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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906467

ABSTRACT

Objective:The differences of chemical compositions and pharmacological activities between the core and pulp of Phyllanthi Fructus were investigated by chemical analysis and <italic>in vitro</italic> test to explore the effect of the core on the quality of this medicinal material. Method:Literature, medicinal material standards and market research on the appearance of Phyllanthi Fructus were conducted based on existing databases. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-electrostatic field orbital trap high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS) was used to identify the constituents of the core and pulp. The analysis was performed on Thermo Scientific Accucore C<sub>18</sub> column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 2.6 μm) with the mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (A)-methanol (B) for gradient elution (0-25 min, 5%B; 25-30 min, 5%-95%B; 30-35 min, 95%-5%B), the flow rate was 0.2 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>, heating electrospray ionization (HESI) was adopted with positive and negative ion modes, and the scanning range was <italic>m</italic>/<italic>z</italic> 100-1 500. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the contents of gallic acid, corilagin, chebulagic acid and ellagic acid in the core and pulp of Phyllanthi Fructus. Analysis was performed on Welchrom C<sub>18</sub> column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with mobile phase of methanol (A)-0.05% phosphoric acid aqueous solution (B) for gradient elution (0-6 min, 5%A; 6-15 min, 5%-7%A; 15-20 min, 7%-15%A; 20-25 min, 15%-21%A; 25-31 min, 21%-22%A; 31-41 min, 22%A; 41-47 min, 22%-28%A; 47-51 min, 28%-32%A; 51-57 min, 32%-38%A; 57-70 min, 38%-45%A; 70-80 min, 45%-65%A; 80-85 min, 65%-5%A), the detection wavelength was set at 270 nm. The antibacterial effects of the core and pulp of Phyllanthi Fructus on <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> and <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> were investigated by filter paper method, and their antioxidant activities were compared by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Result:A total of 47 compounds were identified in the core and pulp of Phyllanthi Fructus, mainly including tannins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, fatty acids, amino acids, organic acids, saccharides and glycosides, most of which were concentrated in the pulp, and the fatty acids in the core accounted for a higher proportion. The contents of gallic acid, corilagin, chebulagic acid, ellagic acid and other phenolic compounds in the pulp of 20 batches of Phyllanthi Fructus were much higher than those in the core. The results of antibacterial test showed that the core of Phyllanthi Fructus with different concentrations had no antimicrobial effect. The DPPH radical scavenging test showed that the antioxidant activity of the core [half-inhibitory concentration (IC<sub>50</sub>)=199.632 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>] was much less than that of the pulp (IC<sub>50</sub>=12.688 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>). Conclusion:From the perspectives of polyphenol content, antibacterial and antioxidant activities, it is scientific to use Phyllanthi Fructus pulp in ancient and modern times, which may be to remove the secondary parts of Phyllanthi Fructus, so as to enhance the actual utilization rate and therapeutic effect of medicinal materials. In view of the large proportion of the core of Phyllanthi Fructus and its high content of fatty acids and other components, whether or not to use it remains to be further studied in clinical application.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906438

