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1.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 860-870, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002441

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The intra-parotid facial nerve (FN) can be visualized using three-dimensional double-echo steady-state waterexcitation sequence magnetic resonance imaging (3D-DESS-WE-MRI). However, the clinical impact of FN imaging using 3D-DESS-WE-MRI before parotidectomy has not yet been explored. We compared the clinical outcomes of parotidectomy in patients with and without preoperative 3D-DESS-WE-MRI. @*Materials and Methods@#This prospective, non-randomized, single-institution study included 296 adult patients who underwent parotidectomy for parotid tumors, excluding superficial and mobile tumors. Preoperative evaluation with 3D-DESS-WE-MRI was performed in 122 patients, and not performed in 174 patients. FN visibility and tumor location relative to FN on 3D-DESSWE-MRI were evaluated in 120 patients. Rates of FN palsy (FNP) and operation times were compared between patients with and without 3D-DESS-WE-MRI; propensity score matching (PSM) and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) were used to adjust for surgical and tumor factors. @*Results@#The main trunk, temporofacial branch, and cervicofacial branch of the intra-parotid FN were identified using 3D-DESSWE-MRI in approximately 97.5% (117/120), 44.2% (53/120), and 25.0% (30/120) of cases, respectively. The tumor location relative to FN, as assessed on magnetic resonance imaging, concurred with surgical findings in 90.8% (109/120) of cases. Rates of temporary and permanent FNP did not vary between patients with and without 3D-DESS-WE-MRI according to PSM (odds ratio, 2.29 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.64–8.25] and 2.02 [95% CI: 0.32–12.90], respectively) and IPTW (odds ratio, 1.76 [95% CI: 0.19–16.75] and 1.94 [95% CI: 0.20–18.49], respectively). Conversely, operation time for surgical identification of FN was significantly shorter with 3D-DESS-WE-MRI (median, 25 vs. 35 min for PSM and 25 vs. 30 min for IPTW, P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#Preoperative FN imaging with 3D-DESS-WE-MRI facilitated anatomical identification of FN and its relationship to the tumor during parotidectomy. This modality reduced operation time for FN identification, but did not significantly affect postoperative FNP rates.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1123-1133, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999817

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to investigate the oncologic outcomes and prognostic factors of salvage treatments in patients with recurrent oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) after radiotherapy (RT)-based treatment. @*Materials and Methods@#A cancer registry was used to retrieve the records of 337 patients treated with definitive RT or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) from 2008 to 2018 at a single institution. The poor-responder group (PRG) was defined as patients with residual or recurrent disease after primary treatment, and the oncologic outcomes for each salvage treatment method were analyzed. In addition, prognostic indicators of recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were identified in patients who underwent salvage treatment. @*Results@#After initial (C)RT, the PRG comprised 71 of the 337 patients (21.1%): 18 patients had residual disease, and 53 had recurrence after primary treatment (mean time to recurrence 19.5 months). Of these, 63 patients received salvage treatment (surgery 57.2%, re-(C)RT 23.8%, and chemotherapy 19.0%), and the salvage success rate was 47.6% at the last follow-up. The overall 2-year OS for salvage treatments was 56.4% (60.8% for the salvage surgery group and 46.2% for the salvage re-(C)RT). Salvage surgery patients with negative resection margins had better oncologic outcomes than those with close/positive resection margins. Using multivariate analyses, locoregional recurrence and residual disease after primary surgery were associated with poor outcome after salvage treatment. In Kaplan-Meier analyses, p16 status was significantly associated with OS in the initial treatment setting but not in the salvage setting. @*Conclusion@#In recurrent OPSCC after RT-based treatment, successful salvage was achieved in 56.4% patients who had undergone salvage surgery and radiation treatment. Salvage treatment methods should be selected carefully, given recurrence site as a prognostic factor for RFS.

