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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926108

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Non-celiac gluten sensitivity is characterized by intestinal and extra intestinal symptoms associated with the consumption of gluten-containing food. Since biomarkers for non-celiac gluten sensitivity are lacking, its prevalence is estimated based on self-reported symptoms. However, no data exist on self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity in the Korean population. Thus, we aim to investigate the prevalence of self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity in the Korean population and to determine its demographic and clinical characteristics. @*Methods@#This study surveyed Korean participants aged 18-80 years who visited gastroenterology outpatient clinics at 9 tertiary hospitals in South Korea from January 2016 to February 2017. They were questioned regarding symptoms related to gluten ingestion: degree of discomfort (visual analog scale score), frequency, time of symptom onset, and duration. Abdominal discomfort caused by 11 differentkinds of gluten-containing Korean food items was investigated. @*Results@#More non-celiac gluten sensitivity self-reporters were identified among those with irritable bowel syndrome (33.6%) than among controls (5.8%). Major gastrointestinal symptoms included bloating (75.0%), abdominal discomfort (71.3%), and belching (45.0%).Common extra-intestinal symptoms included fatigue (20.0%) and headache (13.7%). More than half of those who self-reported nonceliac gluten sensitivity (66.3%) developed symptoms within 1 hour of food ingestion, and symptoms were localized in the upper abdomen (37.5%) and entire abdomen (30.0%). @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that if there are gluten-related symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome, the possibility of accompanying non-celiacgluten sensitivity should be considered.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926026

ABSTRACT

Various grading systems and surgical techniques have been developed for the treatment of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH); however, little attention has been paid to the fourth ventricle hematoma. Nonetheless, hemorrhagic dilation of the fourth ventricle may lead to catastrophic consequences for patients with massive IVH. We present two cases of massive IVH accompanied by massive fourth ventricle hematoma which was successfully removed with combination of suboccipital craniotomy for fourth ventricle hematoma and intraventricular fibrinolysis for supratentorial hematoma.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892736

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Constipation is a common gastrointestinal problem in the elderly. Because of the limitations of life style modifications and the comorbidity, laxative use is also very common. Therefore, this study reviews the latest literature on the effect and safety of laxative in the elderly. @*Methods@#A systematic review of randomized controlled trials investigating the effectiveness and safety of laxatives for constipation in elderly patients over 65 years old were performed using the following databases: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. @*Results@#Twenty-three randomized controlled trials were included in this review. Among the selected studies, 9 studies compared laxative with placebo and 5 studies compared laxatives of the same type. Four studies compared different types of laxatives or compared combination agents. Five studies compared novel medications such as prucalopride, lubiprostone, and elobixibat with placebo.Psyllium, calcium polycarbophil, lactulose syrup, lactitol, polyethylene glycol, magnesium hydroxide, stimulant laxative with or without fiber, and other medications were more effective than placebo in elderly constipation patients in short-term. Generally, the frequency and severity of adverse effects of laxative were similar between the arms of studies. @*Conclusions@#Bulk laxative, osmotic laxative, stimulant laxative with or without fiber, and other medications can be used in elderly patients in short-term within 3 months with reasonable safety. However, the quality of included studies was not high and most of studies was conducted in a small number of patients. Among these laxatives, polyethylene glycol seems to be safe and effective in long-term use of about 6 months in elderly patients.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900440

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Constipation is a common gastrointestinal problem in the elderly. Because of the limitations of life style modifications and the comorbidity, laxative use is also very common. Therefore, this study reviews the latest literature on the effect and safety of laxative in the elderly. @*Methods@#A systematic review of randomized controlled trials investigating the effectiveness and safety of laxatives for constipation in elderly patients over 65 years old were performed using the following databases: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. @*Results@#Twenty-three randomized controlled trials were included in this review. Among the selected studies, 9 studies compared laxative with placebo and 5 studies compared laxatives of the same type. Four studies compared different types of laxatives or compared combination agents. Five studies compared novel medications such as prucalopride, lubiprostone, and elobixibat with placebo.Psyllium, calcium polycarbophil, lactulose syrup, lactitol, polyethylene glycol, magnesium hydroxide, stimulant laxative with or without fiber, and other medications were more effective than placebo in elderly constipation patients in short-term. Generally, the frequency and severity of adverse effects of laxative were similar between the arms of studies. @*Conclusions@#Bulk laxative, osmotic laxative, stimulant laxative with or without fiber, and other medications can be used in elderly patients in short-term within 3 months with reasonable safety. However, the quality of included studies was not high and most of studies was conducted in a small number of patients. Among these laxatives, polyethylene glycol seems to be safe and effective in long-term use of about 6 months in elderly patients.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918169

