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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889781

ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children is associated with various complications, including poor growth and development, mineral bone disorder, cardiovascular disease, kidney failure, and mortality. Slowing down the progression of CKD is important since CKD is often not curable. Prospective cohort studies have been conducted to understand the progression and outcomes of CKD in children, and these studies have identified non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors. Recognition of known risk factors and early intervention are important to delay the progression of kidney function decline in children.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889780

ABSTRACT

Pediatric kidney transplantation is the best option since it can achieve near normal glomerular filtration rate, adequate fluid balance, and autonomic endocrine function of the kidney in end-stage kidney disease. However, pediatric kidney transplantation is difficult because children are developing and growing, management and complications of pediatric kidney transplantation are different from those of adults. This review covers the current status of pediatric kidney transplantation in Korea, key considerations that must be taken before kidney transplantation in children, and management strategy of immunosuppression and common complications.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889777

ABSTRACT

C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN), a rare condition associated with dysregulation of the alternative pathway of the complement system, is histopathologically characterized by isolated or dominant C3 deposition in the renal glomeruli. We report a case of C3GN associated with anti-complement factor H (CFH) autoantibodies and CHF-related protein deficiency in an adolescent male. A 16-year-old adolescent male was admitted to a hospital with a 1-month history of generalized edema prior to presentation. Persistent microscopic hematuria and low serum C3 levels were incidentally detected at 7 and 10 years of age, respectively. Laboratory test results revealed hypoalbuminemia, nephrotic-range proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, and normal serum creatinine levels. The serum C3 and C4 levels were 17 mg/dL (normal 80–150 mg/dL) and 22 mg/mL (17–40 mg/mL), respectively. Renal biopsy showed typical features of C3GN. Further investigations revealed positive results on plasma anti-CFH autoantibody testing and a homozygous deletion of CFHR1 and CFHR3, which encode CFH-related proteins 1 and 3, respectively. Proteinuria persisted despite treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone, mycophenolate mofetil, and angiotensin-receptor blocker; however, his renal function remained stable. In conclusion, anti-CFH autoantibodies serve as important contributors to C3GN. This is the first case report that describes C3GN in an adolescent Korean male with anti-CFH autoantibodies and homozygous CFHR1 and CFHR3 deletion.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900018

ABSTRACT

Background@#Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a negative impact on growth and development in children and is a risk factor for neurocognitive impairment; however, there is limited research on the cognitive function of children and adolescents with CKD. This study therefore aimed to investigate the mean intelligence and risk factors for low intelligence in children and adolescents with CKD. @*Methods@#Eighty-one patients with CKD under 18 years old were included in the KoreaN cohort study for Outcomes in patients With Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-Ped CKD). Participants completed either the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (6–16 years), or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (> 16 years). @*Results@#The mean full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) was 91 ± 19; 24.7% of participants scored a full-scale IQ below 80. Participants with a short stature (height Z scores < −1.88), failure to thrive (weight Z scores < −1.65), more severe CKD stage (≥ IIIb), longer duration of CKD (≥ 5 years), and those who were Medicare or Medicaid beneficiaries, had significantly lower mean full-scale IQs. @*Conclusion@#On linear regression analysis, the association between the full-scale IQ, and longer duration of CKD and growth failure, remained significant after controlling for demographic and clinical variables. It is therefore necessary to investigate cognitive impairment in pediatric patients with CKD who exhibit growth failure or for a longer postmorbid period. It is believed that early interventions, such as kidney transplantation, will have a positive effect on IQ in children with CKD, as the disease negatively affects IQ due to poor glomerular filtration rate over time.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897485

ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children is associated with various complications, including poor growth and development, mineral bone disorder, cardiovascular disease, kidney failure, and mortality. Slowing down the progression of CKD is important since CKD is often not curable. Prospective cohort studies have been conducted to understand the progression and outcomes of CKD in children, and these studies have identified non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors. Recognition of known risk factors and early intervention are important to delay the progression of kidney function decline in children.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897484

ABSTRACT

Pediatric kidney transplantation is the best option since it can achieve near normal glomerular filtration rate, adequate fluid balance, and autonomic endocrine function of the kidney in end-stage kidney disease. However, pediatric kidney transplantation is difficult because children are developing and growing, management and complications of pediatric kidney transplantation are different from those of adults. This review covers the current status of pediatric kidney transplantation in Korea, key considerations that must be taken before kidney transplantation in children, and management strategy of immunosuppression and common complications.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897481

