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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920659

ABSTRACT

@#Water content determination is an important aspect of quality research in the whole process of pharmaceutical development, production, storage and use.Therefore, it is significant to develop an accurate and robust method for the determination of water content in the quality control of pharmaceuticals.In this article, the selection and strategy for the study of water determination methods are explained on the basis of general water determination principles and application examples in Chinese and foreign pharmacopoeias, together with the analysis of sample structure, solubility and water content.This article aims to provide basis for the development of moisture testing methods and formulation of proper quality standards for pharmaceuticals.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 533-540, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922935

ABSTRACT

Hair roots induced by Agrobacterium rhizogene produce higher levels of secondary metabolites than non-induced plants, and the enhanced metabolic capacity is driven by the rol gene. We hypothesized that rol genes can be utilized to improve the biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids (TAs) in Atropa belladonna. In this study, the rolC gene from Agrobacterium rhizogene pRiA4 plasmid, driven by a CaMV35S promoter, was overexpressed in A. belladonna. The phenotypes, TAs content and transcriptional expression of key genes in TAs biosynthesis were analyzed in transgenic A. belladonna plants. Results show that transgenic A. belladonna exhibited a well-developed root system, male sterility, higher stamen column length than pistil, early flowering, internode shortening, smaller but more flowers, increased axillary buds and lateral buds, decreased apical dominance, and long and narrow leaves as compared to wild-type plants. Transgenic A. belladonna produced more TAs than wild-type plants, with the content of hyoscyamine, anisodamine and scopolamine reaching 2.58, 3.59 and 15.77-fold that of the control group, respectively. The gene expression of putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT), tropinone reductase I (TRⅠ) and hyoscyamine 6-β-hydroxylase (H6H), key enzymes in TAs biosynthesis, were up-regulated compared with the control group. The above results indicate that the rolC gene enhances TAs biosynthesis in A. belladonna by up-regulating the expression of key enzymes in the TAs biosynthesis pathway, laying a foundation for genetic manipulation of A. belladonna to increase TAs content by increasing rolC gene expression.

3.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 386-391, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888435

ABSTRACT

Spermatogenic dysfunction caused by cyclophosphamide (CP) chemotherapy has seriously influenced the life quality of patients. Unfortunately, treatments for CP-induced testicular spermatogenic dysfunction are limited, and the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. For the first time, here, we explored the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes (BMSC-exos) on CP-induced testicular spermatogenic dysfunction in vitro and in vivo. BMSC-exos could be taken up by spermatogonia (GC1-spg cells). CP-injured GC1-spg cells and BMSC-exos were cocultured at various doses, and then, cell proliferation was measured using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. In addition, photophosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), and protein kinase B (AKT) proteins was evaluated by western blotting as well as apoptosis in GC1-spg cells measured using flow cytometry. Treatment with BMSC-exos enhanced cell proliferation and reduced apoptosis of CP-injured GCI-spg cells. Phosphorylated levels of ERK, AKT, and p38MAPK proteins were reduced in CP-injured spermatogonia when co-treated with BMSC-exos, indicating that BMSC-exos acted against the reproductive toxicity of CP via the p38MAPK/ERK and AKT signaling pathways. In experiments in vivo, CP-treated rats received BMSC-exos by injection into the tail vein, and testis morphology was compared between treated and control groups. Histology showed that transfusion of BMSC-exos inhibited the pathological changes in CP-injured testes. Thus, BMSC-exos could counteract the reproductive toxicity of CP via the p38MAPK/ERK and AKT signaling pathways. The findings provide a potential treatment for CP-induced male spermatogenic dysfunction using BMSC-exos.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879889

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a worldwide pandemic and can occur at any age, including children. Children with COVID-19 can develop the clinical symptoms of multiple systems, among which symptoms of the nervous system have been reported increasingly, and thus it is particularly important to understand COVID-19-associated neurological damage in children. This article reviews the mechanisms and types of COVID-19-associated neurological damage in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Nervous System Diseases , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879853

ABSTRACT

Neural development is regulated by both external environment and internal signals, and in addition to transcription factors, epigenetic modifications also play an important role. By focusing on the genetic mechanism of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling in children with neurodevelopmental disorders, this article elaborates on the effect of four chromatin remodeling complexes on neurogenesis and the development and maturation of neurons and neuroglial cells and introduces the clinical research advances in neurodevelopmental disorders.


