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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834131

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To examine the prevalence and clinical manifestations of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in Korea children. @*Methods@#The study was designed as a 1:2 matching case-control study. Using information from the endoscopic database of a tertiary center, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients aged 18 years or younger who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy between January 2014 and December 2017. A total of 21 patients were diagnosed with EoE based on current diagnostic criteria. In addition, 42 controls with normal esophageal biopsy findings matched to each EoE case by sex, age (±1 months), and season were randomly selected during the study period. @*Results@#The mean age of EoE diagnosis was 12.1±4.0 years and the male-to-female ratio was 2:1. The proportion of allergic diseases in patients with EoE (28.6%) was higher than that in the controls (6.8%) (p=0.04). Most EoE patients tested for allergy were positive for at least one antigen, which was significantly different to the controls (88.2% vs. 47.4%, p=0.01). Characteristic endoscopic findings of EoE were noted in 19 patients (90.5%), but 2 patients (9.5%) showed normal esophageal mucosa. The clinical symptoms of EoE were improved by a proton-pump inhibitor in 10 patients (50.0%), and by an H2 blocker in 9 patients (45.0%). Only one patient (5.0%) required inhaled steroids. @*Conclusion@#While EoE is rare in the Korean pediatric population, the results of this study will improve our understanding of the clinical manifestations of the disease.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741874

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in Korean children. METHODS: We retrospectively collected and analyzed data from the medical records of the patients with S. aureus bacteremia ≤18 years of age in Gil Medical Center from 2002 to 2016. RESULTS: A total of 212 SAB cases were detected. The annual incidence of SAB from 2002 to 2016 ranged from 0.77 to 1.95 per 1,000 patients hospitalized. The neonate group (<28 days of age) and the pediatric group (28–18 years of age) were 51.4% (n=109) and 48.6% (n=103), respectively. According to the origin of infection, there were 93 cases (43.9%) of community-associated (CA)-SAB and 119 cases (56.1%) of healthcare-associated (HA)-SAB. The rates of HA-SAB among the neonate group and among the pediatric group were 64.2% and 47.6%, respectively (P=0.015). There was no difference in complications between CA-SAB and HA-SAB, but mortality was higher in HA-SAB. The proportion of methicillin-resistance S. aureus (MRSA) was the highest in neonates (88.1%), decreased with age, and was 36.4%–37.5% among children aged ≥5 years. The MRSA proportion was 72.2%, showing no consistent trend over the period. CONCLUSIONS: The annual incidence of SAB and the proportion of MRSA in SAB remained constant in the recent 15 years in children. Judicious decision of antimicrobial agents for treatment considering the patient's age and the origin of infection is necessary.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Bacteremia , Child , Epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Medical Records , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760851

ABSTRACT

Rapunzel syndrome is caused by gastric trichobezoar with extended tail and small bowel obstruction. Patients with gastric trichobezoar can be asymptomatic until the bezoar increases in size. We report a case of a girl who visited the emergency department with abdominal pain. She was finally diagnosed with Rapunzel syndrome that causes multiple small bowel intussusceptions associated with trichophagia. Surgery was needed to reduce the multiple intussusceptions, and to remove the large trichobezoar. This case highlights to consider the possibility of Rapunzel syndrome when diagnosing the main cause of intussusceptions.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Bezoars , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Intestinal Obstruction , Intussusception , Pica , Tail , Trichotillomania
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715717

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Despite the increasing incidence of pediatric Crohn disease (CD) in Korea, data on the characteristics of perianal lesions are scarce. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the characteristics of pediatric CD with accompanying perianal lesions in Korea. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children (age ≤18 years) with confirmed CD at Gachon University Gil Medical Center between 2000 and 2014. Patients were classified into two groups based on the presence or absence of any perianal lesions including skin tags. Additional analysis was performed according to the presence or absence of perianal perforating lesions. RESULTS: Among the 69 CD children (mean age, 15.4 years) include in the analysis, 54 (78.3%) had a perianal lesion and 29 (42.0%) had a perianal perforating lesion. The median duration of chief complaints was longer in pediatric CD with any accompanying perianal lesions (5.40 months vs. 1.89 months, p=0.02), while there was no difference between pediatric CD with and without perianal perforating lesions (5.48 months vs. 4.02 months, p=0.18). Perianal symptoms preceded gastrointestinal symptoms in 13 of 29 (44.8%) patients with perianal perforating lesions. CONCLUSIONS: CD should be suspected in children with perianal lesions, even in circumstances when gastrointestinal symptoms are absent.


