3T MRI. Tracer uptakes were analyzed in the caudate, anterior and posterior putamen, substantia nigra, and raphe nuclei. RESULTS: Olfactory impairment was defined in 38.5% of iRBD patients. Mild parkinsonian signs and cognitive functions were not different between the two iRBD subgroups; however, additional prodromal features, constipation, and urinary and sexual dysfunctions were found in iRBD patients with olfactory impairment but not in those without. Tracer uptake showed significant group differences in all brain regions, except the raphe nuclei. The iRBD patients with olfactory impairment had uptake reductions in the anterior and posterior putamen, caudate, and substantia nigra (p < 0.016 in all, adjusted for age), which ranged from 0.6 to 0.8 of age-normative values. In contrast, those without olfactory impairment had insignificant changes in all regions ranging above 0.8. CONCLUSION: There was a clear distinction in DAT loss and nonmotor profiles by olfactory status in iRBD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain , Cognition , Cohort Studies , Constipation , Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins , Dopamine , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Parkinson Disease , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prospective Studies , Putamen , Raphe Nuclei , REM Sleep Behavior Disorder , Sleep, REM , Smell , Substantia Nigra
16.
Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine ; (4): 138-143, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785605

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors associated with unmet needs in immigrant patients complaining of abdominal pain, by analyzing those associated with the time from symptom onset to emergency room visit.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of immigrants with abdominal pain who visited a tertiary hospital emergency department from January to December 2016. The dependent variable was the time from symptom onset to emergency room visit. The independent variables were age, sex, vital signs, disposition, health insurance status, date of visit, time of visit, level of education, employment status, economic satisfaction, marital status, living with family, duration of residence, having a native spouse, and subjective proficiency in Korean. We analyzed the association of the dependent variable with each independent variable.RESULTS: In total, 102 immigrant patients with abdominal pain were enrolled in this study. The patients who had earlier visits had good subjective proficiency in Korean, high economic satisfaction, longer durations of residence, a tendency to have a native spouse, and a high employment rate. After linear regression analysis, the time from symptom onset to emergency room visit was negatively associated with employment (adjusted odds ratio, -13.67; 95% confidence interval, -23.25 to -4.09; P=0.006) and having a native spouse (adjusted odds ratio, -11.7; 95% confidence interval, -20.61 to -2.8; P=0.011).CONCLUSION: The factors influencing the time from symptom onset to emergency room visit in immigrant patients with abdominal pain are associated with social capital, which improves access to emergency care. Policies that improve immigrant access to emergency care should be considered.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Abdominal Pain , Education , Emergencies , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Service, Hospital , Emigrants and Immigrants , Employment , Health Services Needs and Demand , Insurance, Health , Korea , Linear Models , Marital Status , Medical Records , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , Social Capital , Spouses , Tertiary Care Centers , Vital Signs
17.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 555-562, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916507

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that an increase in the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) increases the risk of in-hospital density in patients aged 65 and older, who are hospitalized in intensive care through the emergency rooms.@*METHODS@#A retrospective medical record study was conducted on elderly patients who were admitted to intensive care units via the emergency room. The exclusion criteria were data loss, intensive care unit reentry, cerebrovascular accidents, hematologic disease, and trauma cases.@*RESULTS@#The study included 526 patients; the mean age was 79, and 261 (49.6%) were male. The in-hospital mortality was 18.4% (97 patients). The initial NLR was higher in the non-survivor group than the survivor group, but the difference was not statistically significant (9.82±11.02 vs. 11.48±6.11, P=0.080). In multivariate logistic analysis, the initial NLR had no statistical significance, and the odd ratio was increased from one day later. Comparing the receiver operating characteristic curve of the NLR and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) scores, the NLR showed an increase in the area of under curve (AUC) value over time as well as the highest AUC with the SAPS II scores.@*CONCLUSION@#In elderly adults, early NLR was found to have weak power to predict in-hospital mortality. Over time, the NLR values more than two days after intensive care unit admission may be useful in predicting the in-hospital mortality for older patients. This may be due to the delay in the immune response and the complex medical history.

