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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900353

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the accuracy and quality of Korean videos associated with restless legs syndrome (RLS) on YouTube. @*Methods@#A YouTube search was performed on April 1, 2020 using the term “restless legs syndrome” in the Korean language. Two reviewers coded the source, content, and demographics of the included videos. Video quality was assessed using the modified DISCERN (mDISCERN) instrument. @*Results@#Among the 80 videos analyzed, 44 (55.0%) were reliable, and 36 (45.0%) were misleading. There was a trend toward a higher number of mean daily views in the misleading videos than in the reliable videos. Most of the misleading videos (72.2%) advocated complementary and alternative medicine as a primary treatment for RLS. Although the reliable videos had higher mDISCERN scores than the misleading videos, the overall quality of the reliable videos was low. @*Conclusion@#Many Korean videos regarding RLS on YouTube involve a risk of exposure to misinformation and are of unsatisfactory quality.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897309

ABSTRACT

BRAF inhibitors are insufficient monotherapies for BRAF-mutated cancer; therefore, we investigated which inhibitory pathway would yield the most effective therapeutic approach when targeted in combination with BRAF inhibition. The oncogenic BRAF inhibitor, PLX4720, increased basal autophagic flux in BRAF-mutated cells compared to wild-type (WT) BRAF cells. Interestingly, early autophagy inhibition improved the effectiveness of PLX4720 regardless of BRAF mutation, whereas late autophagy inhibition did not. Although ATG5 knockout led to PLX4720 resistance in both WT and BRAF-mutated cells, the MEK inhibitor trametinib exhibited a synergistic effect on PLX4720 sensitivity in WT BRAF cells but not in BRAF-mutated cells. Conversely, the prolonged inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress reduced basal autophagy in BRAF-mutated cells, thereby increasing PLX4720 sensitivity. Taken together, our results suggest that the combined inhibition of ER stress and BRAF may simultaneously suppress both pro-survival ER stress and autophagy, and may therefore be suitable for treatment of BRAF-mutated tumors whose autophagy is increased by chronic ER stress. Similarly, for WT BRAF tumors, therapies targeting MEK signaling may be a more effective treatment strategy. Together, this study presents a rational combination treatment strategy to improve the efficacy of BRAF inhibitors depending on BRAF mutation status.

3.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 48-52, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895117

ABSTRACT

Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by skin defects involving the epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous tissue, bone, and sometimes dura. It commonly affects the scalp in approximately 70% of cases, but the neck, trunk, and the extremities can also be affected. ACC can occur either as an isolated condition or associated with other anomalies and congenital syndromes, and it can be acquired either genetically or sporadically. Morbidity and mortality are associated with the defects of skull bone, dura, and other multiple anomalies. We herein report the case of a female infant, with a large scalp defect accompanied by a skull defect noted at birth, who developed mental retardation in the preschool years.

4.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 53-58, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895116

ABSTRACT

Intestinal malrotation with midgut volvulus (MV) is a life-threatening surgical emergency. Most events of MV occur in the neonatal period with bilious vomiting, abdominal distension, feeding intolerance, and bloody stools. Neonatal gastric perforation (GP) is a rare and life-threatening condition associated with high mortality. It occurs either in an idiopathic form or in association with gastrointestinal anomalies such as duodenal atresia and MV. The pathogenesis of both MV and GP is related to ischemic change and inflammatory response. MV and GP can lead to morbidities such as sepsis, intestinal ischemia, and organ failure, but not neurologic problems. We herein report the case of a term infant at 5 days after birth, with MV accompanied by GP, who developed periventricular leukomalacia.

