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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 25-35, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913165

ABSTRACT

Polydopamine (PDA) is a novel type of polymer synthesized inspired by adhesion proteins in mussels. It has been widely used in tumor-targeting drug delivery systems due to its natural advantages such as good biocompatibility, excellent photothermal conversion performance, adhesion, high chemical reactivity and multiple drug release response mechanisms. This review summarizes the applications of PDA-based tumor-targeting drug delivery in recent years, hoping to provide references for designing a more reasonable and effective PDA-based multifunctional collaborative tumor therapy platform.

2.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 74-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907036

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the predictive values of serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), urine NGAL, serum cystatin C (Cys-C) and serum creatinine (Scr) for early delayed graft function (DGF) in kidney transplant recipients. Methods Clinical data, blood and urine samples of 159 kidney transplant recipients were collected. All recipients were divided into the DGF group (n=42) and immediate graft function (IGF) group (n=117) according to the incidence of DGF. Clinical data of all recipients were analyzed. The changes of serum NGAL, urine NGAL, Cys-C and Scr levels were statistically compared between two groups. The predictive values of different markers for early DGF were assessed. Results Among 159 kidney transplant recipients, DGF occurred in 42 cases with an incidence rate of 26.4%. There were statistically significant differences in donor age, cold ischemia time of donor kidney and complement-dependent cytoxicity (CDC) between the two groups(all P < 0.05). Within postoperative 2 weeks, the serum NGAL levels in the DGF group were higher than those in the IGF group (all P < 0.05). The Cys-C, Scr and urine NGAL levels in the DGF group were higher compared with those in the IGF group within 3 weeks after kidney transplantation(all P < 0.001). Serum NGAL, urine NGAL, Cys-C and Scr levels had certain predictive values for early DGF in kidney transplant recipients. Cys-C yielded the highest predictive value with a cut-off value of 4.73 mg/L, sensitivity of 0.833, specificity of 0.812 and area under the curve (AUC) of 0.895. Conclusions Cys-C has higher predictive value for early DGF in kidney transplant recipients compared with serum NGAL, urine NGAL and Scr.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920533

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the epidemiological investigation results and emergency response to a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in Shanghai. Methods Descriptive epidemiological method was used to describe the epidemiological characteristics, such as population, time and spatial distribution of a COVID-19 epidemic on January 20, 2021 in Huangpu District of Shanghai. The advantages and disadvantages of the emergency response to this epidemic were analyzed. Results All of the 22 cases were found by active screening, which included high-risk population screening (18.2%, 4/22), medium-risk area screening (9.1%, 2/22), and close contact population screening (72.7%,16/22). The first 2 cases were detected by routine nucleic acid screening for staff in two hospitals. The confirmed cases appeared mostly during the first 3 days of the epidemic (45.5%,10/22), and mainly distributed in the neighborhood C of Huangpu district. There were 6 key locations or regions of Huangpu District involved in this epidemic, and different control measures were adopted in these different regions according to the risk assessments. After precise epidemic prevention and control, it took only 14 days from the first to the last confirmed case of this epidemic (from January 21, 2021 to February 4, 2021), and no new related cases appeared afterwards. Conclusion Active screening and early finding of COVID-19 cases play a key role in timely control of the epidemic, with the smallest cost, the highest efficiency and the most limited urban impact.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920531

ABSTRACT

In order to meet the needs of prevention and control of intestinal infectious diseases, a comprehensive surveillance for diarrheal diseases has been innovated and explored in Shanghai since 2012. The surveillance has extensive distribution of sentinel hospitals, systematic sampling, multi-pathogen collection, and hospital information system (HIS) as the basis, which has achieved “One system for surveillance of multiple diseases and one sample for detection of multiple pathogens". Continual active surveillance for the whole population has been conducted, covering demography, clinical information, epidemiology, pathogen detection, and drug sensitivity test for diarrhea cases. The surveillance has obtained preliminary achievements as follows. First, diarrheal diseases and their periodic changes have been characterized, in which the most prevalent pathogen of diarrhea is determined to be norovirus in Shanghai. Second, some rare pathogens and serotypes have been identified that may provide clues to the sources of outbreaks. Third, it facilitates the information sharing between public health institutions and clinical institutions, and provides scientific evidence for clinical diagnosis and treatment. In the future, Shanghai diarrhea comprehensive surveillance will be improved for expanding range and depth of surveillance, artificial intelligence assisted diagnosis and treatment, early warning of outbreaks, prediction of epidemic trends, and application of new detection technologies.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907121

