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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899944

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study presents outcomes of management in graft failure (GF) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) and provides prognostic information including rare cases of autologous reconstitution (AR). @*Methods@#We analyzed risk factors and outcomes of primary and secondary GF, and occurrence of AR in 1,630 HCT recipients transplanted over period of 18 years (January 2000– September 2017) at our center. @*Results@#Primary and secondary GF occurred in 13 (0.80%), and 69 patients (10-year cumulative incidence, 4.5%) respectively. No peri-transplant variables predicted primary GF, whereas reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen (relative risk [RR], 0.97–28.0, P < 0.001) and lower CD34 + cell dose (RR, 2.44–2.84, P = 0.002) were associated with higher risk of secondary GF in multivariate analysis. Primary GF demonstrated 100% mortality, in the secondary GF group, the 5-year Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 28.8%, relapse ensued in 18.8%, and AR was observed in 11.6% (n = 8). In survival analysis, diagnosis of aplastic anemia (AA), chronic myeloid leukemia and use of RIC had a positive impact. There were 8 patients who experienced AR, which was rarely reported after transplantation for acute leukemia. Patient shared common characteristics such as young age (median 25 years), use of RIC regimen, absence of profound neutropenia, and had advantageous survival rate of 100% during follow period without relapse. @*Conclusion@#Primary GF exhibited high mortality rate. Secondary GF had 4.5% 10-year cumulative incidence, median onset of 3 months after HCT, and showed 5-year Kaplan-Meier survival of 28.8%. Diagnosis of severe AA and use of RIC was both associated with higher incidence and better survival rate in secondary GF group. AR occurred in 11.6% in secondary GF, exhibited excellent prognosis.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892240

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study presents outcomes of management in graft failure (GF) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) and provides prognostic information including rare cases of autologous reconstitution (AR). @*Methods@#We analyzed risk factors and outcomes of primary and secondary GF, and occurrence of AR in 1,630 HCT recipients transplanted over period of 18 years (January 2000– September 2017) at our center. @*Results@#Primary and secondary GF occurred in 13 (0.80%), and 69 patients (10-year cumulative incidence, 4.5%) respectively. No peri-transplant variables predicted primary GF, whereas reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen (relative risk [RR], 0.97–28.0, P < 0.001) and lower CD34 + cell dose (RR, 2.44–2.84, P = 0.002) were associated with higher risk of secondary GF in multivariate analysis. Primary GF demonstrated 100% mortality, in the secondary GF group, the 5-year Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 28.8%, relapse ensued in 18.8%, and AR was observed in 11.6% (n = 8). In survival analysis, diagnosis of aplastic anemia (AA), chronic myeloid leukemia and use of RIC had a positive impact. There were 8 patients who experienced AR, which was rarely reported after transplantation for acute leukemia. Patient shared common characteristics such as young age (median 25 years), use of RIC regimen, absence of profound neutropenia, and had advantageous survival rate of 100% during follow period without relapse. @*Conclusion@#Primary GF exhibited high mortality rate. Secondary GF had 4.5% 10-year cumulative incidence, median onset of 3 months after HCT, and showed 5-year Kaplan-Meier survival of 28.8%. Diagnosis of severe AA and use of RIC was both associated with higher incidence and better survival rate in secondary GF group. AR occurred in 11.6% in secondary GF, exhibited excellent prognosis.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915455

ABSTRACT

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune condition characterized by platelet destruction through antibody-mediated mechanism. ITP is one of the manifestations of a coronavirus disease, as well as an adverse event occurring after vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Several cases of ITP have been described after vaccination with two mRNA-based vaccines—BTN162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna)—against SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we report a case of ITP occurring after vaccination with ChAdOx1 adenovirus vector nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca) vaccine in Korea. A 66-year-old woman presented with multiple ecchymoses on both upper and lower extremities and gingival bleeding, appearing 3 days after receiving the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Her laboratory results showed isolated severe thrombocytopenia without evidence of combined coagulopathy. She was diagnosed with ITP and successfully treated with high-dose dexamethasone and intravenous immunoglobulin. Clinical suspicion to identify vaccinerelated ITP is important to promptly initiate appropriate treatment.

4.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 452-459, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833364

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with optimal conditioning has helped better long-term survival in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This study investigated the efficacy and safety of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) with busulfan and fludarabine in adult ALL patients unfit for myeloablation. @*Materials and Methods@#Records of 78 patients who underwent HSCT with RIC consisting of 3.2 mg/kg/day of busulfan for 2 or 3 days and 30 mg/m2/day of fludarabine for 5 or 6 days were analyzed. @*Results@#The median age at diagnosis was 49 years. Over a median follow-up of 22 months, 2-year estimates of relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival were 57.4% and 68.7%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed a trend of improved RFS in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (hazard ratio, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.26–1.08; p=0.080). The cumulative incidences of relapse and non-relapse mortality were 42.9% and 19.6%, respectively and one case of central nervous system relapse was noted. No hepatic veno-occlusive disease was reported. Grade II–IV acute GVHD and any grade chronic GVHD occurred in 21.1% and 41.7%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#RIC with busulfan and fludarabine is an effective and safe conditioning regimen for adult ALL patients unfit for myeloablation.