5.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 336-348, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893876

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Smoking is well-established as a risk factor for coronary artery disease. However, recent studies demonstrated favorable results, including reduced mortality, among smokers, which are referred to as the “smoker's paradox”. This study examined the impact of smoking on clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). @*Methods@#Patients with AMI undergoing PCI between 2004 and 2014 were enrolled and classified according to smoking status. The primary endpoint was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and revascularization. @*Results@#Among the 10,683 patients, 4,352 (40.7%) were current smokers. Smokers were 10.7 years younger and less likely to have comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, stroke, and prior PCI. Smokers had less MACE (hazard ratio [HR], 0.644; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.594–0.698; p<0.001) and cardiac death (HR, 0.494; 95% CI, 0.443–0.551; p<0.001) compared to nonsmokers during the 5 years in an unadjusted model. However, after propensity-score matching, smokers showed higher risk of MACE (HR, 1.125; 95% CI, 1.009–1.254; p=0.034) and cardiac death (HR, 1.190; 95% CI, 1.026–1.381; p=0.022). Smoking was a strong independent predictor of lung cancer (propensityscore matched HR, 2.749; 95% CI, 1.416–5.338; p=0.003). @*Conclusions@#In contrast to the unadjusted model, smoking is associated with worse cardiovascular outcome and higher incidence of lung cancer after adjustment of various confounding factors. This result can be explained by the characteristics of smokers, which were young and had fewer comorbidities.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892649

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the accuracy and quality of Korean videos associated with restless legs syndrome (RLS) on YouTube. @*Methods@#A YouTube search was performed on April 1, 2020 using the term “restless legs syndrome” in the Korean language. Two reviewers coded the source, content, and demographics of the included videos. Video quality was assessed using the modified DISCERN (mDISCERN) instrument. @*Results@#Among the 80 videos analyzed, 44 (55.0%) were reliable, and 36 (45.0%) were misleading. There was a trend toward a higher number of mean daily views in the misleading videos than in the reliable videos. Most of the misleading videos (72.2%) advocated complementary and alternative medicine as a primary treatment for RLS. Although the reliable videos had higher mDISCERN scores than the misleading videos, the overall quality of the reliable videos was low. @*Conclusion@#Many Korean videos regarding RLS on YouTube involve a risk of exposure to misinformation and are of unsatisfactory quality.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889605

ABSTRACT

BRAF inhibitors are insufficient monotherapies for BRAF-mutated cancer; therefore, we investigated which inhibitory pathway would yield the most effective therapeutic approach when targeted in combination with BRAF inhibition. The oncogenic BRAF inhibitor, PLX4720, increased basal autophagic flux in BRAF-mutated cells compared to wild-type (WT) BRAF cells. Interestingly, early autophagy inhibition improved the effectiveness of PLX4720 regardless of BRAF mutation, whereas late autophagy inhibition did not. Although ATG5 knockout led to PLX4720 resistance in both WT and BRAF-mutated cells, the MEK inhibitor trametinib exhibited a synergistic effect on PLX4720 sensitivity in WT BRAF cells but not in BRAF-mutated cells. Conversely, the prolonged inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress reduced basal autophagy in BRAF-mutated cells, thereby increasing PLX4720 sensitivity. Taken together, our results suggest that the combined inhibition of ER stress and BRAF may simultaneously suppress both pro-survival ER stress and autophagy, and may therefore be suitable for treatment of BRAF-mutated tumors whose autophagy is increased by chronic ER stress. Similarly, for WT BRAF tumors, therapies targeting MEK signaling may be a more effective treatment strategy. Together, this study presents a rational combination treatment strategy to improve the efficacy of BRAF inhibitors depending on BRAF mutation status.

8.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 522-529, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918766

ABSTRACT

Background@#Burnout syndrome (BOS) is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a syndrome conceptualized as resulting from chronic workplace stress that has not been successfully managed. This study aims to create the Korean version burnout syndrome scale (KBOSS) that conforms to WHO’s definition of BOS and present the cut-off points for screening. @*Methods@#We developed the KBOSS based on WHO’s definition of BOS. An online survey was conducted through a specialized online research company. We recruited 444 workers for this research. The validity of the KBOSS was assessed using factor analysis and Pearson’s correlation. The KBOSS reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The cut-off points for each of the three dimensions were derived using the upper quartile score. @*Results@#The validity and reliability of the KBOSS were good. Regarding reliability, the scale’s overall Cronbach’s alpha was 0.813. Cronbach’s alpha of each three-dimension was as follows: exhaustion, 0.916; cynicism, 0.865; and professional inefficacy, 0.819. The cut-off points of BOS three dimensions are exhaustion ≧ 21; cynicism ≧ 18; and inefficacy ≧ 15. @*Conclusion@#The developed questionnaire (KBOSS) can be a useful tool for screening of BOS.

