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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830307

ABSTRACT

Background@#Bile duct ligation (BDL) has been used for experimental research on hepatic encephalopathy (HE) caused by chronic liver disease. However, little research has been done on a BDL model in C57BL/6 mouse. Therefore, we evaluated the suitability of a BDL model in C57BL/6 mouse for the study of HE and determined which behavioral tests are appropriate for the identification of HE in this model. @*Methods@#Twelve to fourteen-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to either sham group or BDL group. Histological changes in liver were confirmed by hematoxylin/ eosin and Masson’s trichrome staining. Liver function alterations were detected by alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and ammonia levels. To identify behavioral changes, open field, elevated plus maze, novel object recognition, and passive avoidance tests were performed. @*Results@#Inflammatory liver injury and fibrosis were observed 14 days after BDL. ALT and ammonia levels were significantly higher in BDL group than in sham group. There were no differences in general locomotor activity or anxiety between the groups. No difference was observed between these two groups in the novel object recognition test, but BDL group showed significant learning/memory impairment in the passive avoidance test compared to sham group. @*Conclusions@#Fourteen days of BDL in 12–14-week-old male C57BL/6 mice is a clinically relevant model for HE, as these mice have liver fibrosis with impaired liver function, hyperammonemia, and learning/memory impairment. Passive avoidance can be used as the major behavioral test in this model of HE.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764240

ABSTRACT

Zika virus (ZIKV) is one of the pathogens which is transmitted world widely, but there are no effective drugs and vaccines. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of viruses could be applied to viral pathogen characterization, diagnosis, molecular surveillance, and even finding novel pathogens. We established an improved method using direct RNA sequencing with Nanopore technology to obtain WGS of ZIKV, after adding poly (A) tails to viral RNA. This established method does not require specific primers, complimentary DNA (cDNA) synthesis, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based enrichment, resulting in the reduction of biases as well as of the ability to find novel RNA viruses. Nanopore technology also allows to read long sequences. It makes WGS easier and faster with long-read assembly. In this study, we obtained WGS of two strains of ZIKV following the established protocol. The sequenced reads resulted in 99% and 100% genome coverage with 63.5X and 21,136X, for the ZIKV PRVABC59 and MR 766 strains, respectively. The sequence identities of the ZIKV PRVABC59 and MR 766 strains for each reference genomes were 98.76% and 99.72%, respectively. We also found that the maximum length of reads was 10,311 bp which is almost the whole genome size of ZIKV. These long-reads could make overall structure of whole genome easily, and WGS faster and easier. The protocol in this study could provide rapid and efficient WGS that could be applied to study the biology of RNA viruses including identification, characterization, and global surveillance.


Subject(s)
Bias , Biology , Diagnosis , DNA , Genome , Genome Size , Methods , Nanopores , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA Viruses , RNA , RNA, Viral , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Tail , Vaccines , Zika Virus
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758919

ABSTRACT

Microorganisms play important roles in obesity; however, the role of the gut microbiomes in obesity is controversial because of the inconsistent findings. This study investigated the gut microbiome communities in obese and lean groups of captive healthy cynomolgus monkeys reared under strict identical environmental conditions, including their diet. No significant differences in the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Prevotella were observed between the obese and lean groups, but a significant difference in Spirochetes (p < 0.05) was noted. Microbial diversity and richness were similar, but highly variable results in microbial composition, diversity, and richness were observed in individuals, irrespective of their state of obesity. Distinct clustering between the groups was not observed by principal coordinate analysis using an unweighted pair group method. Higher sharedness values (95.81% ± 2.28% at the genus level, and 79.54% ± 5.88% at the species level) were identified among individual monkeys. This paper reports the association between the gut microbiome and obesity in captive non-human primate models reared under controlled environments. The relative proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as well as the microbial diversity known to affect obesity were similar in the obese and lean groups of monkeys reared under identical conditions. Therefore, obesity-associated microbial changes reported previously appear to be associated directly with environmental factors, particularly diet, rather than obesity.


Subject(s)
Bacteroidetes , Diet , Environment, Controlled , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Haplorhini , Macaca fascicularis , Methods , Microbiota , Obesity , Prevotella , Primates , Spirochaetales
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167757

ABSTRACT

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen that has spread throughout Europe and the United States. Recently, WNV spread to East and Southeast Asia, and great efforts have been made in South Korea to prevent the spread of WNV from neighboring countries. In this study, we diagnosed the first case of WNV in pigeons (Columba livia domestica) residing in cities using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed it with nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis and sequencing. This is the first report to provide convincing evidence that WNV is present within South Korea.