Subject(s)
Child , Crohn Disease , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Skin
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741820

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Minimal change esophagitis (MCE) is a reflux disease without mucosal breaks, known to be partially associated with abnormal gastric motor function. Electrogastrography (EGG) is commonly applied to assess gastric motor function in a noninvasive fashion. We aimed to determine the relationship between MCE and gastric myoelectrical activity (GME) recorded on EGG in children. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed the records of 157 children without underlying disease who underwent both EGG and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at Gachon University Gil Medical Center between January 2010 and June 2015. The children were stratified according to the appearance of the esophagus (normal vs. MCE). Between-group differences in EGG parameters and their correlation with each MCE finding were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: Only the power ratio, one of the EGG parameters analyzed, differed significantly between the two groups (MCE, 1.68±3.37 vs. normal, 0.76±1.06; p < 0.05), whereas the other parameters, such as dominant frequency, dominant power, and the ratio of abnormal rhythm, showed no differences. Among children with MCE, significant correlations were noted between erythema and power ratio (p < 0.05), friability and postprandial dominant frequency (p < 0.05), and edema and/or accentuation of mucosal folds and pre-prandial frequency (p < 0.05). Helicobacter pylori infection correlated with postprandial arrhythmia (MCE, 33.59±15.52 vs. normal, 28.10±17.23; p < 0.05). EGG parameters did not differ between children with normal esophagus and those with biopsy-proven chronic esophagitis. CONCLUSION: In children with MCE, gastric dysmotility may affect the development of MCE, manifesting as EGG abnormalities. H. pylori infection may also affect GME. However, larger prospective investigations are needed to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Child , Edema , Endoscopy , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Erythema , Esophagitis , Esophagus , Helicobacter pylori , Humans , Ovum , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717598

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to compare the therapeutic efficacy of prolonged macrolide (PMC), corticosteroids (CST), doxycycline (DXC), and levofloxacin (LFX) against macrolide-unresponsive Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) pneumonia in children and to evaluate the safety of the secondary treatment agents. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of patients with MP pneumonia hospitalized between January 2015 and April 2017. Macrolide-unresponsiveness was clinically defined with a persistent fever of ≥ 38.0°C at ≥ 72 hours after macrolide treatment. The cases were divided into four groups: PMC, CST, DXC, and LFX. We compared the time to defervescence (TTD) after secondary treatment and the TTD after initial macrolide treatment in each group with adjustment using propensity score-matching analysis. RESULTS: Among 1,165 cases of MP pneumonia, 190 (16.3%) were unresponsive to macrolides. The proportion of patients who achieved defervescence within 48 hours in CST, DXC, and LFX groups were 96.9% (31/33), 85.7% (12/14), and 83.3% (5/6), respectively. The TTD after initial macrolide treatment did not differ between PMC and CST groups (5.1 vs. 4.2 days, P = 0.085), PMC and DXC groups (4.9 vs. 5.7 days, P = 0.453), and PMC and LFX groups (4.4 vs. 5.0 days, P = 0.283). No side effects were observed in the CST, DXC, and LFX groups. CONCLUSION: The change to secondary treatment did not show better efficacy compared to PMC in children with macrolide-unresponsive MP pneumonia. Further studies are needed to guide appropriate treatment in children with MP pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Child , Doxycycline , Fever , Humans , Levofloxacin , Macrolides , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Mycoplasma , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Retrospective Studies
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210001