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#:The purpose of this study is to compare the psychosocial characteristics of patients diagnosed with functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) by classifying them into irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional dyspepsia (FD), functional constipation (FC), functional heartburn (FH) groups, and overlap group (two or more functional diseases) and to examine the factors associated with the quality of life (QoL) of patients with FGID. @*Methods@#:A total of 144 patients who were diagnosed with FGID were selected as the subjects. The demographical factors were investigated; Korean-Beck Depression Inventory-II (K-BDI-II), Korean-Beck Anxiety Inventory (K-BAI), Korean version of Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (K-CTQ), Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Korean Version of Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (K-CD-RISC), and World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument Brief Form (WHOQOL-BREF) were used to evaluate the psychosocial factors. @*Results@#:TThe overlap group had a significantly higher K-BDI-II score (F=11.09, p<0.001) and K-BAI score (F=8.93, p<0.001) compared to other groups. In childhood trauma, the IBS patients had a difference in emotional neglect (F=2.54, p=0.04) than the FD patients. The QoL of FGID patients had a negative correlation with depression (r=-0.196, p<0.01), anxiety (r=-0.235, p<0.01), and childhood trauma (r=-0.222, p<0.01), and a positive correlation with social support (r=0.512, p<0.01) and resilience (r=0.581, p<0.01). @*Conclusions@#:Overlap group had a higher level of depression and anxiety, and the IBS patient group had a higher level of emotional neglect than the FD patient group in terms of childhood trauma.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914857

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Macrophages have been shown to play important roles in various pathophysiological processes of the central nervous system via neuroinflammation, leading to an increased interest in macrophage biology. Circulating blood monocytes are among the first cells to infiltrate the brain after ischemic stroke; however, the role of innate immune cells such as monocytes and macrophages remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the association between blood monocytes and infarct size following ischemic stroke. @*Methods@#We induced stroke using a focal ischemia mouse model through middle cerebral artery suture occlusion. To deplete circulating blood monocytes, clodronate was injected intraperitoneally 24 h before the surgery. Animals were sacrificed at specified time points, and the infarct size and mRNA expression were then measured. @*Results@#The clodronate-injected mice showed significantly smaller infarct size than the control mice. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that monocyte depletion significantly blocked the infiltration of macrophages and microglia. The mRNA expression levels of macrophage and microglia markers were higher in the left infarcted brain than in the right non-infarcted brain. @*Conclusions@#In summary, monocyte depletion reduced the infarct size and mitigated neurological deficits in mice following ischemic stroke, likely by blocking the infiltration of inflammatory cells such as macrophages and microglia.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837307

ABSTRACT

Achalasia is a rare primary esophageal motility disorder characterized by the loss of enteric neurons leading to an absence of peristalsis and impaired relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. The subsequent stasis of ingested food not only leads to symptoms of dysphagia, regurgitation, chest pain, and weight loss, but also results in an increased risk of esophageal carcinoma. Structural or functional pulmonary abnormalities occur in more than half of patients and may be due to recurrent aspiration or tracheal compression from a dilated esophagus. Delayed diagnosis or ineffective intervention may lead to progressive dilation of the esophagus and the development of a megaesophagus. Respiratory distress and cardiopulmonary arrest from tracheal or left atrial compression secondary to a megaesophagus are rare complications of achalasia. There is only limited evidence that pneumatic dilation may be used as a first-line therapy for a megaesophagus. The choice of definitive treatment will depend on many factors including achalasia type, patient wishes, performance status, and surgical expertise.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836757

