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1.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 60-69, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875299

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate the impact of serum testosterone level before enzalutamide treatment in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) for antitumor outcomes. @*Materials and Methods@#Single-center, retrospective study including patients that treated with enzalutamide for mCRPC before and after docetaxel chemotherapy. Clinicopathological parameters including serum testosterone at initial enzalutamide use were examined. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response, progression-free survival (PFS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were the outcomes of interest. Logistic-regression analysis was done for discovering odds for PSA response. Cox-proportional model was applied for risk stratification for progression and cancer-specific death. @*Results@#A total of 228 patients with mCRPC, treated with enzalutamide, both prechemotherapy and postchemotherapy, between 2011 and 2019 were included. One hundred sixty-two of patients (71.1%) experienced PSA decline over 50%. Median PFS and CSS were 5.4 and 13.2 months, respectively. Serum testosterone at initial enzalutamide use was the noble predictor for progression (hazard ratio [HR], 0.409; p=0.020) and cancer-specific death (HR, 0.454; p=0.033) in postchemotherapy group. No significant effect of serum testosterone in prechemotherapy group was detected. Time to CRPC, high-metastatic burden revealed as risk factors for PSA response, PFS, and CSS, both in prechemotherapy and postchemotherapy group. @*Conclusions@#High testosterone level at commencement of enzalutamide treatment was associated with a good prognosis in postdocetaxel setting, but not related to oncological outcomes in chemotherapy-naïve patients.

2.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 232-243, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918264

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To construct a urologic cancer database using a standardized, reproducible method, and to assess preliminary characteristics of this cohort. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients with prostate, bladder, and kidney cancers who were enrolled with diagnostic codes in the electronic medical record (EMR) at Asan Medical Center from 2007–2016 were included. Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) was used to design the Asan Medical Center-Urologic Cancer Database (AMC-UCD). The process included developing a data dictionary, applying branching logic, mapping clinical data warehouse structures, alpha testing, clinical record summary testing, creating “standards of procedure,” importing data, and entering data. Descriptive statistics were used to identify rates of surgeries and numbers of patients. @*Results@#Clinical variables (n=407) were selected to develop a data dictionary from REDCap. In total, 20,198 urologic cancer patients visited our institution from 2007–2016 (bladder cancer, 4,616; kidney cancer, 5,750; prostate cancer, 10,330). The overall numbers of patients and surgeries increased over time, with robotic surgeries rapidly growing over a decade. The most common treatment for urologic cancer was surgery, followed by chemotherapy and radiation therapy. @*Conclusions@#Using a standardized method, the AMC-UCD fosters multidisciplinary research. This constructed database provides access to clinical statistics to effectively assist research. Preliminary data should be refined through EMR chart review. The successful organization of data from 2007–2016 provides a framework for future periods of investigation and prospective models.

3.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 244-251, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918263

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the association between microscopic hematuria (MH) detected by surveillance urinalysis and cancer recurrence in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 1,082 NMIBC patients who underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURB) procedures at Asan Medical Center between January 2017 and December 2019 were included. We retrospectively reviewed the follow-up data for these cases including cystoscopy, urinalysis, and urine cytology. The association between urine testing and cancer recurrence was assessed by both univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#The study patients had a median age of 68 years (interquartile range, 60–75 years) and comprised 898 men and 184 women. Among the 1,428 TURB procedures conducted in this series, 548 of the lesions (38.4%) were diagnosed as low-grade and 880 (61.6%) as highgrade cancers. A total of 3,309 follow-up cystoscopies were conducted during the study period and were divided into high-grade (HG) (2,011 cases) and low-grade (LG) (1,298 cases) groups according to the latest TURB pathology. MH was found to have a statistically significant association with NMIBC recurrence in both the LG (odds ratio [OR], 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.107–2.223; p=0.011) and HG (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.434–2.517; p<0.001) groups. @*Conclusions@#Urinalysis during follow-up may provide important information on cancer recurrence in NMIBC patients.