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Croup, a common childhood respiratory illness with various severities, has many unanswered questions. Laryngotracheobronchopneumonitis (LTBP) is a disease entity considered to be an extension of croup to the lower respiratory tract. The object of this study was to compare epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and viral etiologic spectrum between croup and LTBP. METHODS: Patients hospitalized with croup at Gachon University Gil Hospital from January 2010 to April 2016 were recruited. LTBP was defined as pneumonia confirmed on radiographs of patients with croup. Clinical findings and demographic data were reviewed of patients whose nasopharyngeal swabs were done for viral analysis. RESULTS: A total of 371 patients with only croup and 63 patients with LTBP were included. Croup was found to be significantly associated with parainfluenza virus type 1 (P=0.006). LTBP was related to parainfluenza virus type 3, respiratory syncytial virus, and human bocavirus (P=0.001, P=0.030, and P=0.019, respectively). The duration of fever was longer in patients with LTBP than in those with croup (3.87±1.85 days vs. 2.86±1.80 days, P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Specific etiologic viruses might be associated with the progression from croup to LTBP. Pronged fever is also associated with progression from croup to LTBP.


Subject(s)
Child , Croup , Epidemiology , Fever , Human bocavirus , Humans , Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human , Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human , Pneumonia , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Respiratory System
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129018

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Crohn's disease (CD) can involve any site of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). However, the characteristics of upper GIT involvement in CD are unclear, especially in the Eastern pediatric population. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of upper GIT involvement and identify the clinical features of Korean children with CD. METHODS: This was a retrospective multicenter cohort study that included 52 pediatric patients with CD who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and biopsy. The clinical symptoms and endoscopic and histologic features of the upper GIT were identified according to the presence or absence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms. RESULTS: Among the 52 patients, upper GIT involvement was noted in 50.0% (26/52). The mean age at CD diagnosis was 14.1±2.1 years. Gastric ulcer was the most common lesion (19.2%) found on upper GIT endoscopy, followed by duodenal ulcers (15.4%). Chronic inflammation was the most common histopathologic feature (75.0%), followed by gastric erosion (17.3%). Granuloma was found in 9.6% of patients. Helicobacter pylori infection was identified in 5.8% of patients. Endoscopic and histologic findings were not significantly different, but the mean values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (60.7±27.1 vs. 43.0±27.6 mm/h, p=0.037) and C-reactive protein (16.5±28.2 vs. 6.62±13.4 mg/dL, p=0.014) were significantly different between patients with and without upper gastrointestinal CD symptoms. CONCLUSION: Upper GIT involvement was relatively common in pediatric patients with CD irrespective of upper gastrointestinal symptoms, and H. pylori infection was relatively uncommon. The results of this study should aid the establishment of regional guidelines for upper GIT examination.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein , Child , Cohort Studies , Crohn Disease , Diagnosis , Duodenal Ulcer , Endoscopy , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Gastrointestinal Tract , Granuloma , Helicobacter pylori , Humans , Inflammation , Pediatrics , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Ulcer , Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129003

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Crohn's disease (CD) can involve any site of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). However, the characteristics of upper GIT involvement in CD are unclear, especially in the Eastern pediatric population. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of upper GIT involvement and identify the clinical features of Korean children with CD. METHODS: This was a retrospective multicenter cohort study that included 52 pediatric patients with CD who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and biopsy. The clinical symptoms and endoscopic and histologic features of the upper GIT were identified according to the presence or absence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms. RESULTS: Among the 52 patients, upper GIT involvement was noted in 50.0% (26/52). The mean age at CD diagnosis was 14.1±2.1 years. Gastric ulcer was the most common lesion (19.2%) found on upper GIT endoscopy, followed by duodenal ulcers (15.4%). Chronic inflammation was the most common histopathologic feature (75.0%), followed by gastric erosion (17.3%). Granuloma was found in 9.6% of patients. Helicobacter pylori infection was identified in 5.8% of patients. Endoscopic and histologic findings were not significantly different, but the mean values of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (60.7±27.1 vs. 43.0±27.6 mm/h, p=0.037) and C-reactive protein (16.5±28.2 vs. 6.62±13.4 mg/dL, p=0.014) were significantly different between patients with and without upper gastrointestinal CD symptoms. CONCLUSION: Upper GIT involvement was relatively common in pediatric patients with CD irrespective of upper gastrointestinal symptoms, and H. pylori infection was relatively uncommon. The results of this study should aid the establishment of regional guidelines for upper GIT examination.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein , Child , Cohort Studies , Crohn Disease , Diagnosis , Duodenal Ulcer , Endoscopy , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Gastrointestinal Tract , Granuloma , Helicobacter pylori , Humans , Inflammation , Pediatrics , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Ulcer , Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28080

