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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893749

ABSTRACT

Background@#Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) A59 is a highly infectious pathogen and starts in the respiratory tract and progresses to systemic infection in laboratory mice. The complement system is an important part of the host immune response to viral infection. It is not clear the role of the classical complement pathway in MHV infection. @*Objectives@#The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of the classical pathway in coronavirus pathogenesis by comparing C1qa KO mice and wild-type mice. @*Methods@#We generated a C1qa KO mouse using CRISPR/Cas9 technology and compared the susceptibility to MHV A59 infection between C1qa KO and wild-type mice. Histopathological and immunohistochemical changes, viral loads, and chemokine expressions in both mice were measured. @*Results@#MHV A59-infected C1qa KO mice showed severe histopathological changes, such as hepatocellular necrosis and interstitial pneumonia, compared to MHV A59-infected wildtype mice. Virus copy numbers in the olfactory bulb, liver, and lungs of C1qa KO mice were significantly higher than those of wild-type mice. The increase in viral copy numbers in C1qa KO mice was consistent with the histopathologic changes in organs. These results indicate that C1qa deficiency enhances susceptibility to MHV A59 systemic infection in mice. In addition, this enhanced susceptibility effect is associated with dramatic elevations in spleen IFN-γ, MIP-1 α, and MCP-1 in C1qa KO mice. @*Conclusions@#These data suggest that C1qa deficiency enhances susceptibility to MHV A59 systemic infection, and activation of the classical complement pathway may be important for protecting the host against MHV A59 infection.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901453

ABSTRACT

Background@#Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) A59 is a highly infectious pathogen and starts in the respiratory tract and progresses to systemic infection in laboratory mice. The complement system is an important part of the host immune response to viral infection. It is not clear the role of the classical complement pathway in MHV infection. @*Objectives@#The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of the classical pathway in coronavirus pathogenesis by comparing C1qa KO mice and wild-type mice. @*Methods@#We generated a C1qa KO mouse using CRISPR/Cas9 technology and compared the susceptibility to MHV A59 infection between C1qa KO and wild-type mice. Histopathological and immunohistochemical changes, viral loads, and chemokine expressions in both mice were measured. @*Results@#MHV A59-infected C1qa KO mice showed severe histopathological changes, such as hepatocellular necrosis and interstitial pneumonia, compared to MHV A59-infected wildtype mice. Virus copy numbers in the olfactory bulb, liver, and lungs of C1qa KO mice were significantly higher than those of wild-type mice. The increase in viral copy numbers in C1qa KO mice was consistent with the histopathologic changes in organs. These results indicate that C1qa deficiency enhances susceptibility to MHV A59 systemic infection in mice. In addition, this enhanced susceptibility effect is associated with dramatic elevations in spleen IFN-γ, MIP-1 α, and MCP-1 in C1qa KO mice. @*Conclusions@#These data suggest that C1qa deficiency enhances susceptibility to MHV A59 systemic infection, and activation of the classical complement pathway may be important for protecting the host against MHV A59 infection.

3.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 294-306, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918402

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study was undertaken to compare the sensitivities of mice strains during tumor induction by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN)-mediated Trp53 mutant gene. Alterations of their tumorigenic phenotypes including survival rate, tumor formation and tumor spectrum, were assessed in FVB/N-Trp53 em2Hwl /Korl and C57BL/6-Trp53 em1Hwl /Korl knockout (KO) mice over 16 weeks. @*Results@#Most of the physiological phenotypes factors were observed to be higher in FVB/N-Trp53 em2Hwl /Korl KO mice than C57BL/6-Trp53 em1Hwl /Korl KO mice, although there were significant differences in the body weight, immune organ weight, number of red blood cells, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), platelet count (PLT), total bilirubin (Bil-T) and glucose (Glu) levels in the KO mice relative to the wild type (WT) mice. Furthermore, numerous solid tumors were also observed in various regions of the surface skin of FVB/N-Trp53 em2Hwl /Korl KO mice, but were not detected in C57BL/6-Trp53 em1Hwl /Korl KO mice. The most frequently observed tumor in both the Trp53 KO mice was malignant lymphoma, while soft tissue teratomas and hemangiosarcomas were only detected in the FVB/N-Trp53 em2Hwl /Korl KO mice. @*Conclusions@#Our results indicate that the spectrum and incidence of tumors induced by the TALEN-mediated Trp53 mutant gene is greater in FVB/N-Trp53 em2Hwl /Korl KO mice than C57BL/6-Trp53 em1Hwl /Korl KO mice over 16 weeks.

