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1.
Gut and Liver ; : 535-546, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937603

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We examined the efficacy and safety of tegoprazan as a part of first-line triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication. @*Methods@#A randomized, double-blind, controlled, multicenter study was performed to evaluate whether tegoprazan (50 mg)-based triple therapy (TPZ) was noninferior to lansoprazole (30 mg)-based triple therapy (LPZ) (with amoxicillin 1 g and clarithromycin 500 mg; all administered twice daily for 7 days) for treating H. pylori. The primary endpoint was the H. pylori eradication rate. Subgroup analyses were performed according to the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 genotype, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of amoxicillin and clarithromycin, and underlying gastric diseases. @*Results@#In total, 350 H. pylori-positive patients were randomly allocated to the TPZ or LPZ group. The H. pylori eradication rates in the TPZ and LPZ groups were 62.86% (110/175) and 60.57% (106/175) in an intention-to-treat analysis and 69.33% (104/150) and 67.33% (101/150) in a per-protocol analysis (non-inferiority test, p=0.009 and p=0.013), respectively. Subgroup analyses according to MICs or CYP2C19 did not show remarkable differences in eradication rate. Both first-line triple therapies were well-tolerated with no notable differences. @*Conclusions@#TPZ is as effective as proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy and is as safe as first-line H. pylori eradication therapy but does not overcome the clarithromycin resistance of H. pylori in Korea

2.
Gut and Liver ; : 109-116, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874579

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#To date, studies on various noninvasive techniques have been suggested to evaluate the degree of liver fibrosis. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic performance of se-rum asialo α1-acid glycoprotein (AsAGP) in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis compared with chronic hepatitis for clinically useful result. @*Methods@#We conducted a case-control study of 96 patients with chronic liver disease. Chronic hepatitis was defined as the presence of chronic liver disease on ultrasonography, with a liver stiffness of less than 5.0 kPa as shown on magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). Liver cirrho-sis was defined as liver stiffness of more than 5.0 kPa on MRE. The serum AsAGP concentration was compared between the two groups. @*Results@#Serum AsAGP levels were significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis than in those with chronic hepatitis (1.83 μg/mL vs 1.42 μg/mL, p<0.001). Additionally, when comparing pa-tients in each cirrhotic group (Child-Pugh grades A, B, and C) to those with chronic hepatitis, AsAGP levels were significantly higher in all the cirrhotic groups (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of AsAGP for detecting cirrhosis were 79.2% and 64.6%, respectively, and the area under the curve value was 0.733. The best diagnostic cutoff to predict cirrhosis was 1.4 μg/mL. AsAGP and bilirubin were found to be independent risk factors for the prediction of cirrhosis in the logistic regression analysis. @*Conclusions@#Serum AsAGP showed an acceptable diagnostic performance in predicting liver cirrhosis.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903657

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Subepithelial tumors (SETs) are small, mostly asymptomatic lesions with normal overlying mucosa, usually identified incidentally on endoscopy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pathologic diagnosis of SETs, and to assess the diagnostic yield and impact of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) biopsy on the management of patients with SETs. @*Materials and Methods@#We included 52 subepithelial lesions in this study during the study period. Inclusion criteria included size of the SET >2 cm, and a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) that cannot be excluded using EUS. We performed an endoscopic biopsy of each SET using the ESD technique. @*Results@#The mean diameter of the lesions was 24.15±6.0 mm. The diagnostic yield of this method was 96.15%. Among the 52 participants, 45 were located in the stomach, four in the esophagus, and three in the duodenum. The pathologic diagnoses included: 17 leiomyomas, 13 GISTs, 11 ectopic pancreases, two carcinomas, two inflammatory fibroid polyps, two Brunner’s gland hyperplasia, two lipomas, one glomus tumor, and two remained undiagnosed. The mean duration of the procedure was 13.44±2.41 minutes. Three complications were associated with the procedure. @*Conclusions@#Deep biopsy via ESD is useful in determining the histopathologic nature of SETs. This method minimizes the need for unnecessary surgery in benign SETs.