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#:The aim of this study was to compare psychosocial characteristics of the functional gastrointestinal disorders FGID group, non-FGID group, and control group and determine factors affecting the QOL of patients with FGID. @*Methods@#:135 patients diagnosed with FGID were selected. 79 adults had no observable symptoms of FGID (control group) and 88 adults showed symptoms of FGID (non-FGID group). Demographic factors were investigated. The Korean-Beck Depression Inventory-II, Korean-Beck Anxiety Inventory, Korean-Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-15 and WHO Quality of Life Assessment Instrument Brief Form were used to assess psychosocial factors. A one-way ANOVA was used to compare differences among groups. Pearson correlation test was performed to analyze the correlation of psychosocial factors and QOL of the FGID group. Further, a hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to determine factors affecting the QOL of the FGID group. @*Results@#:Between-group differences were not significant in demographic characteristics. Depression (F=48.75, p<0.001), anxiety (F=14.48, p<0.001), somatization (F=24.42, p<0.001) and childhood trauma (F=12.71, p<0.001) were significantly higher in FGID group than in other groups. Social support (F=39.95, p< 0.001) and resilience (F=17.51, p<0.001) were significantly lower in FGID group than in other groups. Resilience (β=0.373, p<0.01) was the most important explanatory variable. The explained variance was 47.2%. @*Conclusions@#:Significantly more symptoms of depression, anxiety, childhood trauma, and somatization were observed for the FGID group. This group also had less social support, resilience, and quality of life than the non- FGID and control groups. The key factor for quality of life of the FGID group was resilience.

9.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 262-267, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832559

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of this study was to investigate the predictor variables that could influence overlap syndrome in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) among psychiatric patients. @*Methods@#Data collected from 170 outpatients visiting the psychiatric clinic at a university hospital. FGIDs were screened according to the Rome III questionnaire-Korean version. Demographic factors were investigated, and psychosocial factors were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-15, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Korean and the Short form health survey. Chi-squared test, Student’s t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Pearson’s correlation test were used as statistical analysis methods. @*Results@#There were no differences in the epidemiologic data between the two groups divided according to the FGID status. In those with FGID overlap syndrome, FD-NERD was most common (n=29), followed by IBS-NERD (n=20). Patients with overlap syndrome had the highest depressive, anxiety, and somatic symptoms. The overlap syndrome group had the lowest physical component summary and mental component summary. FGID symptom severity was significantly correlated with PCS and MCS in the overlap syndrome group. @*Conclusion@#Psychological factors are associated with the overlap syndrome of FGID. Acknowledging this common comorbidity may facilitate the recognition and treatment of patients with FGID.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832084

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purpose of this study was to analyze the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and childhood trauma in functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) patients who visited the brain-gut axis clinic. @*Methods@#The study participants included 99 individuals who were diagnosed with FGID by gastroenterologists, 88 individuals who had no FGID but showed symptoms of FGID based on the Rome criteria, and 79 individuals who did not show any symptoms or were diagnosed with FGID. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and childhood trauma were evaluated by the Korean version of Beck-depression inventory-II (K-BDI-II), Korean version of Beck anxiety inventory (K-BAI), and Korean version of childhood trauma questionnaire (K-CTQ), respectively. @*Results@#The BDI score, BAI score, and CTQ score were significantly different between the groups. The group also had higher odds for developing anxiety as compared to the control group (odds ratio [OR] = 10.215, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 2.49−41.76). Additionally, the FGID group had higher odds for developing symptoms of depression (OR = 5.554, 95% CI: 2.06−14.97) and experiencing physical violence (OR = 3.128, 95% CI: 1.53−6.38) than the non-FGID group. @*Conclusion@#This study showed that FGID patients were more likely to have symptoms of depression, severe anxiety, and childhood trauma, which were the risk factors of FGID.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831999

ABSTRACT

In the treatment of displaced patella fractures, open reduction and internal fixation is essential for patellofemoral congruency and restoration of the knee extension mechanism. Various surgical techniques and materials can be used, and their clinical outcomes are favorable. However, soft-tissue and skin irritation, pain, and limited range of motion due to metallic hardware can occur, and removal of hardware such as screws and K-wire may be required after bony union. We present a vertical interfragmentary suture technique for patella fractures using sequential compressive tightening with the Nice knot. This knot-tying technique is low profile, provides stable fixation enough to hold displaced fractures, and does not require a secondary procedure for hardware removal.