3.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 394-400, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938735

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Airway reconstruction surgery in children is still challenging, especially in cases of combined subglottic and posterior glottic stenosis (PGS). The aim of this study was to review the underlying reasons of failure in open airway reconstruction surgeries performed for children with combined subglottic and PGS.Subjects and Method We reviewed medical records of seven children who received more than two open airway reconstruction surgeries to finally achieve and maintain decannulation status for more than one year. Twenty-two reconstructive surgeries were performed and they consisted of 19 laryngotracheal reconstruction (LTR), 2 cricotracheal resection with end-toend anastomosis (CTR) and one extended CTR. For each patient, the following potential causes of failure were evaluated; preoperative evaluation (PE), type of reconstruction (TR), single vs. double staging (SDS), type of stent (TS), and perioperative optimization (PO). @*Results@#The median age of patients at the time of surgery was 32 months (range, 4-64 months). Successful decannulation was achieved after the median open surgery of three (range, 2-5 times for each patient). Recognized causes of failure were as follows: 8 insufficient PE, 10 inadequate TR, 3 improper SDS, 8 ill-chosen TS, and 2 inappropriate PO. @*Conclusion@#PE of dynamic airway is important, especially vocal fold mobility and tracheomalacia. Types of reconstruction should be carefully decided after full consideration of potential causes of failure, and adequate laryngotracheal stent is essential.

4.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 107-114, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925719

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. The aim of this study was to compare the long-term oncologic outcomes of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) versus elective neck dissection (END) in clinically node-negative (cN0) tongue cancer. @*Methods@#. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with cN0 tongue cancer from a single institution, including 91 patients in the SLNB group and 120 patients in the END group. @*Results@#. The overall recurrence rate showed no significant difference between the two groups. The regional control rate was also comparable between the two groups (P=0.490). The 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) was slightly better in the SLNB group than in the END group (P=0.427). The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 89.9% in the SLNB group versus 91.9% in the END group (P=0.737). In a propensity-matched subgroup analysis, the type of neck management did not affect RFS or OS. @*Conclusion@#. SLNB showed non-inferior oncologic outcomes compared to END in patients with cN0 tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 84-95, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913844

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Larynx-preserving surgery (LPS) have recently gained popularity and achieved comparable oncologic outcomes to conventional radical surgery for localized hypopharyngeal cancer (HPC). In the current study, the role of LPS has been assessed thoroughly in comparison with upfront radiation therapy (RT). @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed 185 candidates for LPS with cT1-2 disease; 59 patients underwent upfront LPS while 126 patients received upfront RT, respectively. Oncological and functional outcomes were investigated and compared. @*Results@#Following LPS, safe margin (≥ 5 mm) was achieved in 37.3% of patients. Overall, better clinical outcomes at 5 years were achieved following upfront LPS than those following upfront RT: overall survival (OS) (72.7% vs. 59.0%, p=0.045), disease-free survival (DFS) (59.8% vs. 45.0%, p=0.039), and functional laryngeal preservation (100% vs. 89.7%, p=0.010). Although similar outcomes were observed in patients with cT1 disease, better 5-year DFS was achieved following upfront LPS in patients with cT2 disease (57.0% vs. 36.4%, p=0.023) by virtue of better local control. Despite frequent cN2-3 disease in upfront LPS group, comparable outcomes were observed between upfront RT and LPS group. However, multivariable analyses revealed that performance status and double primary cancer diagnosed within 6 months of HPC diagnosis affected OS significantly, while treatment modality per se did not. @*Conclusion@#Although upfront LPS could provide better local control than upfront RT in patients with cT2 disease, overall outcomes were comparable following either modality. Treatment selection of larynx-preserving approach for HPC should be individualized based on tumor and patient factors.

6.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : S217-S224, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875516

ABSTRACT

Clinical trials have not consistently supported the use of induction chemotherapy (IC) for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer. Hypopharynx and base of tongue (BOT) cancer has shown relatively poor survival. We investigated the role of IC in improving outcome over current chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with hypopharynx and BOT cancer. Methods: Treatment-naïve patients with stage III/IV (M0) hypopharynx or BOT cancer were randomly assigned to receive CRT alone (CRT arm: cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on D1 3-weekly, two times plus radiotherapy 68.4 Gy/30 fractions on weekdays) versus two 21-day cycles of IC with TPF (docetaxel & cisplatin 75 mg/m2 on D1, and fluorouracil 75 mg/m2 on D1-4) followed by the same CRT regimen (IC arm). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Results: This study closed early after enrollment of 36 patients (19 in the CRT arm, 17 in the IC arm). After a median follow-up of 47.2 months, there was no significant difference in PFS: the median PFS was 26.8 months for the CRT arm and was not reached for the IC arm (p = 0.13). However, the survival curves were widely separated with a plateau after 3 years, suggesting a potential survival benefit from IC: 3-year PFS rates were 45% and 68%, and 3-year overall survival rates were 56% and 86%, in the CRT and IC arms, respectively. Conclusions: This study failed to demonstrate that induction TPF chemotherapy improves survival in patients with BOT and hypopharynx cancer. However, it suggested a favorable outcome with IC to this population.