ABSTRACT

C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN), a rare condition associated with dysregulation of the alternative pathway of the complement system, is histopathologically characterized by isolated or dominant C3 deposition in the renal glomeruli. We report a case of C3GN associated with anti-complement factor H (CFH) autoantibodies and CHF-related protein deficiency in an adolescent male. A 16-year-old adolescent male was admitted to a hospital with a 1-month history of generalized edema prior to presentation. Persistent microscopic hematuria and low serum C3 levels were incidentally detected at 7 and 10 years of age, respectively. Laboratory test results revealed hypoalbuminemia, nephrotic-range proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, and normal serum creatinine levels. The serum C3 and C4 levels were 17 mg/dL (normal 80–150 mg/dL) and 22 mg/mL (17–40 mg/mL), respectively. Renal biopsy showed typical features of C3GN. Further investigations revealed positive results on plasma anti-CFH autoantibody testing and a homozygous deletion of CFHR1 and CFHR3, which encode CFH-related proteins 1 and 3, respectively. Proteinuria persisted despite treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone, mycophenolate mofetil, and angiotensin-receptor blocker; however, his renal function remained stable. In conclusion, anti-CFH autoantibodies serve as important contributors to C3GN. This is the first case report that describes C3GN in an adolescent Korean male with anti-CFH autoantibodies and homozygous CFHR1 and CFHR3 deletion.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892314

ABSTRACT

Background@#Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a negative impact on growth and development in children and is a risk factor for neurocognitive impairment; however, there is limited research on the cognitive function of children and adolescents with CKD. This study therefore aimed to investigate the mean intelligence and risk factors for low intelligence in children and adolescents with CKD. @*Methods@#Eighty-one patients with CKD under 18 years old were included in the KoreaN cohort study for Outcomes in patients With Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-Ped CKD). Participants completed either the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (6–16 years), or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (> 16 years). @*Results@#The mean full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) was 91 ± 19; 24.7% of participants scored a full-scale IQ below 80. Participants with a short stature (height Z scores < −1.88), failure to thrive (weight Z scores < −1.65), more severe CKD stage (≥ IIIb), longer duration of CKD (≥ 5 years), and those who were Medicare or Medicaid beneficiaries, had significantly lower mean full-scale IQs. @*Conclusion@#On linear regression analysis, the association between the full-scale IQ, and longer duration of CKD and growth failure, remained significant after controlling for demographic and clinical variables. It is therefore necessary to investigate cognitive impairment in pediatric patients with CKD who exhibit growth failure or for a longer postmorbid period. It is believed that early interventions, such as kidney transplantation, will have a positive effect on IQ in children with CKD, as the disease negatively affects IQ due to poor glomerular filtration rate over time.

9.
Ultrasonography ; : 530-537, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919542

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography (ce-VUS) using a second-generation ultrasound contrast agent for the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and intrarenal reflux (IRR), and compared it with that of standard fluoroscopic voiding cystourethrography (VCUG). @*Methods@#Thirty-two consecutive children from April to October 2019 were included in this study. ce-VUS and VCUG were performed simultaneously by two operators with intravesical infusion of a mixture of ultrasound contrast medium, iodinated contrast medium and water. Two pediatric radiologists independently reviewed the ce-VUS and VCUG images and reported the presence and degree of VUR (grades I-V), and the presence and type of IRR. @*Results@#Twenty-seven of 63 urinary systems showed VUR. Interobserver agreement for VUR grading was very good for both examinations (κ=0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82 to 0.92 for ce-VUS and κ=0.92; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.96 for VCUG). The detection rate of VUR showed no significant difference between the two examinations (P=0.370). Four cases of VUR were missed on ce-VUS, while one case of VUR was missed on VCUG. All four false-negative cases on ce-VUS were grade 1 VUR. The two examinations showed very good agreement regarding VUR grading (κ =0.89; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.96). IRR was more frequently detected with ce-VUS than with VCUG (10 cases with ce-VUS vs. 3 cases with VCUG, P=0.016). @*Conclusion@#ce-VUS showed very good agreement with VCUG for detecting grade 2 VUR and above, while grade 1 VUR was sometimes missed with ce-VUS. IRR was more frequently detected with ce-VUS than with VCUG.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917048