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Clinical symptoms associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) can vary widely. Carrier state without apparent symptoms is relatively common during infancy. The objective of this study was to determine the association of C. difficile colonization with bowel habit change and the effect of C. difficile colonization treatment on restoration of normal bowel habit. METHODS: Between 2006 and 2014, infants at 1 to 12 months of age with diarrhea for more than 2 weeks who did not improve with conservative care were recruited from Gachon University Gil Medical Center. Infants who were followed up for at least 7 days were included. The presence or absence of C. difficile colonization, effect of metronidazole, and other medical records were reviewed. To determine the association between CDI and bowel habit change, logistic regression analysis was used. RESULTS: Of a total of 126 infants, 74 (58.7%) were male patients. Of the 126 patients, 27 (21.4%) had C. difficile colonization. Significant (p<0.05) risk factors for C. difficile colonization included artificial milk feeding (odds ratio [OR], 4.310; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.564-11.878), prior rotavirus vaccination (OR, 4.322; 95% CI, 1.018-18.349), and antibiotic use (OR, 4.798; 95% CI, 1.430-16.101). There was improvement in bowel habit after metronidazole therapy (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.15-0.79; p<0.05), regardless of the presence or absence of C. difficile colonization, CONCLUSION: There was no significant correlation between bowel habit change and C. difficile colonization during infancy. However, metronidazole can be used as an optional method to manage functional gastrointestinal disorders.


Subject(s)
Carrier State , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium , Colon , Diarrhea , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , Infant , Logistic Models , Male , Medical Records , Methods , Metronidazole , Milk , Risk Factors , Rotavirus , Vaccination
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28077

ABSTRACT

Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS) is one of the phosphatase and tensin homolog hamartoma tumor syndrome with a PTEN gene mutation. It is a rare dominant autosomal disorder characterized by cutaneous lipomas, macrocephaly, intestinal polyps, and developmental delay. Diagnosing this syndrome is important, because it may represent the pediatric phenotype of Cowden syndrome, in which there is an increased risk for malignant tumors in children. Until now, the prevalence of BRRS is unknown. Several dozen cases have been reported in the medical literature, but no case has been reported in Korea. Here we report a case of a 19-year-old girl who was diagnosed with BRRS because of macrocephaly, intellectual disability, and intestinal polyps. Her mother had similar findings and a PTEN mutation. Neither patient had mutations detected by conventional mutation-detection techniques, but a PTEN gene deletion was demonstrated by chromosomal microarray analysis.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Gene Deletion , Hamartoma , Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple , Humans , Intellectual Disability , Intestinal Polyps , Korea , Lipoma , Megalencephaly , Microarray Analysis , Mothers , Phenotype , Prevalence , Young Adult
12.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 542-549, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-227797