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo analyze the effects of respiratory control measures before and after COVID-19 epidemic on influenza virus. MethodsThe percentage of influenza-like cases, the positive rate of influenza virus and the change of influenza outbreaks before and after the COVID-19 pandemic were compared and analyzed by selecting the data of influenza surveillance sentinel-points in Shanghai. ResultsThe percentage of influenza-like illness after the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020 was significantly higher than that during the same period between 2017 and 2019. The positive rate of influenza virus detection in 2020 was significantly lower than the average rate of influenza virus detection from 2017 to 2019 with significant statistical difference (χ 2=2 359.07, P<0.001). The number of outbreaks in 2020 was significantly lower than that from 2017 to 2019. ConclusionDuring the respiratory season, personal protection and reduction of human aggregation can effectively reduce the infection of influenza and the incidence of influenza in the population.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907098

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo analyze the effects of respiratory control measures before and after COVID-19 epidemic on influenza virus. MethodsThe percentage of influenza-like cases, the positive rate of influenza virus and the change of influenza outbreaks before and after the COVID-19 pandemic were compared and analyzed by selecting the data of influenza surveillance sentinel-points in Shanghai. ResultsThe percentage of influenza-like illness after the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020 was significantly higher than that during the same period between 2017 and 2019. The positive rate of influenza virus detection in 2020 was significantly lower than the average rate of influenza virus detection from 2017 to 2019 with significant statistical difference (χ 2=2 359.07, P<0.001). The number of outbreaks in 2020 was significantly lower than that from 2017 to 2019. ConclusionDuring the respiratory season, personal protection and reduction of human aggregation can effectively reduce the infection of influenza and the incidence of influenza in the population.

7.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 1059-1063, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886325

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the association of study weariness with self compassion and problem behaviors among left behind adolescents, and to explore the moderating role of self compassion in this association.@*Methods@#By using convenient sampling method, 1 285 middle school students from two ordinary middle schools in a county of Dazhou City, Sichuan Province were selected, including 895 left behind adolescents. Study weariness, self compassion and problem behavior were assessed through questionnaire survey.@*Results@#The scores of self compassion and externalizing behaviors in boys were higher than that of girls, while the scores of internalizing behaviors of girls were higher than that of boys ( t =2.13, 1.98, -2.05, P <0.05); the scores of study weariness and internalizing behaviors among left behind adolescents were higher than those of non left behind adolescents, while the scores of self compassion of nonleft behind adolescents were higher than those of left behind adolescents ( t =2.01, 2.08, -1.99, P <0.05). The scores of externalizing behaviors among only one child and junior high school students were higher than that of non only one children and high school students, while the scores of internalization problem behaviors of high school students were higher than that of junior high school students ( t =1.95, 2.03, -2.02, P <0.05). There was a positive correlation between study weariness and problem behavior ( t =0.37, P <0.01), a negative correlation between self compassion and problem behavior ( t =-0.49, P < 0.01 ), and between study weariness and self compassin ( t =-0.46, P <0.01).@*Conclusion@#There is a positive correlation between study weariness and behaviral problems among left behind teenagers. The cultivation of self compassion ability of left behind teenagers should be encouraged and promoted.