Subject(s)
Child , Chromatin , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Humans , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/genetics , Neurogenesis , Transcription Factors/genetics
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908649

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the value of combined detection of serum neurogranin (NG) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in patients with severe craniocerebral trauma.Methods:Ninety-seven patients with severe craniocerebral trauma from June 2018 to March 2020 in Jinshan Branch of Shanghai Sixth People′s Hospital were selected. According to the Glasgow outcome score (GOS), 97 patients were divided into good prognosis group (GOS>3 scores, 46 cases) and poor prognosis group (GOS ≤ 3 scores, 51 cases). The NG, HIF-1α, Glasgow coma score (GCS), acute physiology and chronic health status score Ⅱ (APACHE Ⅱ) were compared between 2 groups. The independent risk factors of prognosis in patients with severe craniocerebral trauma were analyzed by multivariate Logistic regression analysis. The diagnostic efficacy of NG and HIF-1α on poor prognosis in patients with severe craniocerebral trauma was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The correlation between serum NG, HIF-1α and APACHE Ⅱ in patients with severe craniocerebral trauma was analyzed by Pearson analysis.Results:The GCS in good prognosis group was significantly higher than that in poor prognosis group: (6.50 ± 1.74) scores vs. (4.76 ± 0.78) scores, the NG, HIF-1α and APACHE Ⅱwere significantly lower than those in poor prognosis group: (696.98 ± 158.96) ng/L vs. (875.92 ± 188.52) ng/L, (34.72 ± 13.98) μg/L vs. (51.29 ± 14.17) μg/L and (15.69 ± 3.45) scores vs. (22.58 ± 6.45) scores, and there were statistical differences ( P<0.01). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis result showed that the NG, HIF-1α, APACHEⅡ, GCS and type of craniocerebral trauma were independent risk factors on the prognosis in patients with severe craniocerebral trauma ( P<0.05 or<0.01). ROC curve analysis result showed that the AUC of NG and HIF-1αNG and HIF-1α combined detection to assess the poor prognosis in patients with severe craniocerebral trauma was significantly higher than NG and HIF-1α alone detection (0.873 vs. 0.772 and 0.821, Z = 2.276 and 1.949, P<0.05). Pearson correlation analysis result showed that APACHE Ⅱ was positive correlation with serum NG and HIF-1α in severe craniocerebral trauma patients with poor or good prognosis ( r = 0.852 and 0.889, P<0.01; r = 0.717 and 0.851, P<0.01). Conclusions:The combined detection of serum NG and HIF-1α can be used as an evaluation index for the prognosis in patients with severe craniocerebral trauma, which helps to determine the severity of craniocerebral trauma and has great value for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

7.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2890-2894, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906657

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effec ts of angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI)sacubitril valsartan sodium(SVS)on the short-term prognosis of patients with acute anterior myocardial infarction (AAMI)complicated with acute cardiac insufficiency. METHODS :A total of 80 patients with AAMI and Killip grade Ⅱ-Ⅳ of cardiac function ,who met the inclusion criteria ,were randomly divided into ARNI group and control group ,with 40 patients in each group. Both groups were given the same basic standardized drug treatment ,vital signs support treatment and percutaneous coronary intervention treatment at the same time. On this basis ,ARNI group was given SVS tablet orally ,with initial dose of 25 mg each time ,twice a day ; thereafter,gradually adjust the dose to 200 mg each time ,twice a day. Control group was given Enalapril maleate tablets orally , with an initial dose of 5 mg each time ,twice a day ;thereafter,gradually adjust the dose to 10 mg each time ,twice a day. Both groups took medicine for a long time ,and were followed up after 1,3 and 6 months of medication to the clinic. The levels of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), soluble growth stimulation expressed gene 2 protein (sST2) and echocardiography indexes were compared between 2 groups before and after medication. The 6-minute walking test (6MWT)and the incidence of cardiogenic readmission events were recorded in 2 groups after medication. RESULTS :Compared with before treatment,the indexes of the two groups were significantly improved at 1,3 and 6 months after treatment (P<0.05). Compared with control group ,the levels of NT-proBNP and sST 2 in ARNI group decreased significantly (P<0.05),the levels of left ventricular ejection fraction and 6MWT increased significantly(P<0.05),and the left ventricular end systolic diameter and left ventricular end diastolic diameter decreased significantly,after 3 and 6 months of treatm ent(P<0.05). However ,there was no significant difference in the velocity ratio of peak E to peak A ,pulmonary artery pressure ,right ventricular end diastolic diameter and the incidence of cardiogenic readmission events between 2 groups(P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS :For patients with AAMI complicated with acute cardiac insufficiency , compared with enalapril ,SVS can significantly improve the cardiac function (especially the left ventricular systolic function ), reduce the inflammatory reaction of cardiomyocytes ,protect cardiomyocytes ,so as to improve the short-term prognosis of patients.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906467