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In Kawasaki disease (KD), high dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) significantly lowers the coronary complications. However, some patients either do not respond to initial therapy or develop coronary complications. We aimed to identify the predictive factors for unresponsiveness to initial IVIG therapy and coronary artery dilatation (CAD; defined by Z-score≥2.5) in the acute phase and convalescent phase. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of 703 patients with KD, admitted to Gachon University Gil Medical Center between January 2005 and June 2013. The patients were divided into two groups-IVIG responders vs. non-responders-based on the IVIG treatments, and presence of fever after treatment. Further, these groups were divided into two subgroups based on their CAD. RESULTS: Among the 703 patients with KD, the rate of non-responders to initial IVIG was 16.8%. Serum total bilirubin, platelet count, and neutrophil proportion were independent predictive parameters of unresponsiveness (p<0.05). CAD was found in 234 patients (33.3%) in the acute phase, and in 32 patients (4.6%) in the convalescent phase. Male gender, fever duration, serum C-reactive protein, and white blood cell count were related to CAD (p<0.05). CAD was detected more frequently in non-responders than in the responders (47.5% vs. 31.5%, p=0.001). Kobayashi, Egami, and Sano scoring systems applied to our study population reflected low sensitivities (28.0-33.9%). CONCLUSION: Several independent parameters were related to unresponsiveness to the initial IVIG or CAD. These parameters might be helpful in establishing more focused and careful monitoring of high-risk KD patients in Korea.


Subject(s)
Bilirubin , C-Reactive Protein , Child , Coronary Vessels , Dilatation , Fever , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Korea , Leukocyte Count , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Neutrophils , Platelet Count , Retrospective Studies
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-123226

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Rotavirus vaccine (RV) was introduced in Korea since 2007, and intussusception (IS) remains an important safety concern. This study investigated the trend of IS occurrence related to RV as well as the temporal relevance between vaccination and IS in children. METHODS: We collected data of the patient aged ≤18 years with IS admitted to Gachon University Gil Medical Center, 2003 to 2015. For the patients that have occurred since 2008, the immunization records of RV were collected. The proportion of cases <1 year was calculated by the year and the temporal relationship between vaccination and IS occurrence was analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 696 IS cases were noted. The cases <1 year were 30.7% (214/696). Although the incidence of all IS has increased over the 13-year period (from 74.1 in 2003 to 89.5 in 2015, linear by linear association, P=0.003), the incidence of IS <1 year has not increased (from 56.9 in 2003 to 53.3 in 2015, P=0.910), and the proportion of cases <1 year has decreased (from 35.4 in 2003 to 18.8 in 2015, P=0.000). Of 128 cases <1 year since 2008, 53.9% received RV. In the vaccinated group, 10 cases of IS occurred within 30 days, and eight cases did within 31 to 60 days. Numbers of IS after first, second, and third dose were three, 10, and five cases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Occurrence of IS in children <1 year of age did not increase since the introduction of RV. Further monitoring is essential for evaluation of vaccine safety.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Immunization , Incidence , Intussusception , Korea , Observational Study , Rotavirus , Vaccination
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158491

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and urosepsis in children with acute pyelonephritis (APN). METHODS: We retrospectively identified all children who were managed in our hospital with APN during a decade period. In our study a diagnosis of APN was defined as having a positive urine culture and a positive (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy. We compared those with elevated ALT and those with normal ALT according to the following variables: age, gender, duration of fever prior to admission, presence of hypotension, C-reactive protein (CRP), creatinine, presence of anemia, white blood cells count, platelet count, blood culture result, and grades of vesicoureteral reflux. In addition, the correlation between elevated ALT and positive blood culture was analyzed in detail. RESULTS: A total of 996 children were diagnosed with APN, of which 883 were included in the study. ALT was elevated in 81 children (9.2%). In the analysis of demographic characteristics, the number of children with elevated ALT was higher in children between 0 to 3 months, boys, and in those with positive blood culture (p=0.002, 0.036, and 0.010, respectively). In multivariate analysis of variables associated with positive blood culture, age younger than 3 months, elevated ALT, elevated CRP, and elevated creatinine showed statistical significance (p=0.004, 0.030, 0.043, and 0.044, respectively). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates the association between elevated ALT and increased prevalence of urosepsis in addition to elevated CRP, elevated creatinine, and age younger than 3 months in children with APN.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Alanine , Anemia , C-Reactive Protein , Child , Creatinine , Diagnosis , Fever , Humans , Hypotension , Infant , Leukocytes , Multivariate Analysis , Platelet Count , Prevalence , Pyelonephritis , Radionuclide Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-98138