4.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 166-175, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719077

ABSTRACT

Recombination activating gene-2 (RAG-2) plays a crucial role in the development of lymphocytes by mediating recombination of T cell receptors and immunoglobulins, and loss of RAG-2 causes severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in humans. RAG-2 knockout mice created using homologous recombination in ES cells have served as a valuable immunodeficient platform, but concerns have persisted on the specificity of RAG-2-related phenotypes in these animals due to the limitations associated with the genome engineering method used. To precisely investigate the function of RAG-2, we recently established a new RAG-2 knockout FVB mouse line (RAG-2(−/−)) manifesting lymphopenia by employing a CRISPR/Cas9 system at Center for Mouse Models of Human Disease. In this study, we further characterized their phenotypes focusing on histopathological analysis of lymphoid organs. RAG-2(−/−) mice showed no abnormality in development compared to their WT littermates for 26 weeks. At necropsy, gross examination revealed significantly smaller spleens and thymuses in RAG-2(−/−) mice, while histopathological investigation revealed hypoplastic white pulps with intact red pulps in the spleen, severe atrophy of the thymic cortex and disappearance of follicles in lymph nodes. However, no perceivable change was observed in the bone marrow. Moreover, our analyses showed a specific reduction of lymphocytes with a complete loss of mature T cells and B cells in the lymphoid organs, while natural killer cells and splenic megakaryocytes were increased in RAG-2(−/−) mice. These findings indicate that our RAG-2(−/−) mice show systemic lymphopenia with the relevant histopathological changes in the lymphoid organs, suggesting them as an improved Rag-2-related immunodeficient model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Atrophy , B-Lymphocytes , Bone Marrow , Genome , Homologous Recombination , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Killer Cells, Natural , Lymph Nodes , Lymphocytes , Lymphopenia , Megakaryocytes , Methods , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Negotiating , Phenotype , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , Recombination, Genetic , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severe Combined Immunodeficiency , Spleen , T-Lymphocytes , Thymus Gland
5.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 257-263, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718842

ABSTRACT

Trefoil factor 1 (TFF1, also known as pS2) is strongly expressed in the gastrointestinal mucosa and plays a critical role in the differentiation of gastric glands. Since approximately 50% of all human gastric cancers are associated with decreased TFF1 expression, it is considered a tumor suppressor gene. TFF1 deficiency in mice results in histological changes in the antral and pyloric gastric mucosa, with severe hyperplasia and dysplasia of epithelial cells, resulting in the development of antropyloric adenoma. Here, we generated TFF1-knockout (KO) mice, without a neomycin resistant (NeoR) cassette, using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (CRSIPR/Cas9) system. Though our TFF1-KO mice showed phenotypes very similar to the previous embryonic stem (ES)-cell-based KO mice, they differed from the previous reports in that a reduction in body weight was observed in males. These results demonstrate that these newly established TFF1-KO mice are useful tools for investigating genetic and environmental factors influencing gastric cancer, without the effects of artificial gene insertion. Furthermore, these findings suggest a novel hypothesis that TFF1 expression influences gender differences.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Animals , Body Weight , Carcinogenesis , Epithelial Cells , Gastric Mucosa , Genes, Synthetic , Genes, Tumor Suppressor , Humans , Hyperplasia , Lotus , Male , Mice , Mucous Membrane , Neomycin , Phenotype , Stomach Neoplasms
6.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 264-269, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718841

ABSTRACT

Cell cycle dysfunction can cause severe diseases, including neurodegenerative disease and cancer. Mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors controlling the G1 phase of the cell cycle are prevalent in various cancers. Mice lacking the tumor suppressors p16(Ink4a) (Cdkn2a, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2a), p19(Arf) (an alternative reading frame product of Cdkn2a,), and p27(Kip1) (Cdkn1b, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1b) result in malignant progression of epithelial cancers, sarcomas, and melanomas, respectively. Here, we generated knockout mouse models for each of these three cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors using engineered nucleases. The p16(Ink4a) and p19(Arf) knockout mice were generated via transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and p27(Kip1) knockout mice via clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (CRISPR/Cas9). These gene editing technologies were targeted to the first exon of each gene, to induce frameshifts producing premature termination codons. Unlike preexisting embryonic stem cell-based knockout mice, our mouse models are free from selectable markers or other external gene insertions, permitting more precise study of cell cycle-related diseases without confounding influences of foreign DNA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Cycle , Codon, Nonsense , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 , DNA , Exons , G1 Phase , Genome , Melanoma , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Phosphotransferases , Reading Frames , Sarcoma
7.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 279-287, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718839