ABSTRACT

Objective:To provide a scientific basis for the classification of Phyllanthi Fructus product grades. Method:A total of 30 batches of Phyllanthi Fructus currently available in the market were collected for quantification based on such appearance indexes as diameter, thickness, grain weight, and crust colour (<italic>L</italic><sup>*</sup>, <italic>a</italic><sup>*</sup>, and <italic>b</italic><sup>*</sup> values). The contents of gallic acid, corilagin, chebulagic acid, and ellagic acid were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), followed by descriptive statistical analysis (DSA), analysis of variance (ANOVA), and principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the importance of each main index and explore the correlations between the appearance indexes and internal components. The classification standard of Phyllanthi Fructus product grades was formulated, and its scientificity was verified in hepatocelular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Result:The correlation analysis revealed that the crust colour <italic>L</italic><sup>*</sup>, <italic>a</italic><sup>*</sup>, and <italic>b</italic><sup>*</sup> values were significantly negatively correlated with corilagin, chebulagic acid, and ellagic acid (<italic>|r|</italic>>0.5, <italic>P</italic><0.01), but irrelevant to gallic acid (<italic>|r|</italic><0.1). Considering the variable coefficient of each index, PCA results, and the requirement of gallic acid as quality indicator for Phyllanthi Fructus in <italic>Chinese Pharmacopoeia</italic>, the crust colour <italic>L</italic><sup>*</sup>, <italic>a</italic><sup>*</sup>, and <italic>b</italic><sup>*</sup> values and gallic acid content were determined to be the classification indexes. The K-means cluster analysis confirmed that products with crust colour <italic>L</italic><sup>*</sup><44, <italic>a</italic><sup>*</sup><7, and <italic>b</italic><sup>*</sup><10 and gallic acid content >1.6% could be classified into the first class, and those failing to meet the above requirements into the second class. The cell experiment demonstrated that the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC<sub>50</sub>) of the first-class product against hepatocelular carcinoma HepG2 cells was lower than that of the second-class product. A colourimetric card was developed based on crust colour <italic>L</italic><sup>*</sup>, <italic>a</italic><sup>*</sup>, and <italic>b</italic><sup>*</sup> values to provide a visual tool for on-site evaluation of Phyllanthi Fructus products. Conclusion:This study has initially established the classification standard of Phyllanthi Fructus product grades, which contributes to guiding price negotiation of Phyllanthi Fructus products based on quality grade and thus ensuring high quality and high price.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887966

ABSTRACT

Indigo Naturalis has a long history of medicinal use with particularity and complexity in its processing. Before the Ming dynasty,Indigo Naturalis was extracted from the top layer of zymotic fluid,called " purified Indigo Naturalis". In modern processing,the precipitate " crude Indigo Naturalis" is dried to produce Indigo Naturalis after impurity removal. The form of Indigo Naturalis slices has undergone significant changes in ancient and modern times. In view of this,the quality comparison between crude Indigo Naturalis and purified Indigo Naturalis was conducted in this study with modern analytical techniques. Firstly,chemical composition was analyzed with UPLC-Q-TOF-MS,and the chemical composition of scent with HS-SPME/GC-MS/MS. The content of indigo,indirubin,total ash,and water-soluble extract was determined as well as the inorganic composition in crude Indigo Naturalis and purified Indigo Naturalis. Then,their microscopic morphology was observed and the surface element composition was investigated. Finally,the antipyretic activities of crude Indigo Naturalis and purified Indigo Naturalis were compared in the fever rat model induced by lipopolysaccharide and 2,4-dinitrophenol. The results demonstrated that the purified Indigo Naturalis had a faster and more lasting antipyretic effect,while the crude Indigo Naturalis had almost no antipyretic effect. This study is of great significance to the research on processing technology of Indigo Naturalis and provides reference for the formulation of its quality standards,production specifications and calibration procedures.


Subject(s)
Animals , Indigo Carmine , Indigofera , Plant Extracts , Rats , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1453-1459, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887086

ABSTRACT

Galli Gigerii Endothelium Corneum (GGEC) represents digestion-promoting medicines with measurable effects and extensive clinical application. However, its effective components are not clear. The quality control index in the current edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia is rather elementary and does not reflect its clinical efficacy. In this study, a bioassay method based on pepsin activity was proposed as a novel quality control method. With pepsin activity as the evaluation index, the extraction of GGEC was optimized and a method for the determination of biological potency was established by using the qualitative reaction parallel line method. The biological potency and consistency of 20 batches of GGEC were investigated. To provide scientific evidence in support of this bioassay method, two validation experiments were designed. One was to study the viscosity-reducing activity of a nutritional semi-solid paste after adding GGEC samples with differing potency. The other was to correlate the gastric residual rate in mice and pepsin activity with the alcohol soluble extract content. The results showed that the optimal preparation method was to dilute crude powder of GGEC with 50 volumes of water and subject to ultrasonic extraction at 300 W and 40 kHz for 0.5 h. The shape of the dose-response curve was similar to that of the positive control drug multienzyme tablets and the precision, intermediate precision and repeatability met the methodology requirements. The results showed that the potency of 20 batches of samples ranged from 13.49 to 34.69 U·mg-1, with an average value of 22.21 U·mg-1. The validation experiment demonstrated that the effect of reducing the viscosity of the nutrient paste became more significant as GGEC sample potency increased. The correlation coefficient R of gastric residual rate with pepsin potency and alcohol soluble extract content was 0.867 and 0.518, respectively, which indicated that the pepsin potency was highly correlated with in vivo activity. This study shows that a bioassay method based on pepsin activity is reliable and reproducible for GGEC and could provide reference method for the quality evaluation of other digestant herbs.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921735