ABSTRACT

Lynch syndrome is the most common inherited colon cancer syndrome. Patients with Lynch syndrome develop a range of cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC) and carry a mutation on one of the mismatched repair (MMR) genes. Although CRC usually occurs after the fourth decade in patients with Lynch syndrome harboring a heterozygous MMR gene mutation, it can occur in children with Lynch syndrome who have a compound heterozygous or homozygous MMR gene mutation. We report a case of CRC in a 13-year-old patient with Lynch syndrome and congenital heart disease. This patient had a heterozygous mutation in MLH1 (an MMR gene), but no compound MMR gene defects, and a K-RAS somatic mutation in the cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis , Female , Heart Defects, Congenital , Humans
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72734

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness measured by ultrasonography (US) and serum lipid profile and liver transaminases in obese children. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-six children diagnosed with obesity from May 2001 to December 2013 were included in this study. Data on serum lipid profile and liver transaminases were collected from clinical records. Abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness and grade of hepatic steatosis were evaluated by US. RESULTS: Of the 166 children, 107 were diagnosed with hepatic steatosis by US, 46 with grade I, 56 with grade II, and five children with grade III. According to the grade of hepatic steasosis, the average values of midline abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness and right flank abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness measured 2.9+/-0.8 cm and 1.9+/-0.7 cm in the normal group, 3.3+/-0.8 cm and 2.0+/-0.7 cm in grade I, 3.8+/-0.8 cm and 2.3+/-0.8 cm in grade II, and 4.1+/-0.8 cm and 2.8+/-1.4 cm in grade III, respectively. Abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness correlated with grade of hepatic steatosis (p<0.01). In addition, abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness correlated with concentration of serum lipids and liver transaminases in the age group of 12-14 years (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness measured by US can be used as a reliable predictor of possible hyperlipidemia and steatohepatitis in children, especially during the adolescent stage.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Fatty Liver , Humans , Hyperlipidemias , Liver , Obesity , Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal , Transaminases , Ultrasonography
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83631

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection is a major cause of respiratory infection in school-aged children. Extrapulmonary manifestations of MP infection are common, but liver involvement has been rarely reported. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of MP-associated hepatitis. METHODS: This prospective study included 1,044 pediatric patients with MP infection diagnosed serologically with MP IgM at one medical center from January 2006 to December 2012. Eighty of these patients had elevated levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), each greater than 50 IU/L, without any other specific liver disorder and were compared with the 964 children without liver disorders. RESULTS: In total, 7.7% of patients with MP infection had a diagnosis of hepatitis, especially in fall and winter. The ratio of male to female patients was 1.7:1, and the mean age of the patients was 5 years and 5 months. The most common symptoms were cough, fever, and sputum. Anorexia was the most common gastrointestinal symptom, followed by nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Mean levels of AST and ALT were 100.65 IU/L and 118.73 IU/L, respectively. Serum AST/ALT level was normalized within 7.5 days on average without complications. The mean duration of hospitalization (11.3 days) was longer for children with hepatitis than for those without hepatitis (P=0.034). CONCLUSION: MP-associated hepatitis is not uncommon and has a relatively good prognosis. Therefore, clinicians should be concerned about liver involvement in MP infection but avoid further unnecessary evaluation of hepatitis associated with MP.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Alanine Transaminase , Anorexia , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Child , Cough , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Female , Fever , Hepatitis , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Liver , Macrolides , Male , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Sputum
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114312