7.
Journal of the Korean Society of Laryngology Phoniatrics and Logopedics ; : 19-26, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836432

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Objective Endoscopic airway dilation is the primary treatment for pediatric subglottic stenosis (SGS) due to its feasibility and non-invasiveness. The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk factors for the failure of endoscopic airway dilation in pediatric patients with SGS. @*Materials and Methods@#This study reviewed medical records of 38 pediatric patients had endoscopic dilation from a single and tertiary referral center, retrospectively. The success of the endoscopic dilation procedure was defined as no dyspneic symptom without tracheostomy or laryngotracheal reconstruction. Demographic profiles, underlying disease, and Myer-Cotton SGS severity grade were recorded. Success rates and risk factors for the failure of treatment were analyzed. @*Results@#The SGS patients with severity grade I was most common. After mean 1.8 numbers of procedures, there were 23 patients (60.5%) in the success group and 15 patients (39.5%) in the failure group. Age, sex, underlying diseases, and SGS severity grade were not significantly different between two groups. In patients who had multiple endoscopic procedures, the failure group showed SGS deteriorated after procedures in 66.7%, compared to 11.1% of the success group. In multivariable analysis, a long-term intubation (≥1 month) was identified as an independent risk factor for failure of endoscopic dilation procedure. @*Conclusion@#Although endoscopic dilation procedure is safe and effective for the management, repetitive endoscopic dilation may not give clinical benefit in patient with long-term intubation. Other airway procedures must be considered in those group of patients.

8.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 308-316, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763312

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Length of in-hospital stay (LOS) is often regarded as a surrogate marker of efficiency in medical care. A shorter stay can redistribute medical resources to more patients if patient outcomes would not be worsened. However, the adequate LOS remains largely understudied for a complex head and neck cancer (HNC) surgery and free flap reconstruction. METHODS: Active management of LOS (14-day LOS program) included detailed preoperative surgical planning, intensive wound care, postoperative early ambulation and positive psychological encouragement. It was applied to 43 patients undergoing HNC surgery and free flap reconstruction. Outcomes such as noninferior oncological results, rates of timely adjuvant treatments and complications were compared with those of 125 patients without active management of LOS. In addition, the medical costs of shortened LOS were compared with those of the control group. Cases undergoing HNC surgery as a salvage treatment were excluded from both groups for analyses. RESULTS: Active management of LOS resulted in less in-hospital period compared to the control group (15.0 vs. 21.0 days, P=0.001), and reduced medical costs significantly. Incidence of postoperative complications was comparable between the two groups. Oncological outcomes did not differ significantly according to LOS. In all patients in both groups, initial high T status (T3–4) and occurrence of postoperative complications were independent risk factors for long LOS (>30 days). CONCLUSION: In patients undergoing HNC surgery with free flap reconstruction as an initial treatment, a 14-day LOS could be safe in terms of comparable oncological outcomes and postoperative complications. To achieve this goal safely, careful management for T3–4 tumors and prevention of postoperative complications seem to be necessary.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Early Ambulation , Free Tissue Flaps , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Head , Incidence , Length of Stay , National Health Programs , Postoperative Care , Postoperative Complications , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Risk Factors , Salvage Therapy , Wounds and Injuries
9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 906-914, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160281

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) frequently involve genetic alterations. The objective of this study was to investigate genetic alterations and further explore the relationships between these genetic alterations and clinicopathological characteristics in a high-recurrence risk (node positive, N1) PTC group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumor tissue blocks were obtained from 240 surgically resected patients with histologically confirmed stage III/IV (pT3/4 or N1) PTCs. We screened gene fusions using NanoString’s nCounter technology and mutational analysis was performed by direct DNA sequencing. Data describing the clinicopathological characteristics and clinical courses were retrospectively collected. RESULTS: Of the 240 PTC patients, 207 (86.3%) had at least one genetic alteration, including BRAF mutation in 190 patients (79.2%), PIK3CA mutation in 25 patients (10.4%), NTRK1/3 fusion in six patients (2.5%), and RET fusion in 24 patients (10.0%). Concomitant presence of more than two genetic alterations was seen in 36 patients (15%). PTCs harboring BRAF mutation were associated with RET wild-type expression (p=0.001). RET fusion genes have been found to occur with significantly higher frequency in N1b stage patients (p=0.003) or groups of patients aged 45 years or older (p=0.031); however, no significant correlation was found between other genetic alterations. There was no trend toward favorable recurrence-free survival or overall survival among patients lacking genetic alterations. CONCLUSION: In the selected high-recurrence risk PTC group, most patients had more than one genetic alteration. However, these known alterations could not entirely account for clinicopathological features of high-recurrence risk PTC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gene Fusion , Retrospective Studies , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
10.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 54-62, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-169452