ABSTRACT

Objective:The differences of chemical compositions and pharmacological activities between the core and pulp of Phyllanthi Fructus were investigated by chemical analysis and <italic>in vitro</italic> test to explore the effect of the core on the quality of this medicinal material. Method:Literature, medicinal material standards and market research on the appearance of Phyllanthi Fructus were conducted based on existing databases. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-electrostatic field orbital trap high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS) was used to identify the constituents of the core and pulp. The analysis was performed on Thermo Scientific Accucore C<sub>18</sub> column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 2.6 μm) with the mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (A)-methanol (B) for gradient elution (0-25 min, 5%B; 25-30 min, 5%-95%B; 30-35 min, 95%-5%B), the flow rate was 0.2 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>, heating electrospray ionization (HESI) was adopted with positive and negative ion modes, and the scanning range was <italic>m</italic>/<italic>z</italic> 100-1 500. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the contents of gallic acid, corilagin, chebulagic acid and ellagic acid in the core and pulp of Phyllanthi Fructus. Analysis was performed on Welchrom C<sub>18</sub> column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with mobile phase of methanol (A)-0.05% phosphoric acid aqueous solution (B) for gradient elution (0-6 min, 5%A; 6-15 min, 5%-7%A; 15-20 min, 7%-15%A; 20-25 min, 15%-21%A; 25-31 min, 21%-22%A; 31-41 min, 22%A; 41-47 min, 22%-28%A; 47-51 min, 28%-32%A; 51-57 min, 32%-38%A; 57-70 min, 38%-45%A; 70-80 min, 45%-65%A; 80-85 min, 65%-5%A), the detection wavelength was set at 270 nm. The antibacterial effects of the core and pulp of Phyllanthi Fructus on <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> and <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> were investigated by filter paper method, and their antioxidant activities were compared by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Result:A total of 47 compounds were identified in the core and pulp of Phyllanthi Fructus, mainly including tannins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, fatty acids, amino acids, organic acids, saccharides and glycosides, most of which were concentrated in the pulp, and the fatty acids in the core accounted for a higher proportion. The contents of gallic acid, corilagin, chebulagic acid, ellagic acid and other phenolic compounds in the pulp of 20 batches of Phyllanthi Fructus were much higher than those in the core. The results of antibacterial test showed that the core of Phyllanthi Fructus with different concentrations had no antimicrobial effect. The DPPH radical scavenging test showed that the antioxidant activity of the core [half-inhibitory concentration (IC<sub>50</sub>)=199.632 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>] was much less than that of the pulp (IC<sub>50</sub>=12.688 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>). Conclusion:From the perspectives of polyphenol content, antibacterial and antioxidant activities, it is scientific to use Phyllanthi Fructus pulp in ancient and modern times, which may be to remove the secondary parts of Phyllanthi Fructus, so as to enhance the actual utilization rate and therapeutic effect of medicinal materials. In view of the large proportion of the core of Phyllanthi Fructus and its high content of fatty acids and other components, whether or not to use it remains to be further studied in clinical application.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906438