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common intracellular bacterial pathogen and plays an important role in acute respiratory infections. The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical presentations of C. pneumoniae in children with acute respiratory infections. METHODS: We examined the medical records of pediatric patients (age<18 years) admitted with acute respiratory infections of C. pneumoniae to Gachon University Gil Medical Center between March 1, 2011 and August 31, 2014. We compared the clinical features of C. pneumoniae infection with that of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. RESULTS: We confirmed acute respiratory infections of C. pneumoniae in 110 patients out of 2,156 patients (5.1%) admitted with acute respiratory infections. The mean age was 37.2+/-30.1 months. More than half of them (54.5%) had coinfection. C. pneumoniae infection had mild and subacute courses. The mean duration of symptoms prior to admission was 8.5+/-13.8 days. There were remarkable seasonal variations and prevalence was higher in December and April (P=0.03 and P=0.02, respectively). Although rhinorrhea and pharyngeal injection were more common in C. pneumoniae infection (P<0.05), clinical signs and symptoms were similar between C. pneumoniae and M. pneumoniae. Extrapulmonary manifestations such as skin lesion, Gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatitis, and neurologic symptoms were common (41.0%) in C. pneumoniae infection and, had similar incidence in M. pneumoniae infection. CONCLUSION: C. pneumoniae is an important infectious agent of acute respiratory infections in children. Clinical pictures of C. pneumoniae are similar to M. pneumoniae, even in extrapulmonary manifestations. C. pneumoniae should be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of acute respiratory infection in children.


Subject(s)
Child , Chlamydia , Chlamydophila pneumoniae , Coinfection , Diagnosis, Differential , Hepatitis , Humans , Incidence , Medical Records , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Mycoplasma , Neurologic Manifestations , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Prevalence , Respiratory Tract Infections , Seasons , Skin
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149866

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of routine pre-anesthetic aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) tests for detection of hepatic abnormalities and usefulness in perioperative management. METHODS: The laboratory findings of 14,185 pediatric patients younger than 18 years from October 2004 to December 2010 were investigated by retrospective review of medical records. All of the patients had undergone preoperative AST and ALT screening. RESULTS: Among the 14,185 patients, 221 patients experienced elevation of both AST and ALT. However, only 21 patients were suspicious for hepatic disease defined as persistent elevation of AST and ALT preoperatively. Among the 221 patients with elevation of both AST and ALT, 20 patients were examined by additional abdominal ultrasonography and hepatic abnormalities were detected in 13 of these patients (65%) and 40 patients were consulted to the department of pediatrics or internal medicine. CONCLUSIONS: In this single-center, retrograde study, the usefulness of preoperative routine AST and ALT testing was shown to be limited for detection of hepatic abnormalities in pediatric patients undergoing general anesthesia. Further multi-center, large-scale investigation would be required.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Alanine , Anesthesia, General , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Aspartic Acid , Humans , Internal Medicine , Mass Screening , Medical Records , Pediatrics , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788486

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted in order to examine the duration of lupus anticoagulant (LA) presence in serum after it was first detected in children in association with infection. In addition, the effect of LA on coagulation time was evaluated.METHODS: We included 14 children who had an accompanying high titer of LA and prolonged prothrombin time (PT) or activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). The titer of LA and PT/aPTT were examined until LA titer normalized serially after an interval of approximately 10 days.RESULTS: None of the subjects showed any evidence of bleeding or thrombosis during conduct of the study. LA titer had normalized in none of the subjects within approximately 10 days later, and only 28.6% within 20 days later. However, LA titer had normalized in 85.7% of subjects within approximately 30 days, and all subjects showed the normal range of LA titer at 40 days from the first examination. LA titer had a statistically significantly effect on the PT and aPTT (P<0.05, P<0.01, respectively).CONCLUSION: The prolongation of PT or aPTT observed in children with high titer of LA after infectious diseases was not related to any bleeding or thrombotic problem. The elevated titer of LA and prolonged aPTT normalized within approximately 40 days. However, the number of subjects in this study was too small; therefore, conduct of a larger cohort study will be required in order to clarify that elevated LA is related to clinical problems.


Subject(s)
Child , Cohort Studies , Communicable Diseases , Hemorrhage , Humans , Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prothrombin Time , Reference Values , Thrombosis
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