4.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 271-280, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918260

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To identify the risk factors leading to radical cystectomy in patients who had undergone nephroureterectomy (NUx). @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma who underwent NUx during 2011–2019 and excluded patients with metastatic cancer. In total 646 patients were included in this study; of these, 532 had no previous bladder cancer history. Follow-up was performed every 3 months for 2 years after NUx was administered, and recurrence was confirmed using cystoscopy, urine cytology, computed tomography, and chest radiography. Bladder recurrence was confirmed through biopsy, urine cytology, or radiologic examination. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyzes were performed for statistical analysis of risk factors leading to radical cystectomy in patients undergoing NUx. @*Results@#Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (hazard ratio [HR], 4.728; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.463–15.570; p=0.011), previous transurethral resection of bladder tumor history (HR, 3.825; 95% CI, 1.164–12.571; p=0.027), and intravesical recurrence (IVR) within 6 months (HR, 3.733; 95% CI, 1.091–12.778; p=0.036) in patients undergoing NUx are predictors of radical cystectomy implementation. In a multivariate analysis of patients without bladder cancer history, bladder recurrence was identified as a predictor of radical cystectomy implementation, if it occurred within 6 months of NUx (HR, 8.608; 95% CI, 1.545–47.976; p=0.014). @*Conclusions@#LVI and IVR within 6 months and previous bladder cancer history are factors that can predict the need for radical cystectomy after NUx. Even in patients without bladder cancer history, early bladder recurrence within 6 months is a major predictor of radical cystectomy.

6.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1242-1250, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831132

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to examine the causes of death in Korean patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer and investigate the relationship between comorbidity and mortality. @*Materials and Methods@#We conducted a retrospective multicenter cohort study including 4,064 consecutive patients who had prostate cancer and underwent radical prostatectomy between January 1998 and June 2013. The primary endpoint of this study was all-cause mortality, and the secondary endpoints were cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and other-cause mortality (OCM). Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) was calculated to assess the comorbidities of each patient. @*Results@#Of 4,064 patients, 446 (11.0%) died during follow-up. The cause of death was prostate cancer in 132 patients (29.6%), other cancers in 121 patients (27.1%), and vascular disease in 57 patients (12.8%) in our cohort. The overall 10-year CSM rate was lower than the OCM rate (4.6% vs. 10.5%). The 10-year CSM rate was lower than the OCM rate in low- to intermediate-risk group patients (1.2% vs. 10.6%), whereas they were similar in high-risk group patients (11.8% vs. 10.1%). In the multivariable analysis, CCI was independently associated with all-cause mortality after radical prostatectomy, regardless of age and pathologic features. @*Conclusion@#Death from prostate cancer was rare in Korean men who underwent radical prostatectomy. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of overtreatment of low-risk prostate cancer in men with significant comorbidity. Our findings may help to facilitate counseling and plan management in this patient group.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e47-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892040

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The objective of this study was to investigate whether androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) in prostate cancer (Pca) patients is associated with cardiovascular disease in the cohort based from the entire Korean population.@*METHODS@#Using the Korean National Health Insurance database, we conducted an observational study of 579,377 men who sought treatment for Pca between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2016. After excluding patients with previously diagnosed cardiovascular disease or who had undergone chemotherapy, we extracted the data from 2,053 patients who started GnRHa (GnRHa users) and 2,654 men who were newly diagnosed with Pca (GnRHa nonusers) between July 1, 2012, and December 31, 2012, with follow-up through December 31, 2016. The primary outcomes were cerebrovascular attack (CVA) and ischemic heart disease (IHD).@*RESULTS@#GnRHa users were older, were more likely to reside in rural areas, had lower socioeconomic status, and had more comorbidities than nonusers (all P < 0.050). Although GnRHa users had an increased incidence of CVA and IHD (P = 0.013 and 0.048, respectively) in univariate analysis, GnRHa use was not associated with the outcomes in multivariate analysis. Furthermore, the cumulative duration of ADT was not associated with the outcomes whereas the associations between age at diagnosis with all diseases were significant.@*CONCLUSION@#Our complete enumeration of the Korean Pca population shows that ADT is not associated with increased risks of cardiovascular disease.