ABSTRACT

Objective:To provide a scientific basis for the classification of Phyllanthi Fructus product grades. Method:A total of 30 batches of Phyllanthi Fructus currently available in the market were collected for quantification based on such appearance indexes as diameter, thickness, grain weight, and crust colour (<italic>L</italic><sup>*</sup>, <italic>a</italic><sup>*</sup>, and <italic>b</italic><sup>*</sup> values). The contents of gallic acid, corilagin, chebulagic acid, and ellagic acid were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), followed by descriptive statistical analysis (DSA), analysis of variance (ANOVA), and principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the importance of each main index and explore the correlations between the appearance indexes and internal components. The classification standard of Phyllanthi Fructus product grades was formulated, and its scientificity was verified in hepatocelular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Result:The correlation analysis revealed that the crust colour <italic>L</italic><sup>*</sup>, <italic>a</italic><sup>*</sup>, and <italic>b</italic><sup>*</sup> values were significantly negatively correlated with corilagin, chebulagic acid, and ellagic acid (<italic>|r|</italic>>0.5, <italic>P</italic><0.01), but irrelevant to gallic acid (<italic>|r|</italic><0.1). Considering the variable coefficient of each index, PCA results, and the requirement of gallic acid as quality indicator for Phyllanthi Fructus in <italic>Chinese Pharmacopoeia</italic>, the crust colour <italic>L</italic><sup>*</sup>, <italic>a</italic><sup>*</sup>, and <italic>b</italic><sup>*</sup> values and gallic acid content were determined to be the classification indexes. The K-means cluster analysis confirmed that products with crust colour <italic>L</italic><sup>*</sup><44, <italic>a</italic><sup>*</sup><7, and <italic>b</italic><sup>*</sup><10 and gallic acid content >1.6% could be classified into the first class, and those failing to meet the above requirements into the second class. The cell experiment demonstrated that the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC<sub>50</sub>) of the first-class product against hepatocelular carcinoma HepG2 cells was lower than that of the second-class product. A colourimetric card was developed based on crust colour <italic>L</italic><sup>*</sup>, <italic>a</italic><sup>*</sup>, and <italic>b</italic><sup>*</sup> values to provide a visual tool for on-site evaluation of Phyllanthi Fructus products. Conclusion:This study has initially established the classification standard of Phyllanthi Fructus product grades, which contributes to guiding price negotiation of Phyllanthi Fructus products based on quality grade and thus ensuring high quality and high price.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905937

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effects of polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) on the pharmacokinetics and anti-inflammatory effect of baicalin, and to preliminarily explore the anti-inflammatory effects of baicalin and its main metabolite baicalein 6-<italic>O</italic>-<italic>β</italic>-<italic>D</italic>-glucuronide (B6G) by molecular docking. Method:Rats were randomly divided into two groups with water and PEG400 as the dissolving matrix, and rats were administrated the equal dose of baicalin aqueous solution (baicalin+water group) and baicalin PEG400 solution (baicalin+PEG400 group). After the plasma samples were processed at different time periods, the concentrations of baicalin and B6G in rat plasma were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), and pharmacokinetic parameters were processed by DAS 3.2.2 software. Mice were randomly divided into a blank group (normal saline, 20 mL·kg<sup>-1</sup>), aspirin group (dose of 0.2 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>), baicalin/baicalin+PEG400 high and low dose (3.0, 1.5 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) groups, after continuous administration for 7 days, the mouse ear swelling and foot swelling models were established, and the swelling degree and swelling inhibition rate were calculated. Result:The pharmacokinetic study showed that compared with baicalin+water group, the plasma concentrations of baicalin and B6G increased after administration of baicalin PEG400 solution, and the area under the curve (AUC<sub>0-</sub><italic><sub>t</sub></italic>) increased by 2.36, 1.97 times, and the peak concentration (<italic>C</italic><sub>max</sub>) increased by 2.12, 1.65 times, respectively. The results of mouse ear and foot swelling inflammation models showed that the anti-inflammatory effect was enhanced after intragastric administration of baicalin PEG400 solution. In addition, molecular docking results showed that baicalin and B6G could site bind to multiple target proteins [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-<italic>α</italic>, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1<italic>β</italic>, prostaglandin E<sub>2</sub> (PGE<sub>2</sub>) and nuclear transcription factor-<italic>κ</italic>B (NF-<italic>κ</italic>B)] with higher affinity, which was superior to the positive drug aspirin. Conclusion:PEG400 can increase the plasma concentration of baicalin and its main metabolite B6G, and enhance the anti-inflammatory effect. Baicalin and B6G can form strong hydrogen bonds with various inflammatory factors and of nuclear transcription factors, it is speculated that baicalin and B6G jointly play an anti-inflammatory role.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905222