ABSTRACT

Background@#The clinical features of pediatric rhabdomyolysis differ from those of the adults with rhabdomyolysis; however, multicenter studies are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of pediatric rhabdomyolysis and reveal the risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) in such cases. @*Methods@#This retrospective study analyzed the medical records of children and adolescents diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis at 23 hospitals in South Korea between January 2007 and December 2016. @*Results@#Among 880 patients, those aged 3 to 5 years old composed the largest subgroup (19.4%), and all age subgroups were predominantly male. The incidence of AKI was 11.3%. Neurological disorders (53%) and infection (44%) were the most common underlying disorder and cause of rhabdomyolysis, respectively. The median age at diagnosis in the AKI subgroup was older than that in the non-AKI subgroup (12.2 years vs. 8.0 years). There were no significant differences in body mass index, myalgia, dark-colored urine, or the number of causal factors between the two AKI-status subgroups. The multivariate logistic regression model indicated that the following factors were independently associated with AKI: multiorgan failure, presence of an underlying disorder, strong positive urine occult blood, increased aspartate aminotransferase and uric acid levels, and reduced calcium levels. @*Conclusions@#Our study revealed characteristic clinical and laboratory features of rhabdomyolysis in a Korean pediatric population and highlighted the risk factors for AKI in these cases. Our findings will contribute to a greater understanding of pediatric rhabdomyolysis and may enable early intervention against rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917032

ABSTRACT

The Korean Society of Nephrology (KSN) has published a clinical practice guideline (CPG) document for maintenance hemodialysis (HD). The document, 2021 Clinical Practice Guideline on Optimal HD Treatment, is based on an extensive evidence-oriented review of the benefits of preparation, initiation, and maintenance therapy for HD, with the participation of representative experts from the KSN under the methodologists’ support for guideline development. It was intended to help clinicians participating in HD treatment make safer and more effective clinical decisions by providing user-friendly guidelines. We hope that this CPG will be meaningful as a recommendation in practice, but not on a regulatory rule basis, as different approaches and treatments may be used by health care providers depending on the individual patient’s condition. This CPG consists of eight sections and 15 key questions. Each begins with statements that are graded by the strength of recommendations and quality of the evidence. Each statement is followed by a summary of the evidence supporting the recommendations. There is also a link to full-text documents and lists of the most important reports so that the readers can read further (most of this is available online).

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915021

ABSTRACT

Alagille syndrome (AGS) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disorder, with major clinical manifestations of bile duct paucity, cholestasis, cardiovascular anomaly, ophthalmic abnormalities, butterfly vertebrae, and dysmorphic facial appearance. It is caused by heterozygous mutations in JAG1 or NOTCH of the Notch signaling pathway presenting with variable phenotypic penetrance and involving multiple organ systems. The following case report describes a unique case of a 16-year-old female with AGS who presented with the primary complaint of renovascular hypertension. She had a medical history of ventricular septal defect and polycystic ovary syndrome. The patient had a dysmorphic facial appearance including frontal bossing, bulbous tip of the nose, a pointed chin with prognathism, and deeply set eyes with mild hypertelorism. Stenoocclusive changes of both renal arteries, celiac artery, lower part of the abdominal aorta, and left intracranial artery, along with absence of the left internal carotid artery were found on examination. Whole exome sequencing was performed and revealed a pathologic mutation of JAG1, leading to the diagnosis of AGS. Reverse phenotyping detected butterfly vertebrae and normal structure and function of the liver and gallbladder. While the representative symptom of AGS in most scenarios is a hepatic problem, in this case, the presenting clinical features were the vascular anomalies. Clinical manifestations of AGS are diverse, and this case demonstrates that renovascular hypertension might be in some cases a presenting symptom of AGS.