5.
Blood Research ; : S32-S36, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830983

ABSTRACT

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is an aggressive hematological disease. The incorporation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) into the standard treatment regimen for Philadelphia (Ph)-positive ALL significantly improved clinical outcomes. TKI-based induction chemotherapy, followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) during the first complete remission (CR), is the standard of care for ALL patients. However, treatment with TKIs alone or TKIs plus low-intensity chemotherapy can achieve CR in some patients. Although this strategy is not enough to induce a deeper molecular response, it can reduce the incidence of treatment-related mortality. Despite promising results from pediatric trials, allogeneic HCT remains an important component of the treatment strategy for Ph-positive adult ALL. However, improving the highly sensitive BCR-ABL1 assays and introducing immunotherapy may decrease the demand for allogeneic HCT. Nevertheless, the treatment of Ph-positive ALL is still challenging, especially in cases with relapsed and refractory disease. Potent TKIs and monoclonal antibodies, such as blinatumomab and inotuzumab, have improved patient outcomes in relapse and refractory cases of ALL. The introduction of effective agents, such as potent TKIs and monoclonal antibodies, may improve the possibility of remission in Ph-positive ALL patients and hopefully cure this disease.

6.
Blood Research ; : 288-293, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the only curative treatment option for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), a substantial number of patients experience relapse. We reviewed the clinical outcomes of patients with MDS who relapsed after allogeneic HCT. METHODS: Thirty patients who experienced relapse or progression after allogeneic HCT for MDS between July 2000 and May 2016 were included in this retrospective analysis. RESULTS: The median time from HCT to relapse was 6.6 (range, 0.9–136.3) months. Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs) were administered to four patients: one achieved complete remission (CR) and survived disease free, while three did not respond to DLI and died. Hypomethylating agents were administered to seven patients: one who had stable disease continuously received decitabine, while six died without response to treatment. Six patients received AML-like intensive chemotherapy, and three achieved CR: two underwent second HCT and one DLI. One patient receiving second HCT survived without disease, but the other two relapsed and died. Three, four, and eight patients who did not respond to intensive chemotherapy, low-dose cytarabine, and best supportive care, respectively, died. One patient who underwent second HCT following cytogenetic relapse survived disease free. Median overall survival after relapse was 4.4 months, and relapse within 6 months after HCT was associated with shorter survival. CONCLUSION: Outcomes of MDS patients relapsing after allogeneic HCT were disappointing. Some patients could be saved using DLI or second HCT.


Subject(s)
Cell Transplantation , Cytarabine , Cytogenetics , Drug Therapy , Humans , Lymphocytes , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Tissue Donors , Transplants
7.
Blood Research ; : 227-234, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-40795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Efforts to overcome poor outcomes in patients with adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have focused on combining new therapeutic agents targeting immunophenotypic markers (IPMs) with classical cytotoxic agents; therefore, it is important to evaluate the clinical significance of IPMs. METHODS: Baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients with adult ALL were retrospectively analyzed. The percentage of blasts expressing IPMs at diagnosis was measured by multicolor flow cytometry analysis. Samples in which > or =20% of blasts expressed an IPM were considered positive. RESULTS: Among the total patient population (N=230), almost all (92%) were in first or second hematological complete remission (HCR) and 54% received allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT). Five-year hematologic relapse-free survival (HRFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 36% and 39%, respectively, and 45.6% and 80.5% of patients were positive for the IPMs CD20 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT), respectively. Expression of CD20, CD13, CD34, and TdT was associated with HRFS rate, and expression of CD20 and CD13 was associated with OS rate, as was the performance of allo-HCT. In multivariate analysis, positivity for CD20 (HRFS: hazard ratio [HR], 2.21, P<0.001; OS: HR, 1.63, P=0.015) and negativity for TdT (HRFS: HR, 2.30, P=0.001) were both significantly associated with outcomes. When patients were categorized into three subgroups according to positivity for CD20 and TdT, there were significant differences in HRFS and OS among the subgroups. CONCLUSION: Positivity for CD20 and TdT expression and clinical risk group were prognostic factors in adult ALL.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cytotoxins , Diagnosis , DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Retrospective Studies , Transplants
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101774

ABSTRACT

Although advances in multi-detector computed tomography (CT) technique make it possible to evaluate peripheral subsegmental pulmonary arteries, several studies have reported that small peripheral embolisms may still be missed. Recently, some reports demonstrated that dual-energy CT improved the capability to detect peripheral pulmonary embolism. We report a case of lymphoma presenting as disseminated microvascular pulmonary tumor embolism, detected by perfusion images using dual energy CT.