8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 314-318, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872609

ABSTRACT

Under the guidance of Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2020 edition), the functionality-related characteristics of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) type 2208 from imported A manufacturer, domestic S manufacturer, domestic T manufacturer and different batches of the same manufacturer were characterized. The principal component analysis was used to comprehensively evaluate the functionality-related characteristics. The results were as follows: hydroxypropyl methylcellulose had no significant difference in viscosity and molecular weight distribution between different manufacturers, and there were significant differences in the cumulative particle size distribution of the sample reaches 50% (d50) and 90% (d90), bulk density, tap density and Carr's index. The HPMC from A manufacturer have the biggest inter-batch difference of particle size and their inter-batch difference of polydispersion coefficientis smaller than S manufacturer. Domestic manufactures have the largest inter-batch difference in other functionality-related characteristics. The three principal components were extracted by principal component analysis, and the variance contribution rate reached 89.44%, indicating that the extracted principal components can explain all the data well. By constructing a comprehensive evaluation model, the comprehensive score ranking of all HPMC samples is obtained: S manufacturer > A manufacturer > T manufacturer.

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2488-2504, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888874

ABSTRACT

Three-dimensional printing is a technology that prints the products layer-by-layer, in which materials are deposited according to the digital model designed by computer aided design (CAD) software. This technology has competitive advantages regarding product design complexity, product personalization, and on-demand manufacturing. The emergence of 3D technology provides innovative strategies and new ways to develop novel drug delivery systems. This review summarizes the application of 3D printing technologies in the pharmaceutical field, with an emphasis on the advantages of 3D printing technologies for achieving rapid drug delivery, personalized drug delivery, compound drug delivery and customized drug delivery. In addition, this article illustrates the limitations and challenges of 3D printing technologies in the field of pharmaceutical formulation development.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920740

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the real prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infections in the freshwater fish in mainland China, so as to provide insights into clonorchiasis control and detection of freshwater fish. Methods All literatures reporting the prevalence of C. sinensis infections in the freshwater fish, the second intermediate host of the parasite, were jointly retrieved in Chinese and English electronic databases from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2020, including Wanfang Data, CNKI, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Cochrane Library. All studies were screened based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the quality of all enrolled literatures was evaluated. The pooled prevalence of C. sinensis infections in freshwater fish and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using the software Stata version 15.0, and subgroup analyses were performed to investigate the region-, season- and sample source-specific pooled prevalence of C. sinensis infections in freshwater fish. In addition, the sensitivity and publication bias of all included studies were analyzed. Results A total of 40 eligible literatures were included in this study, including 37 Chinese literatures and 3 English literatures, and there were 10 high-quality literatures, 27 moderate-quality literatures and 3 low-quality literatures. A total of 53 species containing 37 959 freshwater fish were reported in these 40 studies, and 73.58% (39/53) of freshwater fish species were identified with C. sinensis infections. Meta-analysis showed 23.5% [95% CI: (0.19, 0.28)] pooled prevalence of C. sinensis infections in freshwater fish in mainland China, and subgroup analyses higher prevalence of C. sinensis infections in freshwater fish in northeastern China [35.7%, 95% CI: (0.22, 0.50)] than in central [25.9%, 95% CI: (0.04, 0.48)] and southern China [20.6%, 95% CI: (0.09, 0.32)], higher prevalence of C. sinensis infections in freshwater fish sampled in spring [44.1%, 95% CI: (0.35, 0.53)] than in autumn [6.7%, 95% CI: (0.05, 0.08)] and summer [3.3%, 95% CI: (−0.01, 0.07)], and higher prevalence of C. sinensis infections in freshwater fish sampled from natural water [25.2%, 95% CI: (0.17, 0.33)] than from retail trades [22.2%, 95% CI: (0.17, 0.28)] and breeding chain [12.3%, 95% CI: (0.03, 0.22)]. However, all included studies had a publication bias with a low sensitivity. Conclusions The prevalence of C. sinensis infections is high in freshwater fish in mainland China, and there are still challenges for clonorchiasis control. Reinforcement of health education, diagnostics development and food safety supervision is recommended in future clonorchiasis control programs.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-867958