13.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 92-111, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913885

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is the most common form of glomerulopathy in children. Most pediatric patients respond to glucocorticosteroid treatment (steroid-sensitive NS, SSNS), while approximately 10–15% will remain unresponsive or later become steroid-resistant. There has been a long-standing effort to find biomarkers that may predict steroid responsiveness. @*Methods@#We systematically reviewed current studies which investigated clinically relevant biomarkers for predicting steroid responsiveness in pediatric NS. We performed a PubMed and EMBASE search to identify eligible articles. We collected data on urinary markers, blood/serum markers (including cellular phenotypes and mRNA expression), genotypes and HLA allele frequency. @*Results@#A total of 659 articles were identified following electronic and manual searches. After reviewing the titles, abstracts, and full texts, 72 eligible articles were finally included. Vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) seemed to be significantly elevated in SRNS than in SSNS, in both serum and urine specimen, although further validation is required. @*Conclusions@#The present paper narratively illustrates current understandings of potential biomarkers that may help predict steroid responsiveness. Further investigation and collaboration involving a larger number of patients are necessary.

14.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 117-121, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913883

ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease (CKD)-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is a common complication of CKD, often accompanied by extra-skeletal calcification in adult patients. As increased vascular calcification is predicted to increase cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, the revised Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend avoiding calcium-containing phosphate chelators. However, extra-skeletal calcification is less commonly noticed in pediatric patients. Here, we report our experience of such a complication in pediatric patients receiving maintenance peritoneal dialysis. Extra-skeletal calcification was noticed at the corneas, pelvic cavity, and soft tissues of the lower leg in 4 out of 32 patients on maintenance peritoneal dialysis. These patients experienced the aggravation of extra-skeletal calcifications during peritoneal dialysis, and 2 of them underwent excisional operations. It is required to monitor extra-skeletal calcifications in children on kidney replacement therapy.

15.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 122-127, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913882

ABSTRACT

C1q nephropathy is a rare glomerulopathy that typically presents with nephrotic syndrome in children. Treatment with immunosuppressive agents renders patients vulnerable to infection and its complications. Gastroenteritis is common in children, and rotavirus is a leading cause. Extraintestinal manifestations of rotavirus have recently been reported; however, there is a paucity of cases exploring the involvement of a rotavirus on the respiratory system. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a rapid onset respiratory failure characterized by noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and hypoxemia. Causes of ARDS include sepsis, pneumonia, pancreatitis, aspiration, and trauma. In this paper, we report a case of ARDS after rotavirus infection in a child with C1q nephropathy who had been treated with immunosuppressive agents.

16.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1015-1023, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913809

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Acute kidney injury (AKI) in cancer patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The incidence of AKI in lung cancer seems to be relatively higher compared with other solid organ malignancies, although its impact on patient outcomes remains unclear. @*Materials and Methods@#The patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer from 2004 to 2013 were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. The patients were categorized according to the presence and severity of AKI. We compared all-cause mortality and long-term renal outcome according to AKI stage. @*Results@#A total of 3,202 patients were included in the final analysis. AKI occurred in 1,783 (55.7%) patients during the follow-up period, with the majority having mild AKI stage 1 (75.8%). During the follow-up of 2.6±2.2 years, total 1,251 patients (53.7%) were died and 5-year survival rate was 46.9%. We found that both AKI development and severity were independent risk factors for all-cause mortality in lung cancer patients, even after adjustment for lung cancer-specific variables including the stage or pathological type. In addition, patients suffered from more severe AKI tend to encounter de novo chronic kidney disease development, worsening kidney function, and end-stage kidney disease progression. @*Conclusion@#In this study, more than half of the lung cancer patients experienced AKI during their diagnosis and treatment period. Moreover, AKI occurrence and more advanced AKI were associated with a higher mortality risk and adverse kidney outcomes.

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20.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831755

ABSTRACT

Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is defined by specific clinical characteristics, including microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and pathologic evidence of endothelial cell damage, as well as the resulting ischemic end-organ injuries. A variety of clinical scenarios have features of TMA, including infection, pregnancy, malignancy, autoimmune disease, and medications. These overlapping manifestations hamper differential diagnosis of the underlying pathogenesis, despite recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of several types of TMA syndrome. Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is caused by a genetic or acquired defect in regulation of the alternative complement pathway. It is important to consider the possibility of aHUS in all patients who exhibit TMA with triggering conditions because of the incomplete genetic penetrance of aHUS. Therapeutic strategies for aHUS are based on functional restoration of the complement system. Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody against the terminal complement component 5 inhibitor, yields good outcomes that include prevention of organ damage and premature death. However, there remain unresolved challenges in terms of treatment duration, cost, and infectious complications. A consensus regarding diagnosis and management of TMA syndrome would enhance understanding of the disease and enable treatment decision-making.

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