8.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e47-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899744

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The objective of this study was to investigate whether androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) in prostate cancer (Pca) patients is associated with cardiovascular disease in the cohort based from the entire Korean population.@*METHODS@#Using the Korean National Health Insurance database, we conducted an observational study of 579,377 men who sought treatment for Pca between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2016. After excluding patients with previously diagnosed cardiovascular disease or who had undergone chemotherapy, we extracted the data from 2,053 patients who started GnRHa (GnRHa users) and 2,654 men who were newly diagnosed with Pca (GnRHa nonusers) between July 1, 2012, and December 31, 2012, with follow-up through December 31, 2016. The primary outcomes were cerebrovascular attack (CVA) and ischemic heart disease (IHD).@*RESULTS@#GnRHa users were older, were more likely to reside in rural areas, had lower socioeconomic status, and had more comorbidities than nonusers (all P < 0.050). Although GnRHa users had an increased incidence of CVA and IHD (P = 0.013 and 0.048, respectively) in univariate analysis, GnRHa use was not associated with the outcomes in multivariate analysis. Furthermore, the cumulative duration of ADT was not associated with the outcomes whereas the associations between age at diagnosis with all diseases were significant.@*CONCLUSION@#Our complete enumeration of the Korean Pca population shows that ADT is not associated with increased risks of cardiovascular disease.

9.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 119-125, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741480

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We compared subtypes of papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC; types 1 and 2) and clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) in patients with T1-stage RCC to analyze the impact of the subtype on oncological outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This paper reviewed 75 patients with pRCC and 252 patients with ccRCC at T1-stage from 1998–2012. Thus, we assessed the impact of subtype on oncologic outcomes among patients with T1-stage RCC. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis to estimate the overall survival and recurrence-free survival The median follow-up duration was 95 months (interquartile range, 75.4–119.3 months). RESULTS: The 5-year recurrence-free survivals of pRCC and ccRCC were 95.4% and 97.6%, respectively. pRCC is worse than ccRCC in terms of recurrence-free survival (p=0.008) and there was no significant difference in the overall survival between pRCC and ccRCC (p=0.32). In addition, there was no significant statistical difference between type 1 pRCC and type 2 pRCC in terms of either recurrence-free survival (p=0.526) or overall survival (p=0.701). Age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.069; p < 0.001) and recurrence (HR, 4.93; p < 0.001) were predictors of overall survival. Only tumor size (HR, 1.071; p=0.004) was predictors in the case of cancer specific survival in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with T1-stage RCC, recurrence after surgery was more common in pRCC than ccRCC. The subtype of pRCC (types 1 and 2) had no impact on the recurrence-free survival or overall survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Follow-Up Studies , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Recurrence
10.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 265-274, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739610

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Korean patients with prostate cancer (PC) typically present with a more aggressive disease than patients in Western populations. Consequently, it is unclear if the current criteria for active surveillance (AS) can safely be applied to Korean patients. Therefore, this study was conducted to define appropriate selection criteria for AS for patients with PC in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective study of 2,126 patients with low risk PC who actually underwent radical prostatectomy. The primary outcome was an unfavorable disease, which was defined by non-organ confined disease or an upgrading of the Gleason score to ≥ 7 (4+3). Predictive variables of an unfavorable outcome were identified by multivariate analysis using randomly selected training samples (n=1,623, 76.3%). We compared our selected criteria to various Western criteria for the primary outcome and validated our criteria using the remaining validation sample (n=503, 23.7%). RESULTS: A non-organ confined disease rate of 14.9% was identified, with an increase in Gleason score ≥ 7 (4+3) of 8.7% and a final unfavorable disease status of 20.8%. The following criteria were selected: Gleason score ≤ 6, clinical stage T1-T2a, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≤ 10 ng/mL, PSA density < 0.15 ng/mL/mL, number of positive cores ≤ 2, and maximum cancer involvement in any one core ≤ 20%. These criteria provided the lowest unfavorable disease rate (11.7%) when compared to Western criteria (13.3%-20.7%), and their validity was confirmed using the validation sample (5.9%). CONCLUSION: We developed AS criteria which are appropriate for Korean patients with PC. Prospective studies using these criteria are now warranted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Grading , Pathology , Patient Selection , Prospective Studies , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies
11.
Korean Journal of Urological Oncology ; : 121-130, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90013