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is a strong prognostic factor in many solid cancers, including head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), and LNM can be dependent upon primary tumor biology, as well as tumor dimension. Here, we investigate the relative risk of LNM in accordance to tumor dimension and biology in HNSCC subsites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical data of 295 HNSCC patients who had undergone the initial curative surgery (oral tongue 174, oropharynx 75, hypopharynx 46) were analyzed to identify the significant predictive factor for LNM. Tumor volume and thickness were set as tumor dimensional variables, and biological variables included lymphovascular, perineural invasion, and tumor differentiation. Statistical analyses were conducted to assess the predictability of LNM from variables, and subgroup analyses according to the tumor subsites. In addition, we evaluated the impacts of tumor dimension and biological variables on the treatment outcomes and survival in HNSCC subsites. RESULTS: The overall tumor dimension and biological variables had a similar impact on the prediction of LNM in HNSCC (area under the curve, 0.7682 and 0.7717). The prediction sensitivity of LNM in oral tongue cancer was mainly dependent on tumor dimension, while LNM in oroand hypo-pharynx cancers was more influenced by biological factors. Survival analyses also confirmed that biological factor was more powerful in estimating disease-free survival of hypopharyngeal cancer patients, while tumor dimension was more significant in that of oral cancer patients. CONCLUSION: Tumor dimension and biology have a significant, tumor subsite-dependent impact on the occurrence of LNM and disease-free survival in HNSCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biological Factors , Biology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Disease-Free Survival , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Head , Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms , Hypopharynx , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Metastasis , Mouth Neoplasms , Neck , Neoplasm Metastasis , Oropharynx , Tongue , Tongue Neoplasms , Tumor Burden
11.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 264-270, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44150

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to clarify the pathogenesis of plunging ranulas in regard of the pathway of lesion propagation using CT scans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed CT scans of 41 patients with plunging ranula. We divided plunging ranulas into two types: type 1 was defined as those directly passing through a defect of the mylohyoid muscle with the presence (type 1A) or absence (type 1B) of the tail sign and type 2 as those through the traditional posterior route along the free edge of the mylohyoid muscle. Images were also analyzed for the extent of the lesion in respect to the spaces involved. As for type 1 lesions, we recorded the location of the defect of the mylohyoid muscle and the position of the sublingual gland in relation to the defect. RESULTS: CT scans demonstrated type 1 lesion in 36 (88%), including type 1A in 14 and type 1B in 22, and type 2 lesion in 5 (12%). Irrespective of the type, the submandibular space was seen to be involved in all cases either alone or in combination with one or more adjacent spaces. Of the 36 patients with type 1 lesions, the anterior one-third was the most common location of the defect of the mylohyoid muscle, seen in 22 patients. The sublingual gland partially herniated in 30 patients. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the majority of plunging ranulas take an anterior shortcut through a defect of the mylohyoid muscle.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Neck Muscles/pathology , Ranula/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Sublingual Gland/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 527-536, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72544

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been recognized as an immunosuppressive disease. Various mechanisms have been proposed for immune escape, including dysregulation of immune checkpoints such as the PD-1:PD-L1 pathway. We investigated the expression of programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in HPV-negative and HPV-positive OSCC to determine its prevalence and prognostic relevance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry, 133 cases of OSCC were evaluated for expression of PD-L1. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples were stained with monoclonal antibody (clone 5H1) to PD-L1. PD-L1 positivity was defined as membrane staining in ≥20% of tumor cells. Correlations between PD-L1 expression and HPV status and survival parameters were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 133 patients, 68% showed PD-L1 expression, and 67% of patients were positive for p16 expression by immunohistochemistry. No significant difference in PD-L1 expression was observed between HPV(-) and HPV(+) tumors (61% vs. 71%, p=0.274). No significant difference in age, gender, smoking history, location of tumor origin, or stage was observed according to PD-L1 status. With a median follow-up period of 44 months, older age (≥65) (p=0.017) and T3-4 stage (p<0.001) were associated with poor overall survival (OS), whereas PD-L1 expression did not affect OS in univariate and multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: PD-L1 expression was observed in the majority of OSCC patients regardless of HPV status. Further large prospective studies are required to determine the role of PD-L1 expression as a prognostic or predictive biomarker, and clinical studies of immune checkpoint inhibitors in OCSS are warranted regardless of HPV status.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Follow-Up Studies , Immunohistochemistry , Membranes , Multivariate Analysis , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Smoke , Smoking , United Nations
13.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 133-139, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-652961