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effectiveness of 3D printed individualized osteotomy template for the treatment of painful talocalcaneal coalition of Rozansky types Ⅲ-Ⅳ.Methods:From January 2016 to August 2018, a 3D printed individualized osteotomy template was used in 14 patients with painful talocalcaneal coalition at Department of Foot and Ankle Surgery, Wuhan Fourth Hospital. They were 8 males and 6 females, aged from 19 to 42 years (mean, 30.2 years). CT scan of full bilateral feet was conducted. The bone bridge to be resected was marked and an individualized template designed taking the CT scans of the healthy foot as mirror images. The 3D individualized templates were used to assist resection of talocalcaneal coalitions. Scores of visual analogue scale(VAS) and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) and complications were recorded at the final follow-up.Results:The 14 patients obtained an average follow-up of 21.6 months. Their VAS and AOFAS ankle and hindfoot scores (2.3±0.7 and 86.5±4.5) at the final follow-up were significantly improved compared with their preoperative values (7.0±1.9 and 37.1±6.0) ( P<0.05). Their follow-up X-ray films showed no recurrence of talocalcaneal coalition or traumatic arthritis. Conclusion:A 3D printed individualized osteotomy template is an effective assistance in the treatment of talocalcaneal coalition because it can lead to accurate location of the talocalcaneal bridge and full osteotomy.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-867900

ABSTRACT

Objective:To report our experience in the emergent foot and ankle surgery in the epidemic of COVID-19.Methods:The data of 18 patients with acute foot and ankle injury were reviewed who had been admitted to the Department of Foot and Ankle Surgery, Wuhan Fourth Hospital from 20th January, 2020 to 26th February, 2020. They were 11 men and 7 women, aged from 18 to 70 years (average, 42.5 years). There were 5 cases of acute open injury and 13 ones of acute closed injury. COVID-19 infection was diagnosed or suspected in 5 cases but not in the other 13 cases. Emergency operation was carried out for 2 patients with open injury plus COVID-19 infection and one with complicated pilon fracture plus COVID-19 infection, one of whom received secondary operation. One patient with closed fracture of the left calcaneus plus COVID-19 infection was hospitalized from emergency department for secondary surgery, and another with closed fracture of the right lateral malleolus was referred to the isolation ward after emergency plaster fixation. Of the 10 patients with closed injury but without COVID-19 infection, 3 received conventional secondary surgery after admission and the others conservative treatment at the outpatient department. Recorded were COVID-19 infections in the patients after admission and in the medical staff. The measures taken and experience in control and prevention of COVID-19 infection after outbreak of the epidemic were reviewed.Results:Of the 11 patients who had been hospitalized for foot and ankle injury in emergency, 5 were definitely diagnosed of or suspected of COVID-19 infection and 6 free of COVID-19 infection. During hospitalization, COVID-19 infection was confirmed in the 5 cases and no COVID-19 infection occurred in the other 6 patients. No COVID-19 infection occurred in the medical staff; no cross infection was observed between the patients and the medical staff.Conclusions:Reasonable strategies are advised to balance the foot and ankle surgery and epidemic prevention. A simplified management is not advised for all the cases. The operative procedures in emergent foot and ankle surgery should be optimized in line with the epidemic control and prevention principles to facilitate functional rehabilitation for the patients.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-867858

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the clinical application of an individualized 3D printed drill template to create a fibular channel in the anatomical reconstruction of the lateral ankle ligament for chronic lateral ankle instability.Methods:From October 2012 to June 2015, 15 patients with lateral ankle in-stability underwent surgery at Department of Foot and Ankle Surgery, The Fourth Hospital of Wuhan.They were 4 men and 11 women, with a mean age of 26.3 years (range, from 18 to 42 years).For each of them, anatomical reconstruction of the lateral ankle ligament was performed through a fibular channel which was created with the aid of an individualized 3D printed drill template.The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores were used to assess the patients preoperation and at the last follow-up.Results:The 15 patients obtained a mean follow-up of 15.2 months (range, from 12 to 18 months).Their preoperative AOFAS scores (47.1±3.8) were increased to 88.3±4.7 at the last fol-low-up, and their preoperative VAS scores (5.8±1.8) decreased to 1.55±1.35 at the last follow-up, showing significant differences ( P<0.05).There were 11 excellent and 4 good cases by the AOFAS ankle-hindfoot scale.No significant complications were found. Conclusion:In the anatomical reconstruction of the lateral ankle ligament for chronic lateral ankle instability, an individualized 3D printed drill template can help create a fibular channel which exactly fits each individual, leading to positive therapeutic effects.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820943