Subject(s)
Asia, Southeastern , Columbidae , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Europe , Korea , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , United States , West Nile virus
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91229

ABSTRACT

In order to examine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in wild rodents and insectivores of South Korea and to assess their potential role as a source of human cryptosporidiosis, a total of 199 wild rodents and insectivore specimens were collected from 10 regions of South Korea and screened for Cryptosporidium infection over a period of 2 years (2012-2013). A nested-PCR amplification of Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene fragment revealed an overall prevalence of 34.2% (68/199). The sequence analysis of 18S rRNA gene locus of Cryptosporidium was performed from the fecal and cecum samples that tested positive by COWP amplification PCR. As a result, we identified 4 species/genotypes; chipmunk genotype I, cervine genotype I, C. muris, and a new genotype which is closely related to the bear genotype. The new genotype isolated from 12 Apodemus agrarius and 2 Apodemus chejuensis was not previously identified as known species or genotype, and therefore, it is supposed to be a novel genotype. In addition, the host spectrum of Cryptosporidium was extended to A. agrarius and Crosidura lasiura, which had not been reported before. In this study, we found that the Korean wild rodents and insectivores were infected with various Cryptosporidium spp. with large intra-genotypic variationa, indicating that they may function as potential reservoirs transmitting zoonotic Cryptosporidium to livestock and humans.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Cryptosporidiosis/parasitology , Cryptosporidium/classification , Feces/parasitology , Genotype , Insectivora/parasitology , Molecular Sequence Data , Murinae , Phylogeny , Republic of Korea , Rodent Diseases/parasitology
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200775

ABSTRACT

To better understand the role of macrophages in early stages of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM), we compared the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase-1, markers for classically activated M1 and alternatively activated M2 macrophages, respectively, in the hearts of EAM-affected and control rats. Immunohistochemical evidence revealed that both iNOS-positive and arginase 1-positive macrophages were found in EAM lesions, while some cells were co-localized with both markers. This finding suggests that the increased level of arginase-1, which is partly from M2 macrophages, contributes to the modulation of EAM, possibly through the reduction of nitric oxide in the lesion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arginase , Heart , Macrophages , Myocarditis , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Rats
7.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 143-150, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-159926

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the cellular localization of cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein-binding protein (CBP) expression in pig retinas during postnatal development. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were performed on retinal tissue from 2-day-old, 5-week-old, and 6-month-old pigs. Western blot analysis detected the expression of CBP in the retinas of 2-day-old piglets and showed that it was significantly decreased in the retinas of 5-week-old and 6-month-old pigs. Immunohistochemically, CBP was intensely immunostained in protein kinase C alpha (PKCalpha)-positive-bipolar cells, glutamine synthetase-positive Muller cells, and in ganglion cells in 2-day-old piglets. CBP was detected weakly in the inner plexiform, outer nuclear, and rod and cone layers. CBP immunoreactivity in the ganglion cell layer was decreased in the retinas of 5-week-old and 6-month-old pigs, while clear CBP expression detected in the neurite of PKCalpha-positive bipolar cells in the inner nuclear layer. In addition, CBP immunoreactivity in Muller cells and glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive glial processes was particularly noteworthy in pig retinas, but not in rat retinas. The results indicate that CBP is expressed differentially in the retinal neurons and glial cells according to growth and animal species, and may play an important role in homeostasis in Muller cells, neurite extention in bipolar cells, and signal transduction in photoreceptor cells in the porcine retina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Carrier Proteins , Ganglion Cysts , Glutamine , Homeostasis , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Infant , Neurites , Neuroglia , Photoreceptor Cells , Protein Kinase C-alpha , Rats , Retina , Retinal Neurons , Retinaldehyde , Signal Transduction , Swine
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189764

ABSTRACT

Several compounds and extracts isolated from a brown alga, Ishige (I.) okamurae, exhibit anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study investigated whether the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of I. okamurae (EFIO) could ameliorate carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered with EFIO at 10 or 50 mg/kg per day for 2 consecutive days before CCl4 injection (3.3 mL/kg, i.p.). Twenty four hours later, the rats were anesthesized with diethyl ether and dissected. Pretreatment with EFIO significantly reduced the increased serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in CCl4-treated rats. Pretreatment with EFIO also significantly inhibited the reduced activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the CCl4-injured liver. Histopathological evaluations showed that hemorrhage, hepatocyte necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, and fatty degeneration induced by CCl4 treatment were ameliorated by the administration of EFIO. Additionally, liver immunohistochemical analyses revealed the marked reduction in ED1-positive monocyte-like macrophages in EFIO-pretreated rats given CCl4. These results suggest that EFIO ameliorates CCl4-induced liver injury, possibly through the inhibition of oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Acetates , Alanine Transaminase , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Carbon , Carbon Tetrachloride , Catalase , Ether , Hemorrhage , Hepatocytes , Liver , Macrophages , Necrosis , Oxidative Stress , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Superoxide Dismutase
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