4.
Gut and Liver ; : 723-731, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898474

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study examined the long-term outcomes of undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer (UD EGC) with positive horizontal margins (HMs) after endoscopic resection (ER) and compared them between additional surgery and nonsurgical management. @*Methods@#From 2005 to 2015, a total of 1,124 patients with UD EGC underwent ER at 18 tertiary hospitals in Korea. Of them, 92 patients with positive HMs as the only noncurative factor (n=25) or with both positive HMs and tumor size >2 cm (n=67) were included. These patients underwent additional surgery (n=40), underwent additional endoscopic treatment (n=6), or were followed up without further treatment (n=46). @*Results@#No lymph node (LN) metastasis was found in patients who underwent additional surgery. During a median follow-up of 57.7 months (interquartile range, 27.6 to 68.8 months), no LN or distant metastases or gastric cancer-related deaths occurred in the overall cohort. At baseline, the residual cancer rate was 57.8% (26/45) after additional surgery or ER. The 5-year local recurrence rate was 33.6% among patients who were followed up without additional treatment. The 5-year overall survival rates were 95.0% and 87.8% after additional surgery and nonsurgical management (endoscopic treatment or close follow-up), respectively (log-rank p=0.224). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, nonsurgical management was not associated with an increased risk of mortality. @*Conclusions@#UD EGC with positive HMs after ER may have favorable long-term outcomes and a very low risk of LN metastasis. Nonsurgical management may be suggested as an alternative, particularly for patients with old age or chronic illness.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895953

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Subepithelial tumors (SETs) are small, mostly asymptomatic lesions with normal overlying mucosa, usually identified incidentally on endoscopy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pathologic diagnosis of SETs, and to assess the diagnostic yield and impact of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) biopsy on the management of patients with SETs. @*Materials and Methods@#We included 52 subepithelial lesions in this study during the study period. Inclusion criteria included size of the SET >2 cm, and a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) that cannot be excluded using EUS. We performed an endoscopic biopsy of each SET using the ESD technique. @*Results@#The mean diameter of the lesions was 24.15±6.0 mm. The diagnostic yield of this method was 96.15%. Among the 52 participants, 45 were located in the stomach, four in the esophagus, and three in the duodenum. The pathologic diagnoses included: 17 leiomyomas, 13 GISTs, 11 ectopic pancreases, two carcinomas, two inflammatory fibroid polyps, two Brunner’s gland hyperplasia, two lipomas, one glomus tumor, and two remained undiagnosed. The mean duration of the procedure was 13.44±2.41 minutes. Three complications were associated with the procedure. @*Conclusions@#Deep biopsy via ESD is useful in determining the histopathologic nature of SETs. This method minimizes the need for unnecessary surgery in benign SETs.