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate and analyze the epidemiological and pathogenic characteristics on a case of human Streptococcus suis type 2 infection in Minhang District, Shanghai, and to provide evidence for early warning and prevention and control measures of rare and imported zoonotic acute infectious diseases in Shanghai. Methods By inquiring the patient medical history and epidemiological history and on-site environmental investigation, the infection route and source of the case were examined. The pathogenic culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was used to isolate Streptococcus suis, and Vitek2GP was used to identify the isolated strains. The PCR technique was used to detect species specific genes and virulence genes. Results The clinical manifestations of the patient were high fever with headache, nausea, vomiting and stiff neck. Blood tests showed a significant increase in c-reactive protein, an increase in lymphocyte percentage, and a decrease in platelet count. Head CT examination showed bilateral ethmoidal sinus and bilateral maxillary sinus inflammation, and significantly increased CSF white blood cell count and immunoglobulin. The case's CSF sample was positive for species specific genes (16SrRNA) and 2 virulence genes (cps-2j and ef). Conclusion This case was human Streptococcus suis type 2 with meningitis symptoms. Good prognosis was associated with timely diagnosis and treatment as well as the types of virulence factors. Medical institutions should identify early infection and take timely treatment as soon as possible to avoid severe illness and death cases. Departments of agriculture, health, market management, and others should consummate the reporting mechanism of animal epidemic situation, and establish necessary active sentinel monitoring.

15.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 911-916, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805740

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To understand the epidemiological and pathogenic characteristics of hospitalized severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) in Shanghai, China.@*Methods@#From 2015 to 2017, one Tertiary hospital and one Secondary hospital were chosen as the surveillance sites. Two respiratory tract specimens per case were collected from SARI cases aged 15 years and older. One specimen was tested for 22 respiratory pathogens by RT-PCR, and the other specimen was cultured for 6 respiratory bacteria.@*Results@#A total of 287 SARI cases were enrolled for sampling and lab testing. 70.73% of the cases were aged 60 years and older, with 41.46% (119/287) were positive for at least one pathogen. Influenza virus was the predominant pathogen, accounting for 17.77% (51/287) of all SARI cases. Human rhinovirus/Enterovirus and Coronavirus were both accounting for 7.32% (21/287), followed by Mycoplasma pneumoniae (5.57%, 16/287). The positive rates of parainfluenza virus, bocavirus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumo virus were all less than 5%. Bacterial strains were identified in seven SARI cases, including Klebsiella pneumoniae (3 strains), Staphylococcus aureus (2 strains), Streptococcus pneumoniae (1 strain) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1 strain). Two or Three pathogens were co-detected from 40 cases, accounting for 33.61% of 119 positive cases. The most common co-detected pathogens were influenza virus and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (10 cases). Influenza cases peaked in winter-spring and summer. Mycoplasma pneumoniae peaked in winter-spring season and overlapped with influenza. The positive rates of pathogens were not significantly different between different age groups.@*Conclusions@#Various respiratory pathogens can be detected from SARI cases aged 15 years and older. Influenza virus was the predominant pathogen and the co-detection of influenza virus with Mycoplasma pneumoniae the most common one.