ABSTRACT

Phyllanthi Fructus, a unique Chinese and Tibetan medicinal plant with both edible and medical values, has high potential of cultivation and development. The resources of Phyllanthi Fructus in China are rich, mainly distributed in Yunnan, Sichuan, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, etc. Phyllanthi Fructus is widely used in the clinical practice of Chinese medicine and plays an important role in Tibetan medicine, Uyghur medicine, Yi medicine, and Mongolian medicine. Phyllanthi Fructus mainly contains phenolic acids,tannins, terpenes, sterols, fatty acids, flavonoids, amino acids and other compounds. Modern pharmacological studies show that Phyllanthi Fructus has antioxidant, anticancer, blood lipid-lowering, liver protective, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and immune regulatory activities. In this paper, the research status of Phyllanthi Fructus was reviewed from the aspects of herbal textual research,chemical composition, and pharmacological action. The quality markers(Q-markers) of Phyllanthi Fructus were predicted and analyzed from the aspects of biogenic pathway, specificity and measurability of chemical components, efficacy, properties, new clinical uses, drug-food homology, and transformation of polyphenols. The results will provide a scientific basis for the quality control, quality evaluation, and standard formulation of Phyllanthi Fructus.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fruit , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Quality Control
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879001

ABSTRACT

Phyllanthus emblica is a kind of traditional medicine and medicinal and edible plant, with rich variety resources and high development value. It is a key poverty alleviation variety in China at present. As P. emblica processing industry is rising gradually in recent years, in order to fully develop and utilize its industrial resources, this paper systematically introduces current comprehensive development and utilization of P. emblica, discusses the problems in P. emblica processing industry, and puts forward comprehensive development and utilization strategies and industrial models in terms of cultivation, breeding, grading, quality evaluation and waste recycling, so as to provide a certain reference for promoting the high-quality development of P. emblica industry in China.


Subject(s)
China , Medicine , Medicine, Traditional , Phyllanthus emblica , Plant Breeding , Plant Extracts
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873231

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the main chemical components in the supernatant and precipitate of Sanajon oral liquid, so as to provide basis for establishing its quality standard and precipitation control technology. Method:UPLC-Q-TOF-MSE was used to analyze the chemical components in the supernatant and precipitate of this oral liquid. The analysis was performed on Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) with the mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid solution (A) and acetonitrile (B) for gradient elution (0-1 min, 2%B; 1-2 min, 2%-5%B; 2-4 min, 5%-7%B; 4-6 min, 7%-24%B; 6-10 min, 24%-42%B; 10-12 min, 42%-54%B; 12-15 min, 54%-76%B; 15-18 min, 76%-100%B), the flow rate was set to 0.3 mL·min-1, the column temperature was 30 ℃, the injection volume was 2 µL. The mass spectrographic analysis was used with electrospray ionization (ESI), sample MS data was acquired by time-dependent MSE in negative ion mode, the collection range was m/z 50-1 200 (supernatant) and m/z 50-3 000 (precipitate). Then the chemical constituents were identified by the information of retention time, accurate relative molecular mass and secondary mass spectrum fragment. Result:Totally 61 compounds were identified in the supernatant, including tannins, phenolic acids, flavonoids, amino acids, organic acids, fatty acids, etc. Totally 15 compounds were identified in the precipitate, including tannins, phenolic acids, flavonoids, fatty acids, etc. Conclusion:The hydrolyzed tannin of Sanajon oral liquid may be the potential material basis of its precipitate, and its precipitate is likely to be a complex precipitate mainly composed of ellagic acid and tanned red. The established UPLC-Q-TOF-MSE can quickly and comprehensively analyze the chemical composition of Sanajon oral liquid, which can provide a scientific basis for the researches of its material basis, precipitation mechanism and quality control.