ABSTRACT

Placenta specific 8 (PLAC8, also known as ONZIN) is a multi-functional protein that is highly expressed in the intestine, lung, spleen, and innate immune cells, and is involved in various diseases, including cancers, obesity, and innate immune deficiency. Here, we generated a Plac8 knockout mouse using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The Cas9 mRNA and two single guide RNAs targeting a region near the translation start codon at Plac8 exon 2 were microinjected into mouse zygotes. This successfully eliminated the conventional translation start site, as confirmed by Sanger sequencing and PCR genotyping analysis. Unlike the previous Plac8 deficient models displaying increased adipose tissue and body weights, our male Plac8 knockout mice showed rather lower body weight than sex-matched littermate controls, though the only difference between these two mouse models is genetic context. Differently from the previously constructed embryonic stem cell-derived Plac8 knockout mouse that contains a neomycin resistance cassette, this knockout mouse model is free from a negative selection marker or other external insertions, which will be useful in future studies aimed at elucidating the multi-functional and physiological roles of PLAC8 in various diseases, without interference from exogenous foreign DNA.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Animals , Body Weight , Codon, Initiator , DNA , Exons , Humans , Intestines , Lung , Male , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Neomycin , Obesity , Placenta , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Guide , RNA, Messenger , Spleen , Zygote
8.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 302-310, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718836

ABSTRACT

CD47 (integrin-associated protein), a multi-spanning transmembrane protein expressed in all cells including red blood cells (RBCs) and leukocytes, interacts with signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) on macrophages and thereby inhibits phagocytosis of RBCs. Recently, we generated a novel C57BL/6J CD47 knockout (CD47(−/−) hereafter) mouse line by employing a CRISPR/Cas9 system at Center for Mouse Models of Human Disease, and here report their hematological phenotypes. On monitoring their birth and development, CD47(−/−) mice were born viable with a natural male-to-female sex ratio and normally developed from birth through puberty to adulthood without noticeable changes in growth, food/water intake compared to their age and sex-matched wild-type littermates up to 26 weeks. Hematological analysis revealed a mild but significant reduction of RBC counts and hemoglobin in 16 week-old male CD47(−/−) mice which were aggravated at the age of 26 weeks with increased reticulocyte counts and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), suggesting hemolytic anemia. Interestingly, anemia in female CD47(−/−) mice became evident at 26 weeks, but splenomegaly was identified in both genders of CD47(−/−) mice from the age of 16 weeks, consistent with development of hemolytic anemia. Additionally, helper and cytotoxic T cell populations were considerably reduced in the spleen, but not in thymus, of CD47(−/−) mice, suggesting a crucial role of CD47 in proliferation of T cells. Collectively, these findings indicate that our CD47(−/−) mice have progressive hemolytic anemia and splenic depletion of mature T cell populations and therefore may be useful as an in vivo model to study the function of CD47.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Anemia , Anemia, Hemolytic , Animals , Erythrocyte Indices , Erythrocytes , Female , Humans , Leukocytes , Macrophages , Male , Mice , Parturition , Phagocytosis , Phenotype , Puberty , Reticulocyte Count , Sex Ratio , Spleen , Splenomegaly , T-Lymphocytes , Thymus Gland
9.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 118-125, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717159

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the carcinogenicity of p27 knockout (KO) mice with RNA-guided endonuclease (RGENs)-mediated p27 mutant exon I gene (IΔ), alterations in the carcinogenic phenotypes including tumor spectrum, tumor suppressor proteins, apoptotic proteins and cell cycle regulators were observed in p27 (IΔ) KO mice after treatment with 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)(DT) for 5 months. The target region (544~571 nt) in exon I of the p27 gene was successfully disrupted in p27 (IΔ) KO mice using the RGEN-induced non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) technique. After DT exposure for 5 months, a few solid tumors (identified as squamous cell carcinoma) developed on the surface of back skin of DT-treated p27 (IΔ) KO mice. Also, squamous cell hyperplasia with chronic inflammation was detected in the skin dermis of DT-treated p27 (IΔ) KO mice, while the Vehicle+p27 (IΔ) KO mice and WT mice maintained their normal histological skin structure. A significant increase was observed in the expression levels of tumor suppressor protein (p53), apoptotic proteins (Bax, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3) and cell-cycle regulator proteins (Cyclin D1, CDK2 and CDK4) in the skin of DT-treated p27 (IΔ) KO mice, although their enhancement ratio was varied. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that squamous cell carcinoma and hyperplasia of skin tissue can be successfully developed in new p27 (IΔ) KO mice produced by RGEN-induced NHEJ technique following DT exposure for 5 months.