6.
Gut and Liver ; : 841-850, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914361

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The mucoprotective drug rebamipide is used to treat gastritis and peptic ulcers. We compared the efficacy of Mucosta Ⓡ (rebamipide 100 mg) and its new formulation, AD-203 (rebamipide 150 mg), in treating erosive gastritis. @*Methods@#This double-blind, active control, noninferiority, multicenter, phase 3 clinical trial randomly assigned 475 patients with endoscopically proven erosive gastritis to two groups: AD-203 twice daily or Mucosta Ⓡ thrice daily for 2 weeks. The intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis included 454 patients (AD-203, n=229; Mucosta Ⓡ , n=225), and the per-protocol (PP) analysis included 439 patients (AD-203, n=224; Mucosta Ⓡ , n=215). The posttreatment assessments included the primary (erosion improvement rate) and secondary endpoints (erosion and edema cure rates; improvement rates of redness, hemorrhage, and gastrointestinal symptoms). Drug-related adverse events were evaluated. @*Results@#According to the ITT analysis, the erosion improvement rates (posttreatment) in AD-203-treated and Mucosta Ⓡ -treated patients were 39.7% and 43.8%, respectively. According to the PP analysis, the erosion improvement rates (posttreatment) in AD-203-treated and Mucosta Ⓡ -treated patients were 39.3% and 43.7%, respectively. The one-sided 97.5% lower limit for the improvement rate difference between the study groups was −4.01% (95% confidence interval [CI], –13.09% to 5.06%) in the ITT analysis and −4.44% (95% CI, –13.65% to 4.78%) in the PP analysis. The groups did not significantly differ in the secondary endpoints in either analysis. Twenty-four AD-203-treated and 20 Mucosta Ⓡ -treated patients reported adverse events but no serious adverse drug reactions; both groups presented similar adverse event rates. @*Conclusions@#The new formulation of rebamipide 150 mg (AD-203) twice daily was not inferior to rebamipide 100 mg (Mucosta Ⓡ ) thrice daily. Both formulations showed a similar efficacy in treating erosive gastritis.

7.
Gut and Liver ; : 723-731, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890770

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study examined the long-term outcomes of undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer (UD EGC) with positive horizontal margins (HMs) after endoscopic resection (ER) and compared them between additional surgery and nonsurgical management. @*Methods@#From 2005 to 2015, a total of 1,124 patients with UD EGC underwent ER at 18 tertiary hospitals in Korea. Of them, 92 patients with positive HMs as the only noncurative factor (n=25) or with both positive HMs and tumor size >2 cm (n=67) were included. These patients underwent additional surgery (n=40), underwent additional endoscopic treatment (n=6), or were followed up without further treatment (n=46). @*Results@#No lymph node (LN) metastasis was found in patients who underwent additional surgery. During a median follow-up of 57.7 months (interquartile range, 27.6 to 68.8 months), no LN or distant metastases or gastric cancer-related deaths occurred in the overall cohort. At baseline, the residual cancer rate was 57.8% (26/45) after additional surgery or ER. The 5-year local recurrence rate was 33.6% among patients who were followed up without additional treatment. The 5-year overall survival rates were 95.0% and 87.8% after additional surgery and nonsurgical management (endoscopic treatment or close follow-up), respectively (log-rank p=0.224). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, nonsurgical management was not associated with an increased risk of mortality. @*Conclusions@#UD EGC with positive HMs after ER may have favorable long-term outcomes and a very low risk of LN metastasis. Nonsurgical management may be suggested as an alternative, particularly for patients with old age or chronic illness.

8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938616

ABSTRACT

Obesity and metabolic syndrome affect ~40% of individuals in the United States alone. They are significant conditions that can cause severe economic problems. Obesity is also a global issue, with ~400 million obese adults worldwide. Moreover, the number of overweight children is increasing. Bariatric surgery is the gold standard treatment for obesity; however, endoscopic approaches may have a significant role in improving metabolic syndrome and achieving weight loss. Many endoscopic methods have been introduced, some of which are currently available and some that are undergoing experimentation. Endoscopists have a role in the treatment of obesity because endoscopic therapies are expected to become safer and more efficacious in the coming years. Endoscopic bariatric therapies can be categorized as space occupying, malabsorption, and gastric volume reduction. In this review, we summarize the currently available endoscopic procedures.

9.
Gut and Liver ; : 381-382, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763865

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.

10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759924

ABSTRACT

Obesity and metabolic syndrome affect ~40% of individuals in the United States alone. They are significant conditions that can cause severe economic problems. Obesity is also a global issue, with ~400 million obese adults worldwide. Moreover, the number of overweight children is increasing. Bariatric surgery is the gold standard treatment for obesity; however, endoscopic approaches may have a significant role in improving metabolic syndrome and achieving weight loss. Many endoscopic methods have been introduced, some of which are currently available and some that are undergoing experimentation. Endoscopists have a role in the treatment of obesity because endoscopic therapies are expected to become safer and more efficacious in the coming years. Endoscopic bariatric therapies can be categorized as space occupying, malabsorption, and gastric volume reduction. In this review, we summarize the currently available endoscopic procedures.