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pectoralis major flap is the most versatile and reliable flap in the head and neck reconstruction. Owing to the recent development of microsurgical techniques, free flap reconstruction is gaining its popularity as a primary option for the reconstruction of head and neck defects. However, pectoralis major flap is a useful workhorse for the wide variety of situations including heavily irradiated neck, failure of prior reconstruction, and poor recipient vascular status. This study aimed to review our experience of pectoralis major flap surgery and to evaluate its clinical usefulness. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: We reviewed medical records of 113 patients (130 cases) who underwent pectoralis major flap surgery from 1995 to 2014. Indications and complications of pectoralis major flap surgery were evaluated. Association between complication rates and clinical factors were analyzed. RESULTS: Reconstruction of primary surgical defect was the most common indication (n=81/130, 62.3%). Complications developed in 17 cases (13.1%). Flap failure was observed in 2 cases (1.5%). The length of flap pedicle was closely related with complication rate (p=0.01). However, other factors including flap size, types of flap, radiation history did not influence complication rate. CONCLUSION: Pectoralis major flap is still a very useful option with a relatively low risk of complication for the head and neck reconstruction even in the era of frequent free flap surgery and heavy irradiation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Free Tissue Flaps , Head , Medical Records , Neck , Pectoralis Muscles , Postoperative Complications , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Surgical Flaps
14.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 35-40, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-646073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adequate evaluation of the upper airway is critical in the management of pediatric patients with stridor or extubation failure. For this purpose, we designed an evaluation protocol of the upper airway for these patients, in collaboration with Dept. of Pediatrics, Intensive care team and Anesthesiology. Here we present the clinical results of our evaluation protocol and provide information about the etiology and management of the upper airway problems. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Clinical data of 380 pediatric patients (M:F=231:149) having airway evaluation for their problems (stridor or extubation failure) were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, patients of age less than 3 months ranked first (30.0%). Comorbidities of pulmonary diseases (30.8%) and cardiovascular diseases (29.5%) were found. The pre and post-evaluation diagnosis, management and prognosis were evaluated and the usefulness of an airway evaluation protocol was discussed. RESULTS: Frequent pre-evaluation diagnoses were subglottic stenosis (55.2%), laryngomalacia (12.6%) and tracheal stenosis (9.2%) and these were changed to subglottic stenosis (44.5%), laryngomalacia (9.7%), tracheal stenosis (6.6%) and no abnormality (14.5%). Particularly, 50% of pre-diagnosis laryngomalacia, 25% of subglottic stenosis and 37% of tracheal stenosis were corrected to other causes by airway evaluation. The procedures were exam only (41.6%), endoscopic dilatation (20.8%) and tracheostomy (17.9%). In 190 out of 380 (50.0%), extubation was successful, but 151 patients (39.7%) had tracheostomy tube. CONCLUSION: Adequate evaluation of the upper airway in pediatric patients with stridor or extubation failure can facilitate the diagnosis and management of their problems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anesthesiology , Cardiovascular Diseases , Comorbidity , Constriction, Pathologic , Cooperative Behavior , Diagnosis , Dilatation , Critical Care , Laryngomalacia , Lung Diseases , Pediatrics , Prognosis , Respiratory Sounds , Retrospective Studies , Tracheal Stenosis , Tracheostomy
15.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 329-333, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42142