9.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 48-52, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902821

ABSTRACT

Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by skin defects involving the epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous tissue, bone, and sometimes dura. It commonly affects the scalp in approximately 70% of cases, but the neck, trunk, and the extremities can also be affected. ACC can occur either as an isolated condition or associated with other anomalies and congenital syndromes, and it can be acquired either genetically or sporadically. Morbidity and mortality are associated with the defects of skull bone, dura, and other multiple anomalies. We herein report the case of a female infant, with a large scalp defect accompanied by a skull defect noted at birth, who developed mental retardation in the preschool years.

10.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 53-58, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902820

ABSTRACT

Intestinal malrotation with midgut volvulus (MV) is a life-threatening surgical emergency. Most events of MV occur in the neonatal period with bilious vomiting, abdominal distension, feeding intolerance, and bloody stools. Neonatal gastric perforation (GP) is a rare and life-threatening condition associated with high mortality. It occurs either in an idiopathic form or in association with gastrointestinal anomalies such as duodenal atresia and MV. The pathogenesis of both MV and GP is related to ischemic change and inflammatory response. MV and GP can lead to morbidities such as sepsis, intestinal ischemia, and organ failure, but not neurologic problems. We herein report the case of a term infant at 5 days after birth, with MV accompanied by GP, who developed periventricular leukomalacia.

11.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 336-348, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901580

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Smoking is well-established as a risk factor for coronary artery disease. However, recent studies demonstrated favorable results, including reduced mortality, among smokers, which are referred to as the “smoker's paradox”. This study examined the impact of smoking on clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). @*Methods@#Patients with AMI undergoing PCI between 2004 and 2014 were enrolled and classified according to smoking status. The primary endpoint was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and revascularization. @*Results@#Among the 10,683 patients, 4,352 (40.7%) were current smokers. Smokers were 10.7 years younger and less likely to have comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, stroke, and prior PCI. Smokers had less MACE (hazard ratio [HR], 0.644; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.594–0.698; p<0.001) and cardiac death (HR, 0.494; 95% CI, 0.443–0.551; p<0.001) compared to nonsmokers during the 5 years in an unadjusted model. However, after propensity-score matching, smokers showed higher risk of MACE (HR, 1.125; 95% CI, 1.009–1.254; p=0.034) and cardiac death (HR, 1.190; 95% CI, 1.026–1.381; p=0.022). Smoking was a strong independent predictor of lung cancer (propensityscore matched HR, 2.749; 95% CI, 1.416–5.338; p=0.003). @*Conclusions@#In contrast to the unadjusted model, smoking is associated with worse cardiovascular outcome and higher incidence of lung cancer after adjustment of various confounding factors. This result can be explained by the characteristics of smokers, which were young and had fewer comorbidities.

12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915283

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to conduct a job analysis of nurse carecoordinators and to identify the frequency, importance and difficulty of each task of their job. @*Methods@#A committee for developing a curriculum (DACUM) was formed and members of the committee defined nurse care coordinators’ jobs and enumerated the duties, tasks and task elements by applying the DACUM technique. Then nurse care coordinators enrolled in the pilot project evaluated the frequency, importance and difficulty of each task. @*Results@#From the job descriptions of nurse care coordinators, we identified 12 duties and 42 tasks. Each task comprised 1~5 task elements. Among tasks, ‘assess the patient’s general health status’ was carried out most frequently. Nurse care coordinators perceived that ‘check vital signs’ and ‘strengthen patient competence to promote health behaviors’ were more important than all other tasks. The most difficult task was ‘develop professionalism as a nurse care coordinator’. @*Conclusion@#The nurse care coordinators' roles developed in this study will serve as the key guidelines for human resource management of care coordinators. Further, job specifications for nurse care coordinators need to be developed, which is necessary for designing education and training programs. We also need to integrate primary health care as an essential component in nursing education.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915171