Subject(s)
Adult , Bariatric Surgery , Child , Endoscopy , Gastroplasty , Humans , Obesity , Overweight , United States , Weight Loss
11.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 416-419, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717085

ABSTRACT

Obesity and metabolic syndrome are known to have an impact on the economy. Obesity and metabolic syndrome affect about 40% population in the America alone, and with about 400 million obese adults in the world, obesity is a global concern. Moreover, the prevalence of overweight children is increasing. Bariatric surgery remains the gold standard for the treatment of obesity; however, endoscopic approaches may have a significant role in the management of metabolic syndrome and obesity. Until recently, many endoscopic methods have been introduced; however, few methods are used in practice, whereas others are under experimental research. Endoscopists have an important role in the treatment of obesity because endoscopic therapies have demonstrated their safety and efficacy over the past few years. Endoscopic bariatric therapies can be categorized as follows: space occupying, malabsorption, and gastric volume reduction. In this review, we summarize the currently available non-balloon type endoscopic procedure.


Subject(s)
Adult , Americas , Bariatric Surgery , Child , Endoscopy , Humans , Obesity , Overweight , Prevalence
12.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 61-65, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739691

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Currently, a new over-the-scope clip (OTSC) system has been introduced. This system has been used for gastrointestinal perforations and fistulas in other countries. The aim of our study is to examine the therapeutic success rate of endoscopic treatment using the OTSC system in Korea. METHODS: This was a multicenter prospective study. A total of seven endoscopists at seven centers performed this procedure. RESULTS: A total of 19 patients were included, with gastrointestinal leakages from anastomosis sites, fistulas, or esophageal perforations due to Boerhaave’s syndrome. Among these, there were three gastrojejunostomy sites, three esophagojejunostomy sites, four esophagogastrostomy sites, one esophagocolonostomy site, one jejuno-jejunal site, two endoscopic full thickness resection site closures, one Boerhaave’s syndrome, two esophago-bronchial fistulas, one gastrocolonic fistula, and one colonopseudocyst fistula. The size of the leakage ranged from 5 to 30 mm. The median procedure time was 16 min. All cases were technically successful. Complete closure of the leak was achieved in 14 of 19 patients using OTSC alone. CONCLUSIONS: The OTSC system is a safe and effective method for the management of gastrointestinal leakage, especially in cases of anastomotic leakage after surgery.


Subject(s)
Anastomotic Leak , Esophageal Perforation , Fistula , Gastric Bypass , Humans , Korea , Methods , Prospective Studies
13.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 17-20, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-43937

ABSTRACT

It is well recognized that obesity is a big problem and it can induce large economic burden. Obesity affects about 40% people in the America alone and obesity also is the worldwide problem, with about 400 million obese adults. Moreover, another problem of obesity is the increasing prevalence of overweight children. Though bariatric surgery remains the gold treatment modality in the obesity treatment, endoluminal approaches may have the meaningful role for weight control. Endoscopists should have a role in the management of obesity because endoluminal therapies demonstrate their safety and efficacy over the coming years. Endoluminal therapies can be summarized by above methods: space occupying, malabsorption method, and reduction of gastric volume. In this review, we will introduce various restrictive endoscopic procedures in obesity treatment.