Subject(s)
Embolism , Lymphoma , Neoplastic Cells, Circulating , Perfusion , Pulmonary Artery , Pulmonary Embolism , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
9.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 749-753, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-187679

ABSTRACT

An inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare disease entity, and the clinical characteristics range from indolent to aggressive forms. No established management for patients with unresectable or aggressive IMT is available. We report on a 62-year-old patient with aggressive IMT who achieved a durable partial response lasting 12 months after anthracycline-containing cytotoxic chemotherapy without corticosteroids. The patient was admitted for an evaluation of progressive weight loss and lower abdominal pain lasting for 2 weeks. Abdominopelvic computed tomography revealed a 10 cm sized heterogeneous mass in the mesentery that encased the superior mesenteric artery and a liver metastasis. The diagnosis of IMT was confirmed by percutaneous core needle biopsy of the mesenteric mass. Systemic chemotherapy was performed after confirming disease progression during a 1 month observation period. A partial response was obtained after two cycles of chemotherapy. Anthracycline-containing cytotoxic chemotherapy could be a treatment option for patients with aggressive IMT.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Benzeneacetamides , Biopsy, Large-Core Needle , Disease Progression , Humans , Liver , Mesenteric Artery, Superior , Mesentery , Middle Aged , Myofibroblasts , Neoplasm Metastasis , Piperidones , Rare Diseases , Weight Loss
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-22403

ABSTRACT

Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection can occur in immunocompromised patients, and rarely in immunocompetent subjects. Due to the extensive distribution of the disease, clinical presentation of disseminated MAC may mimic malignancies, and thorough examinations are required in order to make accurate diagnosis. We report a case of disseminated Mycobacterium intracellulare disease in an immunocompetent patient, which involved the lung, lymph nodes, spleen, and multiple bones. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography imaging showed multiple hypermetabolic lesions, which are suggestive of typical hematogenous metastasis. However, there was no evidence of malignancy in serial biopsies, and M. intracellulare was repeatedly cultured from respiratory specimens and bones. Herein, we should know that disseminated infection can occur in the immunocompetent subjects, and it can mimic malignancies.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Humans , Hybridization, Genetic , Hydrazines , Immunocompetence , Immunocompromised Host , Lung , Lymph Nodes , Mycobacterium , Mycobacterium avium Complex , Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection , Neoplasm Metastasis , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria , Positron-Emission Tomography , Spleen
11.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 749-753, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741103

ABSTRACT

An inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare disease entity, and the clinical characteristics range from indolent to aggressive forms. No established management for patients with unresectable or aggressive IMT is available. We report on a 62-year-old patient with aggressive IMT who achieved a durable partial response lasting 12 months after anthracycline-containing cytotoxic chemotherapy without corticosteroids. The patient was admitted for an evaluation of progressive weight loss and lower abdominal pain lasting for 2 weeks. Abdominopelvic computed tomography revealed a 10 cm sized heterogeneous mass in the mesentery that encased the superior mesenteric artery and a liver metastasis. The diagnosis of IMT was confirmed by percutaneous core needle biopsy of the mesenteric mass. Systemic chemotherapy was performed after confirming disease progression during a 1 month observation period. A partial response was obtained after two cycles of chemotherapy. Anthracycline-containing cytotoxic chemotherapy could be a treatment option for patients with aggressive IMT.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Benzeneacetamides , Biopsy, Large-Core Needle , Disease Progression , Humans , Liver , Mesenteric Artery, Superior , Mesentery , Middle Aged , Myofibroblasts , Neoplasm Metastasis , Piperidones , Rare Diseases , Weight Loss
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-170828

ABSTRACT

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a malignancy of mature T-cells caused by the human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type I (HTLV-I). HTLV-I is endemic in some areas in Japan, the Caribbean basin, and Africa but has low prevalence in South Korea. Patients with ATLL are susceptible to opportunistic infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, but CMV infection in chronic ATLL is uncommon. Reported herein is a case involving a 44-year-old woman with chronic ATLL who presented the symptoms of fever and diarrhea. She was suspected to have acute-type ATLL but was later diagnosed with CMV colitis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Africa , Caribbean Region , Colitis , Cytomegalovirus , Diarrhea , Female , Fever , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , Humans , Japan , Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell , Opportunistic Infections , Prevalence , Republic of Korea , T-Lymphocytes , Viruses
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