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Advancements in medical endoscopy and techniques of rigid bronchoscopy for foreign body removal have enabled higher diagnostic accuracy, reduced morbidity and precise manipulation. However, in pediatric patients, endoscope-combined forceps may be too big to fit into the small sized airway. Here we present our method of endoscope assisted rigid bronchoscopy in pediatric patients and compare the clinical benefits with conventional naked-eye rigid bronchoscopy. METHODS: We used a 2.7 mm, 0degrees straight endoscope and small caliber grasping forceps with 3.0 to 4.5 mm sized rigid bronchoscopy for very young (<3 years of age) patients of foreign body aspiration. As an assistant held the rigid bronchoscope in situ, the operator could manipulate the endoscope and forceps bimanually. With endoscopic guidance, the foreign body retrieval was performed carefully. The clinical advantages were compared between our endoscope-assisted method (n=29) and the conventional bronchoscopy method (n=33) in terms of operation time and recovery (hospital stay). RESULTS: Bimanual endoscope-assisted rigid bronchoscopy method was technically feasible and safe. The operation time was less, compared to the conventional technique and the patients recovered more quickly. In all cases, our method completely removed the foreign body without need of a second bronchoscopy procedure. CONCLUSION: Bimanual endoscope-assisted retrieval of airway foreign body in very young age pediatric patients was superior to the conventional naked-eye method concerning accurate manipulation and safety.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Humans , Airway Obstruction , Bronchoscopes , Bronchoscopy , Endoscopes , Endoscopy , Foreign Bodies , Hand Strength , Surgical Instruments
16.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 47-52, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50489

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To introduce a new injection material for vocal fold diseases, which could be readily translated to clinical practice, we investigated the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection on the injured vocal fold in terms of histological recovery. METHODS: Blood samples were drawn from New Zealand White rabbits and PRP was isolated through centrifugation and separation of the samples. Using a CO2 laser, we made a linear wound in the 24 vocal fold sides of 12 rabbits and injected each wound with PRP on one vocal fold side and normal saline (NS) on the other. Morphologic analyses were conducted at 2, 4, and 12 weeks after injection, and inflammatory response, collagen deposit, and changes in growth factors were assessed using H&E and masson trichrome (MT) staining and western blot assay. RESULTS: PRP was prepared in approximately 40 minutes. The mean platelet concentration was 1,315,000 platelets/mm3. In morphological analyses, decreased granulation was observed in the PRP-injected vocal folds (P<0.05). However, the irregular surface and atrophic change were not difference. Histological findings revealed significant inflammation and collagen deposition in NS-injected vocal folds, whereas the PRP-injected vocal folds exhibited less (P<0.05). However, the inflammatory reaction and fibrosis were not difference. In western blot assay, increased amounts of growth factors were observed in PRP-injected vocal folds. CONCLUSION: Injection of injured rabbit vocal folds with PRP led to improved wound healing and fewer signs of scarring as demonstrated by decreased inflammation and collagen deposition. The increased vocal fold regeneration may be due to the growth factors associated with PRP.


Subject(s)
Rabbits , Blood Platelets , Blotting, Western , Centrifugation , Cicatrix , Collagen , Fibrosis , Inflammation , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Lasers, Gas , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Regeneration , Vocal Cords , Wound Healing , Wounds and Injuries
17.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 172-177, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-653668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In head and neck reconstructive surgery, the stability of vital signs is important for patient recovery and flap outcome. We aimed to determine the better sedation protocol by comparing two protocols, namaely, midazolam/morphine (MM)-based and remifentanil (RF)-based sedation protocols, in the immediate postoperative settings of head and neck reconstructive surgery. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed the medical data of patients who underwent reconstructive surgery after the ablation of head and neck cancer involving MM sedation (n=34) or RF sedation (n=28). Parameters related to vital signs, flap outcomes, occurrence of delirium, length of stay and nursing burden were compared between the groups. RESULTS: The length of stay at the intensive care unit and flap outcomes were similar in the two groups. However, blood pressure as measured by frequency of variation was more stable in the RF group than in the MM group. In addition, the number of medical calls from the attending nurse due to the fluctuation of vital signs was less in the RF group than in the MM group. CONCLUSION: RF-based sedation for the postoperative intensive care unit care after head and neck reconstructive surgery is more effective in cases where vital signs are less stable. This type of sedation may decrease the nursing burden for these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Pressure , Delirium , Free Tissue Flaps , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Head , Intensive Care Units , Critical Care , Length of Stay , Neck , Nursing , Postoperative Care , Retrospective Studies , Vital Signs
18.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 841-846, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-653572