13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760245

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the psychosocial characteristics among patients with functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID), adults with functional gastrointestinal symptoms, and normal control group and investigate factors related to quality of life (QoL) of FGID patients. METHODS: 65 patients diagnosed with FGID were selected. 79 adults were selected as normal control group based on the Rome III diagnostic criteria, and 88 adults who showed functional gastrointestinal symptoms were selected as “FGID positive group”. Demographic factors were investigated. Psychosocial factors were evaluated using the Korean-Beck Depression Inventory-II, Korean-Beck Anxiety Inventory, Korean-Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and WHO Quality of Life Assessment Instrument Brief Form. A one-way ANOVA was used to compare differences among groups. Pearson correlation test was used to analyze correlations between QoL and psychosocial factors in patients with FGID. RESULTS: There were group differences in the education level. Depression (F=29.012, p<0.001), anxiety (F=27.954, p<0.001) and Childhood trauma (F=7.748, p<0.001) were significantly higher in FGID patient group than in both FGID-positive and normal control group. Social support (F=5,123, p<0.001), Resilience (F=9.623, p<0.001) and QoL (F=35.991, p<0.001) were significantly lower in the FGID patient group than in others. QoL of FGID patients showed a positive correlation with resilience (r=0.475, p<0.01), and showed a negative correlation with depression (r=−0.641, p<0.01), anxiety (r=−0.641, p<0.01), and childhood trauma (r=−0.278, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: FGID patients have distinctive psychosocial factors compared to the both FGID-positive and normal control group. Therefore, the active interventions for psychosocial factors are required in the treatment of patients with FGID.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anxiety , Demography , Depression , Education , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , Psychology , Quality of Life
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765937

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Various foods trigger and/or worsen the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, Korean food-related gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in IBS patients have not yet been investigated. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported food intolerance in Korean IBS patients and determine the Korean food items and food groups perceived by patients to worsen their GI symptoms. METHODS: We recruited 393 study subjects, comprising 101 IBS patients, 167 symptomatic non-IBS subjects, and 125 control subjects. All participants completed a questionnaire to identify the most problematic foods and assess the occurrence of GI symptoms caused by 119 Korean food items. They also completed the validated Rome III questionnaire for IBS. RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported food intolerance in Korean IBS patients was 79.2%, which was significantly higher than that in control subjects (44.8%, P < 0.001). The most problematic foods reported by IBS patients who experienced food intolerance were high-fat foods (25.0%), gluten foods (23.8%), spicy foods (15.0%), and dairy products (15.0%). A total of 63.4% of IBS patients reported GI symptoms related to the consumption of foods high in fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides, and polyols (FODMAP), while 48.5% of IBS patients reported symptoms associated with high-fat foods. Gas problems and loose stools were the most frequently reported symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of Korean IBS patients complained of intolerance to certain food items, with high-fat and high-FODMAP foods being the main triggers. This study provides a basis for planning food intervention studies for Korean IBS patients.


Subject(s)
Dairy Products , Diet , Glutens , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The primary aims of this study were to evaluate the content quality of YouTube videos on exercises to help relieve constipation and to assess whether the video source, exercise types, and popularity affected their quality. METHODS: Eight gastroenterologists independently evaluated the exercises presented in the constipation YouTube videos for seven items: image quality, usefulness in relieving constipation (quality 1), usefulness for general physical health (quality 2), difficulty in following, activity intensity, fun, and overall quality. Raters were asked open-ended questions to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the videos. Five-point ordinal scales were used to score each item aforementioned, with the exception of image quality and overall quality that used a six-point Likert scale. RESULTS: The 20 videos had a mean length of 268 seconds and a mean viewership of 32,694. The most common video source was commercial (n=10), and the most common type of physical activity was yoga (n=11). The median values of image quality, quality 1, quality 2, difficulty in following, activity intensity, fun, and overall quality were 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, and 2, respectively. Yoga videos had significantly higher median quality 1 values (3) compared with massage videos (2, adjusted p=0.006) and ‘others’ videos (2, adjusted p<0.001). A lack of medical evidence was the most common answer to open-ended questions about the weaknesses of each video. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, YouTube exercise videos presented a low-quality content. This study highlights the need for evidence-based comprehensive educational videos addressing exercises for treating constipation.