18.
International Journal of Stem Cells ; : 183-194, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764083

ABSTRACT

Cholangiopathies are rare diseases of the bile duct with high mortality rates. The current treatment for cholangiopathies is liver transplantation, but there are significant obstacles including a shortage of donors and a high risk of complications. Currently, there is only one available medicine on the market targeting cholangiopathies, and the results have been inadequate in clinical therapy. To overcome these obstacles, many researchers have used human induced pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) as a source for cholangiocyte-like cell generation and have incorporated advances in bioprinting to create artificial bile ducts for implantation and transplantation. This has allowed the field to move dramatically forward in studies of biliary regenerative medicine. In this review, the authors provide an overview of cholangiocytes, the organogenesis of the bile duct, cholangiopathies, and the current treatment and advances that have been made that are opening new doors to the study of cholangiopathies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bile Ducts , Bile , Bioprinting , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Liver Transplantation , Mortality , Organogenesis , Rare Diseases , Regenerative Medicine , Tissue Donors
19.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 119-129, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739526

ABSTRACT

Adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP) is a progressive degenerative white matter disorder caused by mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the CSF1R gene. ALSP is often misdiagnosed as other diseases due to its rarity and various clinical presentations such as Parkinsonism, pyramidal signs, cognitive impairment and/or psychiatric symptoms. We describe an autopsy case of ALSP with a CSF1R mutation. A 61-year-old woman presented insidious-onset gait difficulty for 12 years since her age of 49, and premature ovarian failure since her age of 35. At initial hospital visit, brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed hydrocephalus. Initially, Parkinson's syndrome was diagnosed, and she was prescribed L-dopa/carbidopa because of spasticity and rigidity of extremities, which had worsened. Subsequently, severe neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment developed and radiologically, features of leukoencephalopathy or leukodystrophy were detected. She showed a down-hill course and died, 12 years after initial diagnosis. At autopsy, the brain showed severe symmetric atrophy of bilateral white matter, paper-thin corpus callosum, thin internal capsule, and marked hydrocephalus. Microscopically, diffuse loss of white matter, relatively preserved subcortical U-fibers, and many eosinophilic bulbous neuroaxonal spheroids were noted, but there was no calcification. Pigmented glia with brown cytoplasmic pigmentation were readily found in the white matter, which were positive for Periodic acid-Schiff, p62, and CD163 stains, but almost negative for CD68. Whole-exome and Sanger sequencing revealed a CSF1R mutation (c.2539G>A, p.Glu847Lys) which was reported in prior one ALSP case. This example demonstrates that ALSP could be associated with premature ovarian failure.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Atrophy , Autopsy , Axons , Brain , Cognition Disorders , Coloring Agents , Corpus Callosum , Cytoplasm , Diagnosis , Eosinophils , Extremities , Gait , Hydrocephalus , Internal Capsule , Leukoencephalopathies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Muscle Spasticity , Neuroglia , Parkinsonian Disorders , Pigmentation , Primary Ovarian Insufficiency , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , White Matter
20.
Journal of Movement Disorders ; : 133-138, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765826

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Musculoskeletal problems are more common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) than in normal elderly, but the impact of musculoskeletal problems on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with PD is unknown. METHODS: Four hundred consecutive patients with PD were enrolled for the evaluation of musculoskeletal problems and HRQoL. HRQoL was assessed by the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, which comprised physical health and mental health. RESULTS: Of the total patients, 265 patients had musculoskeletal problems, and 135 patients did not have musculoskeletal problems. Patients with musculoskeletal problems reported lower levels of HRQoL in terms of physical health than did patients without musculoskeletal problems (p < 0.05). In women, all components of physical health were lower in patients with musculoskeletal problems than in patients without musculoskeletal problems (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, in men, only the bodily pain score of physical health was lower in patients with musculoskeletal problems than in patients without musculoskeletal problems. Mental health and physical health were negatively correlated with depression, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale I & II scores, and pain severity from musculoskeletal problems, in that order (p < 0.01 for all). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that musculoskeletal problems in patients with PD affect HRQoL significantly, mainly in terms of physical health rather than mental health and especially in women rather than men. Musculoskeletal problems should not be overlooked in the care of patients with PD.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Depression , Health Surveys , Mental Health , Parkinson Disease , Quality of Life
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