16.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 904-910, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805739

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the etiologic and epidemiological characteristics of adult acute respiratory infections in Shanghai during 2015-2017.@*Methods@#Data was collected from outpatients with acute respiratory infections who visited the Fever Clinics in three hospitals of different levels in three administrative regions of Shanghai, from 2015 to 2017. Basic information and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from cases in line with the inclusion criteria. Multiplex RT-PCR and bacterial cultures were performed to detect the respiratory pathogens.@*Results@#A total of 806 individuals were enrolled from 2015 to 2017. Respiratory pathogens were identified in 73.45% (592/806) of the cases, with the virus detection rate as 66.75% (538/806). It was found that the major respiratory pathogens for virus detection were influenza A in 326 (40.45%), influenza B in 116 (14.39%), rhinovirus/enterovirus in 39 (4.84%) of the cases. The overall detection rate of bacteria was 16.13% (130/806), including Klebsiella pneumoniae in 90 (11.17%) cases, Staphylococcus Aureus in 46 (5.71%) cases. Other kind of bacteria were not detected in our study. The detection rates on Mycoplasma pneumoniae was 5.33% (43/806) and on Chlamydia pneumonia was 0.37% (3/806). Co-infection with multiple pathogens was detected in 18.61% (150/806) of the cases, including 135 with double infection (accounting for 90.00%), 14 with triple infection and 1 with quadruple infection (accounted for 9.33% and 0.67%, respectively). Among the 150 cases with co-infections, the main identified pathogens were influenza A, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Pathogens of acute respiratory infections that identified among the outpatients from the Fever Clinics at different time, region or population, the characteristics were different (P<0.001).@*Conclusions@#In 2015-2017, outpatients with acute respiratory infections in Shanghai were mainly caused by influenza virus or other viruses, however dynamically with its composition, time, region and characteristics of the population. It is necessary to strengthen and combine related medical and preventive services and to develop the appropriate strategies regarding clinical diagnosis and treatment.

17.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 900-903, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805738

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To understand the epidemiological characteristics and antibiotic resistance profiles of Campylobacter spp. in Shanghai from 2013 to 2016.@*Methods@#Stool samples collected from diarrhea outpatients were cultured for Campylobacter spp., using the membrane filter method in 23 hospitals under the sentinel programs, from 2013 to 2016. All the strains were identified by biochemical tests and PCR. Broth microdilution method was used to investigate the antibiotic resistance of 179 Campylobacter spp. strains that including azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, telycin, klinthromycin and flurbenicol.@*Results@#A total of 179 Campylobacter spp. strains were isolated from 10 444 stool samples (1.7%). Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli appeared as the predominant ones (94.4% and 5.6%). The incidence rate was higher in children than that in adults, with peaks of infections mainly from April to June and October to December. Campylobacter jejuni strains seemed highly resistant to ciprofloxacin (96.4%), tetracycline (83.4%) and nalidixic acid (81.7%). The resistant rates appeared higher on Campylobacter coli strains that isolated from patients. Some strains were resistant to multi-drugs.@*Conclusions@#Campylobacter spp. seemed one of the important pathogens that isolated from outpatients with diarrhea, in Shanghai. Both age and season related characteristics of Campylobacter spp. were seen. Campylobacter spp. isolated from patients was highly resistant to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and nalidixic acid.

18.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 895-899, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805737