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the oncological outcome of histologic variants in bladder cancer patients who underwent radical cystectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 393 bladder cancer patients who underwent radical cystectomy at single center between January 2007 and August 2014. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to histologic types: pure urothelial cell carcinoma (UC) and squamous, micropapillary, and other variants. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to assess recurrence-free (RFS) and overall survivals (OS). The patients were divided into those with pathologic stage and nodal status. RESULTS: Among 393 bladder cancer patients, squamous, micropapillary histologic variants were observed in 38 (9.7%), 26 (6.6%), respectively, whereas 39 had other variant types. Stage T3 cancer occurred in more patients with histologic variant compared with those with pure UC. Pathologic positive nodal status was also frequently found in the histologic variant groups. Subgroup analysis according to T stage and nodal status showed no significant difference in RFS and OS. On multivariate analysis, pathologic T stage (stage T2: hazard ratio [HR], 2.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34–5.63; p=0.005; stage ≥T3: HR, 3.20; 95% CI, 1.62–6.30; p=0.001) and nodal status (HR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.05–2.56; p=0.028) were prognostic factors for RFS. CONCLUSIONS: In patients who underwent radical cystectomy, histologic variants were detected more often at advanced pathologic stage. Although histologic variants have been identified in the radical cystectomy specimen, treatment should be performed according to the pathologic stage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cystectomy , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Multivariate Analysis , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Urinary Bladder
12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 495-501, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56114

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine patients with T1b renal cell carcinoma (RCC) who could benefit from partial nephrectomy (PN) and method to identify them preoperatively using nephrometry score (NS). From a total of 483 radical nephrectomy (RN)-treated patients and 40 PN-treated patients who received treatment for T1b RCC between 1995 and 2010, 120 patients identified through 1:2 propensity-score matching were included for analysis. Probability of chronic kidney disease (CKD) until postoperative 5-years was calculated and regressed with respect to the surgical method and NS. Median follow-up was 106 months. CKD-probability at 5-years was 40.7% and 13.5% after radical and PN, respectively (P = 0.005). While PN was associated with lower risk of CKD regardless of age, comorbidity, preoperative estimated renal function, the effect was observed only among patients with NS ≤ 8 (P < 0.001) but not in patients with NS ≥ 9 (P = 0.746). Percent operated-kidney volume reduction and ischemia time were similar between the patients with NS ≥ 9 and ≤ 8. In the stratified Cox regression accounting for the interaction observed between the surgical method and the NS, PN reduced CKD-risk only in patients with NS ≤ 8 (hazard ratio [HR], 0.054; P = 0.005) but not in ≥ 9 (HR, 0.996; P = 0.994). In T1b RCC with NS ≥ 9, the risk of postoperative CKD was not reduced following PN compared to RN. Considering the potential complications of PN, minimally invasive RN could be considered with priority in this subgroup of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Comorbidity , Follow-Up Studies , Ischemia , Methods , Nephrectomy , Propensity Score , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
13.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 899-906, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61895