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The open surgical biopsy (OSB) of neck lymph nodes is considered a definite diagnostic procedure; however, the diagnostic accuracy of this procedure has not been fully studied. Thus, we aimed to identify the false negative rates of OSB for malignancy and the possible causes of misdiagnosis that might severely affect patient prognosis. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: We extracted the data from 495 OSB of neck lymph nodes between 2005 and 2012. The diagnostic accuracy of OSB of neck lymph nodes was estimated based on re-biopsy. In addition, we reviewed possible clinical factors related to false negativity, cause of misdiagnosis and its clinical impacts. RESULTS: The false negative rate of OSB of neck nodes was 2.2% with a risk of 3.8% false diagnosis among subjects with initial 'benign' results. The cases of the initial misdiagnosis (n=7) had the dismal outcomes (4 deaths, 1 disease progression). The main cause of misdiagnosis was the failure to target the disease-affected lymph nodes (85.7%). Malignancy-related symptoms persisted in all cases of misdiagnosis, which required re-biopsy. CONCLUSION: Accurate targeting of lymph nodes, close monitoring of clinical symptoms and comparison of biopsy results with symptoms are very important to reduce false negativity for malignancy in OSB of neck lymph nodes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors , False Negative Reactions , Lymph Nodes , Neck , Prognosis
19.
Allergy, Asthma & Respiratory Disease ; : 70-74, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-19437

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: CHARGE syndrome consists of multiple malformation including coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, growth or developmental retardation, genital anomalies, and ear anomalies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the respiratory problems in children with CHARGE syndrome. METHODS: Out of 9 patients with CHARGE syndrome, medical records from 8 patients showing respiratory distress or respiratory failure were retrospectively reviewed. We investigated the causes of respiratory problems by physical examination, endoscopy, echocardiogram, computed tomography, rigid bronchoscopy, swallowing test, and 24-hour impedence monitoring. RESULTS: Five patients required endotracheal intubation soon after birth due to bilateral choanal atresia (n=2) and congenital heart diseases (n=3). Three patients were intubated within a month because of surgery for complex heart diseases (n=2) or recurrent apnea (n=1). Tracheostomy was performed in 3 patients who showed primary or secondary subglottic stenosis. Among 8 patients who had aspiration or respiratory distress after feeding, cricopharyngeal incoordination and gastroesophageal reflux disease were found in 7 and 2 children, respectively. One patient died of aspiration during oral feeding. CONCLUSION: Patients with CHARGE syndrome manifest respiratory distress or failure due to various causes including congenital anomaly in the airway, cardiac anomaly, neurologic or gastrointestinal problems. Therefore, pediatricians should be alert to the respiratory symptoms and signs in CHARGE syndrome and take active intervention from the birth to improve their long-term prognosis.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Apnea , Ataxia , Bronchoscopy , CHARGE Syndrome , Choanal Atresia , Coloboma , Constriction, Pathologic , Deglutition , Ear , Endoscopy , Feeding Methods , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Heart , Heart Diseases , Intubation, Intratracheal , Medical Records , Parturition , Physical Examination , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies , Tracheostomy
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1516-1523, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100944

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To overcome the potential disadvantages of the use of foreign materials and autologous fat or collagen, we introduce here an autologous plasma gel for injection laryngoplasty. The purpose of this study was to present a new injection material, a plasma gel, and to discuss its clinical effectiveness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2 mL of blood, the platelet poor serum layer was collected and heated at 100degrees C for 12 min to form a plasma gel. The plasma gel was then injected into a targeted site; the safety and efficacy thereof were evaluated in 30 rats. We also conducted a phase I/II clinical study of plasma gel injection laryngoplasty in 11 unilateral vocal fold paralysis patients. RESULTS: The plasma gel was semi-solid and an easily injectable material. Of note, plasma gel maintains the same consistency for up to 1 year in a sealed bottle. However, exposure to room air causes the plasma gel to disappear within 1 month. In our animal study, the autologous plasma gel remained in situ for 6 months in animals with minimal inflammation. Clinical study showed that vocal cord palsy was well compensated for with the plasma gel in all patients at two months after injection with no significant complications. Jitter, shimmer, maximum, maximum phonation time (MPT) and mean voice handicap index (VHI) also improved significantly after plasma gel injection. However, because the injected plasma gel was gradually absorbed, 6 patients needed another injection, while the gel remained in place in 2 patients. CONCLUSION: Injection laryngoplasty with autologous plasma gel may be a useful and safe treatment option for temporary vocal cord palsy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Rats , Blood Platelets , Laryngoplasty/methods , Plasma/physiology
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