Subject(s)
9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene , Animals , Carcinogenesis , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cell Cycle , Dermis , Epithelial Cells , Exons , Hyperplasia , Inflammation , Mice , Phenotype , Skin , Tumor Suppressor Proteins
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-188830

ABSTRACT

Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is the protein component of telomerase and combined with an RNA molecule, telomerase RNA component, forms the telomerase enzyme responsible for telomere elongation. Telomerase is essential for maintaining telomere length from replicative attrition and thus contributes to the preservation of genome integrity. Although diverse mouse models have been developed and studied to prove the physiological roles of telomerase as a telomere-elongating enzyme, recent studies have revealed non-canonical TERT activities beyond telomeres. To gain insights into the physiological impact of extra-telomeric roles, this review revisits the strategies and phenotypes of telomerase mouse models in terms of the extra-telomeric functions of telomerase.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Telomerase/genetics , Telomere/metabolism
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197470

ABSTRACT

Adipose tissue is an important endocrine regulator of glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis. Researches have focused on this tissue not only as a target for pharmacotherapy of obesity and insulin resistance but also as an endocrine tissue with leptin secretion and high insulin sensitivity. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) additionally plays a unique role in thermoregulation through the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. As a genetic tissue ablation model of BAT, we made transgenic mice expressing herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) driven by the brown adipocyte- specific UCP1 minimal regulatory element. The HSV-TK transgene was expressed specifically in BAT and more than 35% increase of apoptosis was induced by ganciclovir (GCV) treatment. Nevertheless, the expression level was not high enough to induce BAT ablation in GCV-treated adult mice. Importantly, however, we found that brown adipocytes in the periphery of interscapular BAT were transformed into white adipocyte-like unilocular cells. These cells express white adipocyte-specific leptin protein but are different in the ultrastructure of mitochondria from classical white adipocytes. Our data indicates that atrophy of BAT causes transformation into white adipocyte-like cells in the adult mouse and also suggests that further molecular understanding of adipocyte plasticity using our transgenic mouse model might be beneficial for the development of anti-obesity/anti-diabetic therapies.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/cytology , Aging/physiology , Animals , Body Weight , Carrier Proteins/genetics , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Ganciclovir/pharmacology , Ion Channels , Leptin/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Mitochondrial Proteins , Obesity/chemically induced , Organ Specificity , Thymidine Kinase/genetics
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-10318

ABSTRACT

Telomeres serve a critical role in maintenance of genomic stability in all eukaryotes, from yeast to human. The maintenance of telomeres is achieved by the telomerase complex, which is largely composed of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and telomerase RNA component (TERC). A variety of mouse models have provided valuable insights into the relationship between the telomerase complex and telomere dysfunction at the organismal level and helped understand their biological significance in human. Recently, in addition to its role in maintenance of the telomeres, novel functions of the telomerase complex have been emerging. In this review, studies of all gene-targeted or transgenic mouse models so far generated for telomerase and telomere biology are comprehensively described, and potential novel functions of telomerase are briefly discussed


Subject(s)
Animals , Cellular Senescence/physiology , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Mice, Transgenic , Models, Animal , RNA/metabolism , Telomerase/metabolism , Telomere/metabolism
13.
Immune Network ; : 183-188, 2002.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76384

ABSTRACT

Gradual attrition of telomere to a critical short length elicits successive cellular response of cellular senescence and crisis. Cancer cells evade this process by maintaining functional telomeres via one of two known mechanisms of telomere maintenance. The first and most frequent mechanism involves reactivation of enzyme activity of telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein complex mainly via transcriptional up-regulation of TERT, a catalytic subunit of telomerase complex. The second mechanism utilizes telomerase-independent way termed ALT (for Alternative Lengthening of Telomere), which possibly involves recombination pathways. Thus master key for cellular immortalization is supposed to possess adequate telomere reserves. Indeed, telomerase can alone induce the immortalization under culture on feeder cell layers without generally known inactivation mechanism of tumor suppressor genes. Including this phenomena, this review will focus on telomerase and telomere-associated proteins, thereby implication of these proteins for cellular immortalization processes.


Subject(s)
Carcinogenesis , Catalytic Domain , Cellular Senescence , Feeder Cells , Genes, Tumor Suppressor , Recombination, Genetic , Ribonucleoproteins , Telomerase , Telomere , Up-Regulation
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