ABSTRACT

Objectives:To investigate the effects of different plantarflexion resistance of an ankle foot orthosis (AFO) on the motion of the thorax and pelvis during the gait of stroke patients. Methods:From June, 2020 to January, 2021, 26 stroke inpatients in Beijing Bo'ai Hospital wore AFO with oil damper (OD) ankle hinge, and measured thorax and pelvis during stroke gait under three plantarflexion resistance (OD1, OD2.5, OD4) of the AFO with a three-dimensional motion capture system. The main parameters were pelvic (P) and thoracic (T) angles at the following time or phases: initial contact (IC), contralateral foot off (CFO), contralateral initial contact (CIC), foot off (FO); the change of thoracic angle in gait cycle (Tcyclex), the change of thoracic angle in stance phase (TSTx) and the change of thoracic angle in single stance phase (TSSx). Thoracic and pelvic motions were defined on three coordinate axes: forward/backward tilt (x), oblique (y) and rotation (z). Results:The loading response times were significant different among different plantarflexion resistance conditions (χ2 = 7.923, P = 0.019), as well as between OD2.5 and in OD4 (P = 0.017). PCFOx, PCFOz, PCICx and PFox; TCFOx, TCFOy, TCFOz and TFOx; relative angle of thorax to pelvis TPICx, TPCFOx and TPCICx; and TSSx were significant different among three resistance conditions (χ2 > 6.077, P < 0.05). Forward tilt of pelvis decreased in condition OD2.5 and increased in condition OD4 during each timing. When CFO, the thoracic forward/backward tilt angle was less in OD2.5 than in OD4 (P < 0.05), the thoracic rotation angle was less in OD1 than in OD4 (P < 0.05). Conclusion:Plantarflexion resistance has a significant effect on the motion of the thorax and pelvis in the gait of stroke patients. Under the middle magnitude of resistance, the pelvic and thoracic posture becomes more upright, the oblique angle is reduced, showing the improvement of the upright posture. On the contrary, the pelvic forward tilt and thoracic oblique are increased when resistance become low or high, compensation of rotational motion appeared in high resistance, posture getting worse.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921735

ABSTRACT

Phyllanthi Fructus, a unique Chinese and Tibetan medicinal plant with both edible and medical values, has high potential of cultivation and development. The resources of Phyllanthi Fructus in China are rich, mainly distributed in Yunnan, Sichuan, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, etc. Phyllanthi Fructus is widely used in the clinical practice of Chinese medicine and plays an important role in Tibetan medicine, Uyghur medicine, Yi medicine, and Mongolian medicine. Phyllanthi Fructus mainly contains phenolic acids,tannins, terpenes, sterols, fatty acids, flavonoids, amino acids and other compounds. Modern pharmacological studies show that Phyllanthi Fructus has antioxidant, anticancer, blood lipid-lowering, liver protective, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and immune regulatory activities. In this paper, the research status of Phyllanthi Fructus was reviewed from the aspects of herbal textual research,chemical composition, and pharmacological action. The quality markers(Q-markers) of Phyllanthi Fructus were predicted and analyzed from the aspects of biogenic pathway, specificity and measurability of chemical components, efficacy, properties, new clinical uses, drug-food homology, and transformation of polyphenols. The results will provide a scientific basis for the quality control, quality evaluation, and standard formulation of Phyllanthi Fructus.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fruit , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Quality Control
13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2901-2910, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921119

ABSTRACT

Recent research efforts have provided compelling evidence of genome-wide DNA methylation alterations in pediatrics. It is currently well established that epigenetic clocks, composed of DNA methylation sites, can estimate the gestational and chronological age of cells and tissues from different ages. Also, extensive research is aimed at their correlation with early life exposure and pediatric diseases. This review aimed to systematically summarize the epigenetic clocks in the pediatric population. Publications were collected from PubMed and Web of Science databases up to Apr 2021. Epigenetic clocks, DNA methylation clocks, epigenetic age acceleration or deceleration, pediatric and the pediatric population were used as search criteria. Here, we first review the currently applicative pediatric epigenetic clocks. We then highlight the interpretation for epigenetic age deviations in the pediatric population and their association with external factors, developmental trajectories, and pediatric diseases. Considering the remaining unknown of pediatric clocks, research strategies into them are also discussed. In all, pediatric epigenetic clocks may act as potent tools to understand development, growth and diseases in early life.