Subject(s)
Adult , Americas , Bariatric Surgery , Child , Endoscopy , Humans , Methods , Obesity , Overweight , Prevalence
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-103586

ABSTRACT

Gastric cancer is one of the most common fatal malignancies in the world, with a high incidence in Korea and Japan. Helicobacter pylori infection is an important factor in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. Epidemiological studies have shown a strong causal relationship between H. pylori infection and gastric cancer. Animal studies have also shown that eradication of H. pylori infection, especially at the early stage, is effective in preventing H. pylori-related gastric carcinogenesis. H. pylori eradication leads to regression and prevents the progression of gastric precancerous lesions but only in a minority of cases. H. pylori eradication appears to be the most promising approach for gastric cancer prevention. The current available data from human studies show that H. pylori eradication can reduce the risk of developing gastric cancer, and this strategy is more useful in patients without atrophic gastritis or intestinal metaplasia. A longer follow-up and additional studies are needed for a better understanding of this issue.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carcinogenesis , Chemoprevention , Epidemiologic Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Gastritis, Atrophic , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Humans , Incidence , Japan , Korea , Metaplasia , Stomach Neoplasms
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110254

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Post-operative ileus (POI) is a common complication of abdominal surgery. DA-9701, an extract of Pharbitis Semen and Corydalis Tuber, is a new prokinetic agent that also alleviates visceral pain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DA-9701 can ameliorate POI in rats. METHODS: A total of 32 rats were divided into 4 groups: no surgery/no medication (NSNM), no surgery/medication (NSM), surgery/no medication (SNM), and surgery/medication (SM). Gastrointestinal transit (GIT), which is assessed by migration of charcoal, and cumulative stool weight were measured at 24 hours after surgery. RESULTS: GIT was significantly more delayed in the SNM group than in the other groups (SNM vs NSNM, P < 0.001; SNM vs NSM, P < 0.001; SNM vs SM, P = 0.005). Cumulative stool weight in that group was also lower than in the no surgery groups (SNM vs NSNM, P = 0.007; SNM vs NSM, P = 0.033), and there was no significant difference between the SM group and the no surgery groups (SM vs NSM, P = 0.703; SM vs NSNM, P = 0.347). CONCLUSION: DA-9701 can ameliorate POI by reducing delayed GIT and improving defecation in a rat model of POI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Charcoal , Corydalis , Defecation , Gastrointestinal Transit , Ghrelin , Ileus , Models, Animal , Rats , Semen , Visceral Pain
17.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 139-145, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-726781

ABSTRACT

Emphysematous gastritis is a rare disorder characterized by emphysematous change of the gastric wall due to infection with a gas-forming organism. Acute necrotizing esophagitis is a rare disorder with an unknown pathogenesis. Above two disorders rarely occur together, only three global cases have been reported to date. Such a case has never been reported in Korea, we report a novel case of severe emphysematous gastritis with concomitant portal venous air and acute necrotizing esophagitis in type 1 diabetes presenting with diabetic ketoacidosis. A 24-year-old man known to have type 1 diabetes and pulmonary tuberculosis was brought to the emergency room for epigastric pain with vomiting. His body mass index was 14.7, and the laboratory findings demonstrated leukocytosis and acidosis, as well as elevated serum glucose, ketone, and C-reactive protein levels. Enhanced computed tomography showed portal vein gas and edematous wall thickening without enhancement in the stomach wall, with air density along the stomach and esophageal wall. The patient required surgical intervention of total gastrectomy and cervical esophagostomy followed by esophagocolostomy and esophageal reconstruction. Early radiologic diagnosis and clinical suspicion of this disease and prompt intervention including antibiotics, decompression, and surgery are important for a good prognosis.


Subject(s)
Acidosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Blood Glucose , Body Mass Index , C-Reactive Protein , Decompression , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Esophagitis , Esophagostomy , Gastrectomy , Gastritis , Humans , Korea , Leukocytosis , Portal Vein , Prognosis , Stomach , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Vomiting , Young Adult
18.
Gut and Liver ; : 910-916, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-132236