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the transition experiences of the elderly from long-term care hospitals to their homes. @*Methods@#The participants were eight elderly medicaid beneficiaries, who had been the subjects from the community care project in Korea. The data were collected with one-on-one interviews from April to November in 2020, and analyzed by phenomenological steps. @*Results@#The seven themes derived in this study were ‘Space to escape’, ‘Reliable supporter opened the way to discharge’, ‘Comfortable life at home’,‘Obstacles to independent life’, ‘Struggling to live alone’, ‘Fence for community life’, and ‘Energizing in daily life’ @*Conclusion@#The results revealed the positive aspects of Community Care program in Korea. However, it is suggested that active communication between hospitals and community care institutions, and improvement of home environment to live in the community before discharge should be required. And system revision is needed to adjust activity in their home and support health problems of the elderly in the early stage of discharge. The results of this study can be referred to as the foundation of transitional care for the elderly.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899321

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by impaired neuromuscular transmission. This study aims to provide the clue for early diagnosis and improved therapeutic strategies in CMS. @*Materials and Methods@#Through the targeted panel sequencing including twenty CMS causative genes, eleven patients were genetically confirmed and enrolled in this study. A retrospective medical record review was carried out for the clinical and laboratory data analysis. @*Results@#The age of patients ranged from 5 to 23 years, with the median age of 16 years. The peak age at onset of symptoms was the neonatal period. Seven out of the eleven patients were symptomatic at birth. The most commonly reported initial finding was generalized hypotonia with poor sucking and crying. Mean time to accurate diagnosis was 9.3±5.0 years. Total fifteen different variants in seven genes associated with CMS (DOK7, AGRN, RAPSN, CHRNE, COLQ, SLC5A7, and GFPT1) were identified. @*Conclusion@#We describe the clinical and genetic characteristics of CMS patients and treatment outcome in a single tertiary center. High clinical suspicion and timely molecular diagnosis is particularly important for the tailored therapy to maximize clinical improvement in CMS.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896206

ABSTRACT

Autophagy regulators are often effective as potential cancer therapeutic agents. Here, we investigated paclitaxel sensitivity in cells with knockout (KO) of ATG5 gene. The ATG5 KO in multidrug resistant v-Ha-ras -transformed NIH 3T3 cells (Ras-NIH 3T3/Mdr) was generated using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology. The qPCR and LC3 immunoblot confirmed knockout of the gene and protein of ATG5, respectively. The ATG5 KO restored the sensitivity of Ras-NIH 3T3/Mdr cells to paclitaxel. Interestingly, ATG5 overexpression restored autophagy function in ATG5 KO cells, but failed to rescue paclitaxel resistance. These results raise the possibility that low level of resistance to paclitaxel in ATG5 KO cells may be related to other roles of ATG5 independent of its function in autophagy. The ATG5 KO significantly induced a G2/M arrest in cell cycle progression. Additionally, ATG5 KO caused necrosis of a high proportion of cells after paclitaxel treatment. These data suggest that the difference in sensitivity to paclitaxel between ATG5 KO and their parental MDR cells may result from the disparity in the proportions of necrotic cells in both populations. Thus, our results demonstrate that the ATG5 KO in paclitaxel resistant cells leads to a marked G2/M arrest and sensitizes cells to paclitaxel-induced necrosis.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891617

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by impaired neuromuscular transmission. This study aims to provide the clue for early diagnosis and improved therapeutic strategies in CMS. @*Materials and Methods@#Through the targeted panel sequencing including twenty CMS causative genes, eleven patients were genetically confirmed and enrolled in this study. A retrospective medical record review was carried out for the clinical and laboratory data analysis. @*Results@#The age of patients ranged from 5 to 23 years, with the median age of 16 years. The peak age at onset of symptoms was the neonatal period. Seven out of the eleven patients were symptomatic at birth. The most commonly reported initial finding was generalized hypotonia with poor sucking and crying. Mean time to accurate diagnosis was 9.3±5.0 years. Total fifteen different variants in seven genes associated with CMS (DOK7, AGRN, RAPSN, CHRNE, COLQ, SLC5A7, and GFPT1) were identified. @*Conclusion@#We describe the clinical and genetic characteristics of CMS patients and treatment outcome in a single tertiary center. High clinical suspicion and timely molecular diagnosis is particularly important for the tailored therapy to maximize clinical improvement in CMS.