Subject(s)
Aging , Child , DNA Methylation/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics , Epigenomics , Humans
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887966

ABSTRACT

Indigo Naturalis has a long history of medicinal use with particularity and complexity in its processing. Before the Ming dynasty,Indigo Naturalis was extracted from the top layer of zymotic fluid,called " purified Indigo Naturalis". In modern processing,the precipitate " crude Indigo Naturalis" is dried to produce Indigo Naturalis after impurity removal. The form of Indigo Naturalis slices has undergone significant changes in ancient and modern times. In view of this,the quality comparison between crude Indigo Naturalis and purified Indigo Naturalis was conducted in this study with modern analytical techniques. Firstly,chemical composition was analyzed with UPLC-Q-TOF-MS,and the chemical composition of scent with HS-SPME/GC-MS/MS. The content of indigo,indirubin,total ash,and water-soluble extract was determined as well as the inorganic composition in crude Indigo Naturalis and purified Indigo Naturalis. Then,their microscopic morphology was observed and the surface element composition was investigated. Finally,the antipyretic activities of crude Indigo Naturalis and purified Indigo Naturalis were compared in the fever rat model induced by lipopolysaccharide and 2,4-dinitrophenol. The results demonstrated that the purified Indigo Naturalis had a faster and more lasting antipyretic effect,while the crude Indigo Naturalis had almost no antipyretic effect. This study is of great significance to the research on processing technology of Indigo Naturalis and provides reference for the formulation of its quality standards,production specifications and calibration procedures.


Subject(s)
Animals , Indigo Carmine , Indigofera , Plant Extracts , Rats , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1453-1459, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887086

ABSTRACT

Galli Gigerii Endothelium Corneum (GGEC) represents digestion-promoting medicines with measurable effects and extensive clinical application. However, its effective components are not clear. The quality control index in the current edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia is rather elementary and does not reflect its clinical efficacy. In this study, a bioassay method based on pepsin activity was proposed as a novel quality control method. With pepsin activity as the evaluation index, the extraction of GGEC was optimized and a method for the determination of biological potency was established by using the qualitative reaction parallel line method. The biological potency and consistency of 20 batches of GGEC were investigated. To provide scientific evidence in support of this bioassay method, two validation experiments were designed. One was to study the viscosity-reducing activity of a nutritional semi-solid paste after adding GGEC samples with differing potency. The other was to correlate the gastric residual rate in mice and pepsin activity with the alcohol soluble extract content. The results showed that the optimal preparation method was to dilute crude powder of GGEC with 50 volumes of water and subject to ultrasonic extraction at 300 W and 40 kHz for 0.5 h. The shape of the dose-response curve was similar to that of the positive control drug multienzyme tablets and the precision, intermediate precision and repeatability met the methodology requirements. The results showed that the potency of 20 batches of samples ranged from 13.49 to 34.69 U·mg-1, with an average value of 22.21 U·mg-1. The validation experiment demonstrated that the effect of reducing the viscosity of the nutrient paste became more significant as GGEC sample potency increased. The correlation coefficient R of gastric residual rate with pepsin potency and alcohol soluble extract content was 0.867 and 0.518, respectively, which indicated that the pepsin potency was highly correlated with in vivo activity. This study shows that a bioassay method based on pepsin activity is reliable and reproducible for GGEC and could provide reference method for the quality evaluation of other digestant herbs.

16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1416-1423, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887064

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of polyethylene glycol (PEGs) with different molecular weights (MW: 400, 1 000, 4 000) on the pharmacokinetics of baicalin, and preliminarily analyze its mechanism. Rats were gavaged with baicalin (168 mg·kg-1) + aqueous solution or baicalin + PEGs solution and plasma samples were collected from 0 to 24 h after administration. The concentration of baicalin and its main metabolite baicalein 6-O-β-D-glucuronide (B6G) were determined at different time points by UPLC-MS/MS, and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with DAS 3.0 software. The results showed that PEGs with different molecular weights could effectively increase the AUC0-t of baicalin and B6G, increase the Cmax, and prolong the t1/2, effectively increasing the concentration of baicalin and B6G in vivo. The mechanism may be by promoting the activity of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl-transferases 1A8 (UGT1A8) and 1A9 (UGT1A9), thereby increasing the transformation rate of baicalin and B6G. The rate of metabolism of B6G was faster than that of baicalin, suggesting that PEGs had a higher affinity for UGT1A8, and PEG400 had the most significant effect. The purpose of this study was to provide a basis for the clinical safe use of baicalin and other flavonoids and the design of new dosage forms with the participation of PEGs. The animal experiment protocol in this study was approved by the Experimental Animal Ethics Committee of Guizhou Medical University.