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To conduct a viral pathogen surveillance program on pediatric inpatients less than five years old with acute gastroenteritis in Shanghai and to better understand the pathogenic spectrum and molecular features in the target population, for setting up programs on control, prevention, medication and vaccine applications of the diseases.@*Methods@#Fecal samples were collected from inpatients less than 5 years old who were admitted to a pediatric hospital for having acute gastroenteritis. Information related to demographic, clinical and epidemiological features of the patients was also collected. Laboratory assays including ELISA, real-time PCR and nested PCR, were performed to detect the presence of pathogens as rotavirus, calicivirus, astrovirus and adenovirus.@*Results@#A total of 1 018 samples were collected (male 671 and 347 female), with the positive detection rate as 40.57% which peaked from autumn till winter, annually. Calicivirus and rotavirus A presented with the highest detection rates (24.75% and 13.95% respectively). The lowest detection rate was found in the 0-6 month-olds (32.20%). 65% of the patients with positive virus had received antibiotic treatment prior to the hospitalization. However, no statistically significant difference was seen, regarding the rates of antibiotic medication in the virus positive or negative populations (P>0.05). Data from the Rotavirus genotype analysis revealed that G9P[8] genotype was the predominant strain, and causing majority of rotavirus infections in all the age groups.@*Conclusions@#Among the inpatients under 5 years of age in Shanghai, the positive detection rate for Calicivirus was higher than that for rotavirus group A, suggesting the necessity to carefully monitor the changes regarding the pathogenic spectrum and subtypes of the virus. Antibiotics should also be attentively administered, together with the development of suitable vaccine.

19.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 889-894, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805736

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To understand the seasonality and etiological characteristics of infectious diarrhea in adults from Shanghai.@*Methods@#Adult patients with diarrhea who had visited the enteric disease clinics in 22 hospitals that carrying on the Diarrhea Comprehensive Surveillance sentinel programs in Shanghai during 2014-2017, were surveyed. Stool specimens were collected according to the different intervals of sampling and detected for 12 bacteria and 5 viruses. Concentration ratio and circular distribution method were used for data analysis.@*Results@#From 2014 to 2017, a total of 9 573 stool specimens were collected from the targeted diarrhea patients ≥18 years old (n=96 067), through the Shanghai Diarrhea Comprehensive Surveillance program. The positive rate of detection was 46.44%. Seasonal peaks of infectious diarrhea were both seen in summer (bacteria peak, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, etc.) and in winter (virus peak, Norovirus, etc.). Both bacterial and viral infections presented seasonal concentration (Raleigh’s test P<0.001) but more obvious with bacterial infection. Viral infection accounted for 60.19% of the cause of infectious diarrhea. The top five predominant pathogens appeared as Norovirus, Rotavirus, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Salmonella spp..@*Conclusions@#Among the adult outpatients with infectious diarrhea in Shanghai, obvious seasonality was seen, with peaks in both summer and winter. Viral infection with Norovirus in particular, appeared as the predominant source of infection. Active, continuous and comprehensive diarrhea-related surveillance programs would be able to monitor the changing dynamic of pathogen spectrum, and lead to the adoption of targeted preventive measures.

20.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 883-888, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805735

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the epidemiologic characteristics of Norovirus among adult patients suffering from infectious diarrhea in Shanghai, so as to provide evidence for developing related strategies on prevention and control of the disease.@*Methods@#Diarrheal outpatients were monitored at the 'Intestinal clinic’ from 22 hospitals involved in the sentinel surveillance program in Shanghai. Information on demographic and epidemiologic features of the patients was collected while data and clinical, fecal specimens were collected and sent to the district CDC for Norovirus detection. Positive rates of Norovirus were also compared in various populations and seasons during 2013-2018. Multivariate logistic regression model was adopted to fit into the comparisons between non-Norovirus and Norovirus groups.@*Results@#19.28% of the 12 083 diarrheal cases were found to have carried the Norovirus, with GⅡgroup the most commonly identified genotype. Rates of detection was seen higher in males (20.78%) than in females (17.73%). 30-44 year-old were found having the highest positive rate (21.51%). The positive rates were found the highest (23.60%) in the year of 2015. All the above shown differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Diarrheal patients affected with Norovirus would present watery stool (75.94%) and vomiting (35.84%). Data from the multivariate logistic analysis showed that factors as: being males, 30-44 years old, officials/clerks, in winter season and with histories of travelling etc., were related to higher risks on Norovirus infection.@*Conclusions@#Infectious diarrhea caused by Norovirus occurred all year round, with seasonal peaks seen in winter and spring, in Shanghai. Specific prevention and control measures should be taken on Norovirus- caused infectious diarrhea, according to the difference on age, gender and season.

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