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated changing patterns of primary treatment in Korean men with prostate cancer (PC) and impact of sociodemographic factors on treatment choice from a nationwide cohort over 10 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of a 2% nationwide random sample of Korean National Health Insurance. A total of 1,382 patients who had undergone active treatments for newly diagnosed PC between 2003 and 2013 were included. Time trends in primary treatment of PC, including radical surgery, radiation therapy (RT), and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were analyzed. RESULTS: Total number of patients undergoing active treatments increased significantly (162%). Surgery cases showed the most significant increase, from 22.4% in 2003 to 45.4% in 2013, while the relative proportion of ADT showed a tendency to decrease from 60.3% in 2003 to 45.4% in 2013, and the relative proportion of RT was variable over 10 years (from 7.2% to 18.4%). While treatment patterns differed significantly according to age (p < 0.001) and income classes (p=0.014), there were differences in primary treatment according to residential area. In multinomial logistic regression analysis, older patients showed significant association with ADT or RT compared to surgery, while patients with higher income showed significant association with surgery. CONCLUSION: Treatment pattern in Korean PC patients has changed remarkably over the last 10 years. Sociodemographic factors do affect the primary treatment choice. Our results will be valuable in overviewing changing patterns of primary treatment in Korean PC patients and planning future health policy for PC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Cohort Studies , Health Policy , Logistic Models , National Health Programs , Prostate , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms , Radiotherapy
14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1802-1807, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81224

ABSTRACT

Despite rapid increase in incidence of prostate cancer (PC) and PC survivors, there are few studies regarding competing causes of death and time trends in Asian population. We conducted a cohort study of 2% nationwide random sample of Korean National Health Insurance employees. A total of 873 patients who had received active treatments, including surgery, radiation therapy (RT) and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), for newly diagnosed PC between 2003 and 2010 were included. The cause of death was categorized as PC, other cancers, cardiovascular disease, and other causes. During a median follow-up of 4.75 years, 29.4% (257/873) of the study population died. PC, other cancers, cardiovascular disease, and other causes were responsible for 46.3%, 35.4%, 6.6%, and 11.7%, respectively, of the decedents. Significant differences existed in the cause of death among treatment groups (P < 0.001). Only 20% and 9.5% of surgery and RT group died of PC, whereas 63.9% of ADT group died of PC. Other cancers were responsible for 56%, 74.6% and 17.8% of death in the surgery, RT and ADT group, respectively, while cardiovascular disease accounted for 4%, 6.3%, and 7.1% of death in the treatment groups. Analysis of time trends showed that PC-specific death tended to decrease (from 42.9% in 2003 to 23.1% in 2010), whereas non-PC causes tended to increase over the 8 years. Our results are valuable in overviewing causes of death and time trends in Korean PC patients, and planning future health policy for PC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Asian People , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cause of Death , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Health Policy , Incidence , Mortality , National Health Programs , Prostate , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms , Survivors
15.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 385-389, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-224775

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the clinicopathological features and prognosis of 29 cases of prostate ductal carcinoma was considered to be an aggressive subtype of prostate acinar carcinoma. We selected 29 cases who were diagnosed prostate ductal carcinoma and had a radical prostatectomy (RP). The acinar group (n = 116) was selected among 3,980 patients who underwent a prostatectomy. The acinar group was matched to the ductal group for prostate specific antigen (PSA), clinical stage, Gleason score, and age. The mean (range) of the follow-up periods for the ductal and acinar group was 23.8 +/- 20.6 and 58 +/- 10.5 months, respectively. The mean age of the prostate ductal and acinar carcinoma patients was 67.3 and 67.0 yr and the mean PSA level was 14.7 and 16.2 ng/mL, respectively. No statistical differences were evident between groups in terms of the final pathologic stage or positive resection margin rate other than the postoperative Gleason score. A greater proportion of the ductal group demonstrated a postoperative Gleason score > or = 8 in comparison with the acinar group (P = 0.024). Additionally, we observed significant prognostic difference in our patient series in biochemical recurrence. The ductal group showed a poorer prognosis than the acinar group (P = 0.016). There were no differences significantly in terms of final pathology and rate of positive resection margin, but a greater proportion of the ductal group demonstrated a Gleason score > or = 8 than the acinar group after matching for PSA, Gleason score in biopsy and clinical stage. The ductal group also showed a poorer prognosis.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Acinar Cell/pathology , Carcinoma, Ductal/pathology , Neoplasm Grading , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , SEER Program
16.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 252-258, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223786