17.
Journal of Chinese Physician ; (12): 198-202, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-884031

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the mechanism of sinomenine (SIN) in inducing the immunosuppressive effects of rat-derived dendritic cells (DCs).Methods:The bone marrow-derived precursor cells from Wistar rats were cultured in vitro. The morphological differences between sinomenine treated DCs (sinomenine modified group, SIN group) and conventional induced DCs (conventional induced group, control group) were observed under microscope. The CD phenotype of DCs was detected by flow cytometry. DCs were induced maturation by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulation. The impact of SIN on the expressions of Toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR3 and TLR4 on the DCs surface were detected by flow cytometry. Results:In the conventional induction group, the cells showed clusters or suspension growth, with obvious granular sense on the cell surface; while in the sinomenine induction group, the cells were clustered together, with no significant change in cell volume and morphology. The relative expressions of CD80 and CD86 were 70.7% and 71.3% in the conventional induction group, while 51.7% and 49.4% in the SIN group. The relative expression of TLRs on DCs in SIN + LPS group was TLR2 (51.2±0.34)%, TLR3 (50.3±0.14)%, TLR4 (52.1±0.16)%, which were significantly lower than those in LPS group [(94.35±0.16)%, (97.55±0.16)%, (94.6±0.12)%].Conclusions:SIN may induce immune tolerance by inhibiting the maturation of DCs via inhibiting the TLRs signaling pathways.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879001

ABSTRACT

Phyllanthus emblica is a kind of traditional medicine and medicinal and edible plant, with rich variety resources and high development value. It is a key poverty alleviation variety in China at present. As P. emblica processing industry is rising gradually in recent years, in order to fully develop and utilize its industrial resources, this paper systematically introduces current comprehensive development and utilization of P. emblica, discusses the problems in P. emblica processing industry, and puts forward comprehensive development and utilization strategies and industrial models in terms of cultivation, breeding, grading, quality evaluation and waste recycling, so as to provide a certain reference for promoting the high-quality development of P. emblica industry in China.


Subject(s)
China , Medicine , Medicine, Traditional , Phyllanthus emblica , Plant Breeding , Plant Extracts
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922774

ABSTRACT

This work was aimed to establish a quality control method for evaluating the effects on glucose and lipids of the fruiting body of Isaria cicadae Miquel from strain Ic-17-7 (Ic-17-7fb) using a rat model of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Random amplified polymorphic DNA, sequence-characterized amplified region, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used for the quality control of Ic-17-7fb. The pharmacological effects on streptozocin (STZ)-induced high fat diet (HFD)-fed Albino Wistar rats were evaluated. The rats underwent the following treatments: control, metformin, Ic-17-7fb (0.166 and 0.5 g·kg


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Glucose , Cordyceps , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Metformin , Quality Control , Rats , Rats, Wistar
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828718

ABSTRACT

This article reports the clinical and genetic features of two cases of cerebral creatine deficiency syndrome I (CCDSI) caused by SLC6A8 gene mutations. Both children were boys. Boy 1 (aged 2 years and 10 months) and Boy 2 (aged 8 years and 11 months) had the clinical manifestations of delayed mental and motor development, and convulsion. Their older brothers had the same symptoms. The mother of the boy 1 had mild intellectual disability. The genetic analysis showed two novel homozygous mutations, c.200G>A(p.Gly67Asp) and c.626_627delCT(p.Pro209Argfs*87), in the SLC6A8 gene on the X chromosome, both of which came from their mothers. These two novel mutations were rated as possible pathogenic mutations and were not reported in the literature before. This study expands the mutation spectrum of the SLC6A8 gene and has great significance in the diagnosis of boys with delayed development, and epilepsy.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Creatine , Epilepsy , Genetic Testing , Humans , Male , Mutation , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Genetics , Plasma Membrane Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins , Genetics , Syndrome
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