17.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 51-56, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837019

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is an important morbidity in preterm infants. Its reported prevalence in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is 3% to 15% in VLBW infants. PVL develop seizure disorder, intellectual disability, visual problem, and cerebral palsy. This study was done to describe the risk factors of PVL in VLBW infants. @*Methods@#Medical records of 172 VLBW infants at Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital neonatal intensive care unit were reviewed retrospectively from January 2010 to December 2014. Patients were divided into the non­PVL group (n=155) and the PVL group (n=17). The PVL group included both cystic and non­cystic forms. Demographic findings and factors associated with PVL were compared between these groups. @*Results@#The incidence of non­cystic and cystic PVL was 9.8%. The mean gestational age was significantly lower in the PVL group. The mean birth weight was not significantly different between the groups. The incidences of premature rupture of membrane and pregnancy induced hypertension were not significantly different between the two groups. The number of histologic chorioamnionitis was significantly higher in the PVL group (P<0.05). Other conditions such as respiratory distress syndrome, patent ductus arteriosus, early­onset sepsis, and hypotension were not significantly different between the two groups. The incidence of intravascular hemorrhage (IVH) (grade ≥3) was more significant in the PVL group (P<0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that histologic chorioamnionitis (odds ratio [OR], 6.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 36.3) and IVH (grade ≥3) (OR, 16.9; 95% CI, 1.9 to 153.1) were significant risk factors of PVL. @*Conclusion@#Histologic chorioamnionitis and IVH (grade ≥3) increase the risk of PVL in VLBW infants. Strategies to prevent these conditions could attenuate the incidence of PVL.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835376

ABSTRACT

Achromobacter xylosoxidans is a gram-negative bacterium that can oxidize xylose. It is commonly found in contaminated soil and water but does not normally infect immunocompetent humans. We report a case of a cavitary lung lesion associated with community-acquired A. xylosoxidans infection, which mimicked pulmonary tuberculosis or lung cancer in an immunocompetent man. The patient was hospitalized due to hemoptysis, and chest computed tomography (CT) revealed a cavitary lesion in the superior segment of the left lower lobe. We performed bronchoscopy and bronchial washing, and subsequent bacterial cultures excluded pulmonary tuberculosis and identified A. xylosoxidans. We performed antibiotic sensitivity testing and treated the patient with a 6-week course of amoxicillin/clavulanate. After 2 months, follow-up chest CT revealed complete resolution of the cavitary lesion.

19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830418

ABSTRACT

Background@#Reports on metastatic or invasive infections by hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) have increased recently. However, the effects of its virulence on clinical course and outcomes in pneumonia patients have rarely been addressed. We assessed and compared the clinical features of hvKp and classic K. pneumoniae (cKP) strains isolated from patients with pneumonia caused by K. pneumoniae. We also investigated the effects of virulence factors and the K. pneumoniae capsular serotypes K1 and K2 on mortality. @*Methods@#In this retrospective study, we enrolled 91 patients diagnosed as having pneumonia caused by K. pneumoniae and obtained their demographic and clinical data from medical records. We evaluated genes for K1 and K2, antimicrobial susceptibility, and the virulence genes rmpA, iutA, entB, ybtS, kfu, mrkD, and allS. Strains that possessed rmpA and iutA were defined as hvKP (N=39), while the remaining were classified as cKP (N=52).Odds ratio (OR) for the risk factors associated with 30-day mortality was calculated using the binary logistic regression model. @*Results@#The 30-day mortality in all patients was 23.1%; it was 17.9% (7/39) in the hvKP group and 26.9% (14/52) in the cKP group (P = 0.315). Bacteremia (OR = 38.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5–570.2), altered mental status (OR = 8.8; 95% CI, 1.7–45.0), and respiratory rate > 30 breaths/min (OR = 4.8; 95% CI, 1.2–20.0) were independent risk factors for 30-day mortality in all patients. @*Conclusions@#Our results suggest that hypervirulence determinants do not have a significant effect on 30-day mortality in patients with pneumonia caused by K. pneumoniae.

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