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of recurrence in patients with intermediate-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) after intravesical instillation with chemotherapeutic agents or Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy. A cohort of 746 patients with intermediate-risk NMIBC comprised the study group. The primary outcome was time to first recurrence. The recurrence rates of the transurethral resection (TUR) alone, chemotherapy, and BCG groups were determined using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Risk factors for recurrence were identified using Cox regression analysis. In total, 507 patients (68.1%), 78 patients (10.5%), and 160 (21.4%) underwent TUR, TUR+BCG, or TUR+chemotherapy, respectively. After a median follow-up period of 51.7 months (interquartile range=33.1-77.8 months), 286 patients (38.5%) developed tumor recurrence. The 5-yr recurrence rates for the TUR, chemotherapy, and BCG groups were 53.6%+/-2.7%, 30.8%+/-5.7%, and 33.6%+/-4.7%, respectively (P<0.001). Chemotherapy and BCG treatment were found to be predictors of reduced recurrence. Cox-regression analysis showed that TUR+BCG did not differ from TUR+chemotherapy in terms of recurrence risk. Adjuvant intravesical instillation is an effective prophylactic that prevents tumor recurrence in intermediate-risk NMIBC patients following TUR. In addition, both chemotherapeutic agents and BCG demonstrate comparable efficacies for preventing recurrence.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Administration, Intravesical , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , Follow-Up Studies , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Risk , Treatment Outcome , Urinary Bladder/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/drug therapy
17.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 288-294, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34599

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence and clinical significance of incidental prostate fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake and to evaluate its impact on patient management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of 47,109 men who underwent FDG positron emission tomography between 2004 and 2014, 1,335 (2.83%) demonstrated incidental FDG uptake in the prostate, with 99 of the latter undergoing prostate biopsy. The primary end point was the histological presence of prostate adenocarcinoma in the biopsy specimen. Outcomes, including treatment methods, survival, and causes of death, were also assessed. Factors associated with the diagnosis of prostate cancer were evaluated by using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Patients with prostate cancer were more likely to have higher serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (p=0.001) and focal FDG uptake (p=0.036) than were those without. Prostate cancer occurred in 1 of 26 patients (3.8%) with serum PSA or =2.5 ng/mL. Multivariable analysis showed that focal lesions (odds ratio [OR], 5.50; p=0.038), age (OR, 1.06; p=0.031), and serum PSA (OR, 1.28; p=0.001) were independent predictors of prostate cancer diagnosis. Most patients with prostate cancer had organ-confined tumors. Of these, 12 (29.3%) underwent radical prostatectomy and 25 (60.9%) received hormone therapy. Of the 11 patients who died, 9 died of primary cancer progression, with only 1 patient dying from prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of incidental FDG uptake in the prostate was not high, although patients with elevated serum PSA had a higher incidence of prostate cancer. Patients with FDG uptake in the prostate should be secondarily evaluated by measuring serum PSA, with those having high serum PSA undergoing prostate biopsy.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiology , Biopsy , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/pharmacokinetics , Incidental Findings , Organ Specificity , Positron-Emission Tomography/adverse effects , Prevalence , Prostate/drug effects , Prostatectomy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Radiopharmaceuticals/pharmacokinetics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Tissue Distribution
18.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 498-504, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-171070