Subject(s)
Constipation , Exercise , Massage , Motor Activity , Weights and Measures , Yoga
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Stress has a role in the pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia (FD) and influences food intake in humans and animals. Prokinetic drugs have been used in FD, and some of these drugs reverse the feeding inhibition (FI) induced by acute restraint stress in rats. We aimed to evaluate the effect of DA-9701 on FI induced by acute restraint in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups: Control (no stress), Stress+vehicle, and Stress+DA-9701 at doses of 1, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg (n=6~7). DA-9701 or vehicle was administered through gastric gavage 45 minutes before stress. After 60 minutes of stress, pre-weighed chow was given and the weight of remaining food was measured 30 and 60 minutes later. The effect of DA-9701 on FI was compared after pretreatment with WAY100635, a 5HT1A antagonist. RESULTS: The restraint stress group had significantly less food intake than the control group. After feeding, rats given 1 and 3 mg/kg of DA-9701 showed increased food intake at 60 minutes, but this was not statistically significant. Rats given 10 mg/kg of DA-9701 showed significantly increased food intake at 30 minutes and 60 minutes (P < 0.05). Interestingly, rats given 30 mg/kg of DA-9701 showed a significant decrease in food intake, similar to that of the vehicle group. The beneficial effect of 10 mg/kg of DA-9701 on FI was abolished by the pretreatment with WAY100635. CONCLUSIONS: Acute restraint stress reduced food intake in rats and pretreatment with DA-9701 improved stress-induced FI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dyspepsia , Eating , Humans , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Stress, Physiological
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738891

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the psychosocial characteristics of functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) in patients with psychiatric disorders. METHODS: This study was conducted with 144 outpatients visiting the psychiatric clinic at a university hospital. FGIDs were screened according to the Rome III questionnaire-Korean version. Demographic factors were investigated, and psychosocial factors were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-15, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Korean, and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory. Chi-squared test and student's t-test were used as statistical analysis methods. RESULTS: There were differences in education level between two groups divided according to FGID status (χ²=10.139, p=0.017). Comparing the psychiatric disorder by FGID group, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) group showed significant differences (χ²=11.408, p=0.022). According to FGID status, IBS group showed significant differences for anxiety (t=−3.106, p=0.002), depressive symptom (t=−2.105, p=0.037), somatic symptom (t=−3.565, p < 0.001), trait anger (t=−3.683, p < 0.001), anger-in (t=−2.463, p=0.015), and anger-out (t=− 2.355, p=0.020). Functional dyspepsia group showed significant differences for anxiety (t=−4.893, p < 0.001), depressive symptom (t=−3.459, p < 0.001), somatic symptom (t=−7.906, p < 0.001), trait-anger (t=−4.148, p < 0.001), state-anger (t=−2.181, p=0.031), anger-in (t=−2.684, p=0.008), and anger-out (t=−3.005, p=0.003). Nonerosive reflux disease group showed significant differences for anxiety (t=−4.286, p < 0.001), depressive symptom (t=−3.402, p < 0.001), somatic symptom (t=−7.162, p < 0.001), trait anger (t=−2.994, p=0.003), state anger (t=−2.259, p=0.025), anger-in (t=−2.772, p=0.006), and anger-out (t=−2.958, p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with psychiatric disorders had a high prevalence of FGID, and various psychosocial factors contributed to such differences. Therefore, the psychiatric approach can offer better understandings and treatments to patients with FGID.


Subject(s)
Anger , Anxiety , Demography , Depression , Dyspepsia , Education , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Outpatients , Prevalence , Psychology
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