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate the effects of esomeprazole and rebamipide combination therapy on symptomatic improvement in patients with reflux esophagitis. METHODS: A total of 501 patients with reflux esophagitis were randomized into one of the following two treatment regimens: 40 mg esomeprazole plus 300 mg rebamipide daily (combination therapy group) or 40 mg esomeprazole daily (monotherapy group). We used a symptom questionnaire that evaluated heartburn, acid regurgitation, and four upper gastrointestinal symptoms. The primary efficacy end point was the mean decrease in the total symptom score. RESULTS: The mean decreases in the total symptom score at 4 weeks were estimated to be −18.1±13.8 in the combination therapy group and −15.1±11.9 in the monotherapy group (p=0.011). Changes in reflux symptoms from baseline after 4 weeks of treatment were −8.4±6.6 in the combination therapy group and −6.8±5.9 in the monotherapy group (p=0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Over a 4-week treatment course, esomeprazole and rebamipide combination therapy was more effective in decreasing the symptoms of reflux esophagitis than esomeprazole monotherapy.


Subject(s)
Esomeprazole , Esophagitis, Peptic , Heartburn , Humans
19.
Gut and Liver ; : 910-916, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-132233

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate the effects of esomeprazole and rebamipide combination therapy on symptomatic improvement in patients with reflux esophagitis. METHODS: A total of 501 patients with reflux esophagitis were randomized into one of the following two treatment regimens: 40 mg esomeprazole plus 300 mg rebamipide daily (combination therapy group) or 40 mg esomeprazole daily (monotherapy group). We used a symptom questionnaire that evaluated heartburn, acid regurgitation, and four upper gastrointestinal symptoms. The primary efficacy end point was the mean decrease in the total symptom score. RESULTS: The mean decreases in the total symptom score at 4 weeks were estimated to be −18.1±13.8 in the combination therapy group and −15.1±11.9 in the monotherapy group (p=0.011). Changes in reflux symptoms from baseline after 4 weeks of treatment were −8.4±6.6 in the combination therapy group and −6.8±5.9 in the monotherapy group (p=0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Over a 4-week treatment course, esomeprazole and rebamipide combination therapy was more effective in decreasing the symptoms of reflux esophagitis than esomeprazole monotherapy.


Subject(s)
Esomeprazole , Esophagitis, Peptic , Heartburn , Humans
20.
Gut and Liver ; : 851-858, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gallstone pathogenesis is linked to mucin hypersecretion and bacterial infection. Several mucin genes have been identified in gallbladder epithelial cells (GBECs). We investigated MUC expression in cholesterol-associated gallbladder disease and evaluated the relationship between mucin and bacterial infection. METHODS: The present study involved 20 patients with cholesterol stones with cholecystitis, five with cholesterol stones with cholesterolosis, six with cholesterol polyps, two with gallbladder cancer, and six controls. Canine GBECs treated with lipopolysaccharide were also studied. MUC3, MUC5AC, MUC5B, and MUC6 antibodies were used for dot/slot immunoblotting and immunohistochemical studies of the gallbladder epithelial tissues, canine GBECs, and bile. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to evaluate MUC3 and MUC5B expression. RESULTS: MUC3, MUC5AC, MUC5B, and MUC6 were expressed in the normal gallbladder epithelium, and of those, MUC3 and MUC5B exhibited the highest expression levels. Greatly increased levels of MUC3 and MUC5B expression were observed in the cholesterol stone group, and slightly increased levels were observed in the cholesterol polyp group; MUC3 and MUC5B mRNA was also upregulated in those groups. Canine GBECs treated with lipopolysaccharide also showed upregulation of MUC3 and MUC5B. CONCLUSIONS: The mucin genes with the highest expression levels in gallbladder tissue in cholesterol-associated diseases were MUC3 and MUC5B. Cholesterol stones and gallbladder infections were associated with increased MUC3 and MUC5B expression.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Bacterial Infections , Bile , Cholecystitis , Cholesterol , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium , Gallbladder Diseases , Gallbladder Neoplasms , Gallbladder , Gallstones , Humans , Immunoblotting , Mucins , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polyps , RNA, Messenger , Up-Regulation
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