8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 45-53, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780559

ABSTRACT

Plant polyphenols have a wide range of pharmacological activities and application prospects. Liquid polyphenol preparations have special physical phases and complex chemical compositions, with problems such as poor stability and easy precipitation during production and marketing. Taking the multi-precipitation mechanism of plant polyphenol liquid preparations as an example,we discuss the chemistry and composition of the precipitation, how it forms, whether precipitationcan be controlled, and the interaction law of three precipitation approaches. An unstable mechanism model is proposed where hydrolyzed tannin hydrolysis and catechin non-enzymatic oxidative polymerization repeatedly induces associative colloid aggregation and precipitation. This study explains the complex physicochemical changes in polyphenol solutions and the microcosmic mechanism of instability in the induced system and proposes a steady state reconstruction of liquid polyphenol preparation consistent with the common law of precipitation and control. It has scientific significance for promoting the development and manufacture of high quality liquid polyphenol preparations.

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 737-745, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780158

ABSTRACT

Ellagic acid is ubiquitous in plants and is considered as a potential candidate for antioxidant and antineoplastic drugs. However, ellagic acid has poor solubility and precipitates easily even after initial solubilization. Improvement of its bioavailability has been a concern of pharmaceutical industry. It was found that storage in Sanlejiang oral liquid at low temperature keeps its stability. Ellagic acid is anomalous in a way that is easily soluble at low temperatures but precipitates at high temperatures. In order to reveal the mechanism of this phenomenon and develop precipitation prevention and control strategies, ellagic acid in Sanlejiang oral liquid was stored at high, medium and low temperatures for three months. The changes of composition and phase state of the whole system during storage were systematically tracked and studied by means of precipitation amount or morphology, HPLC chemical profile of supernatant versus precipitates, and comprehensive characterization of physical phase state. The results show that the amount of precipitation at low temperature is only 1/3 of that at normal room temperature. As the temperature rises, the sedimentation increases sharply. HPLC analyses of supernatant versus precipitates revealed that ellagic acid precipitation originated from two ways: chemical degradation and physical deposition. The chemical sedimentation is related to the hydrolysis of tannins under acidic condition, forming chebulagic acid and corilagin. Physical sedimentation is related to the decrease of the association degree and viscosity of polyphenol colloids when temperature rises. This study elucidated the stability mechanism of ellagic acid in liquid preparations of TCM, and provided the mechanistic basis for efficient utilization and solution prepartion of ellagic acid.

10.
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; (24): 1381-1386, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-858602

ABSTRACT

Heterogeneous liquid preparations are widely used in clinic, and played an important role in pharmaceutical preparations. But at the same time, since the instability of the physical and chemical properties of the heterogeneous liquid preparation, the dispersed particles have a large specific surface energy and form a thermodynamic unstable system. Especially when in the traditional Chinese medicine liquid preparation, which has a large number of unknown non quantitative components, can easily appear the phenomenon of subsidence, coalescence, stratification and phase inversion during the storage process. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the stability observation and prediction of heterogeneous liquid preparation for its prescription design, production process screening, quality evaluation, storage and transportation. However, only in the fields of food, beverage, cosmetics and other related fields have some research at home and abroad for the moment, and we fond there are few reports on heterogeneous liquid formulations. This paper attempts to study the methods of stability prediction in the fields mentioned above, and then we expect to provide a reference for the establishment of rapid, accurate, economic, scientific and objective prediction methods of the heterogeneous liquid preparation.

11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1524-1532, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779756

ABSTRACT

Anthocyanins has a high health benefits and biological activity, which can make the solution easily absorbed and has a bright color, beautiful appearance in oral liquid. However, due to its particularity antioxidant activity, it is easy to be affected by the external physical and chemical factors, and then oxidation, polymerization, degradation and other unstable phenomena occurs that seriously affect the stability of products and shelf life. The traditional methods of pH regulation, deoxygenation and light avoidance could not meet the demand of stable anthocyanins. Addition of stabilizer to anthocyanins is a new effective way to improve the stability of anthocyanins. This paper is prepared to summarize systematically the principle and application methods of anthocyanins stabilizers to explore the key technology of clarification and stabilization of traditional Chinese medicine in the natural oral liquid, which may provide theoretical support and technical reference for the development and utilization of anthocyanins stabilizer.

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