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The objective was to investigate the impact of statin use on prognosis after radical nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records identified 277 patients who underwent radical nephroureterectomy for primary UTUC at Asan Medical Center between January 2006 and December 2011. Information on preoperative statin use was obtained from patient charts in an electronic database. We assessed the impact of statin use on recurrence-free survival (RFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Of these 277 patients, 62 (22.4%) were taking statin medications. Compared to the statin nonusers, the statin users were older, had a higher body mass index, and had higher rates of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The 5-year RFS rates of statin users and nonusers were 78.5% and 72.5%, respectively (p=0.528); the 5-year CSS rates were 85.6% and 77.7%, respectively (p=0.516); and the 5-year OS rates were 74.5% and 71.4%, respectively (p=0.945). In the multivariate analysis, statin use was not an independent prognostic factor for RFS (hazard ratio, 0.47; p=0.056), CSS (hazard ratio, 0.46; p=0.093), or OS (hazard ratio, 0.59; p=0.144) in patients who underwent radical nephroureterectomy for UTUC. CONCLUSIONS: Statin use was not associated with improved RFS, CSS, or OS in the sample population of patients with UTUC.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/pathology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Staging , Nephrectomy/methods , Preoperative Care/methods , Prognosis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Ureteral Neoplasms/pathology
19.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 466-472, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-95905

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the rates of infectious complications before and after the change of prophylactic antibiotic regimens in prostate needle biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of 5,577 patients who underwent prostate needle biopsy at Asan Medical Center between August 2005 and July 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Group 1 (n=1,743) included patients treated between 2005 and 2009 with fluoroquinolone for 3 days, group 2 (n=2,723) included those treated between 2009 and 2012 with ceftriaxone once before the biopsy and fluoroquinolone before biopsy and continue therapy for 3 days, and group 3 (n=1,111) received the same treatment for more than 7 days after the biopsy. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models addressed risk factors associated with infectious complication after prostate needle biopsy. RESULTS: Infectious complication after prostate needle biopsy developed in 18 (group 1), seven (group 2), and two patients (group 3) (p=0.001). In group 1, seven patients with infectious complication had positive blood cultures and harbored fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli, four had ceftriaxone susceptible isolates, and three had extended spectrum beta-lactamase-positive E. coli. Two patients in group 1 required intensive care because of septic shock. In multivariable analysis, the patients with combination of fluoroquinolone and ceftriaxone had significantly lower infectious complication rate than the fluoroquinolon alone (p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic prophylaxis with ceftriaxone and fluoroquinolone before prostate needle biopsy decreased the risk of potentially serious infectious complications.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Biopsy, Needle/adverse effects , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Drug Evaluation/methods , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drug Therapy, Combination , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Fluoroquinolones/therapeutic use , Incidence , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography, Interventional
20.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 630-636, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47850

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine whether statin use delays the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in patients with metastatic prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 171 patients with metastatic prostate cancer at the time of diagnosis who were treated with ADT between January 1997 and December 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were classified into two groups: the nonstatin use group (A group) and the statin use group (B group). Multivariate analysis was performed on statin use and other factors considered likely to have an effect on the time to progression to CRPC. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 67.1+/-9.1 years, and the mean follow-up period was 52 months. The mean initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 537 ng/mL. Of the 171 patients, 125 (73%) were in group A and 46 (27%) were in group B. The time to progression to CRPC was 22.7 months in group A and 30.5 months in group B, and this difference was significant (p=0.032). Blood cholesterol and initial PSA levels did not differ significantly according to the time to progression to CRPC (p=0.288, p=0.198). Multivariate analysis using the Cox regression method showed that not having diabetes (p=0.037) and using a statin (p=0.045) significantly increased the odds ratio of a longer progression to CRPC. CONCLUSIONS: Statin use in metastatic prostate cancer patients appears to delay the progression to CRPC. Large-scale, long-term follow-up studies are needed to validate this finding.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Body Mass Index , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Disease Progression , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Neoplasm Grading , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/drug therapy , Protective Factors , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Time Factors
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