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2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915359

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#For minimally invasive procedures, three-dimensional (3D) anatomical knowledge of the structures of the face is essential. This study aimed to describe the thickness of the skin and subcutaneous tissue and depths of the facial muscles located in the infraorbital region using a 3D scanner to provide critical clinical anatomical guidelines for improving minimally invasive cosmetic procedures. @*Materials and Methods@#The 3D scanning images of 38 Korean cadavers (22 males and 16 females; age range: 51~94 years at the time of death) were analyzed. Eight facial landmarks (P1~P8) were marked on the cadaveric faces. The images were scanned in three steps–undissected face, hemiface after skinning, and revealing the facial muscles. Student’s t-test was used to identify significant differences.Result: The skin and subcutaneous tissue tended to become thicker from the upper to lower and medial to lateral aspects, and the muscles followed the same pattern as that of the most superficial located muscle and the deepest located muscles. No significant sex-related differences were found in the skin at any landmark. However, the muscles tended to be deeper in the female participants. @*Conclusion@#The study data can serve as a basis for creating or enhancing clinical anatomy-based guidelines or improving procedures in the infraorbital region.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915152

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study was conducted to find out the association between dual-use of the electronic cigarette (EC) and conventional cigarette (CC) and depression among undergraduate students. Methods: The participants of this study were 225 undergraduate students who were attending two universities located in Ulsan metropolitan city. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression were conducted to analyze the data. @*Results@#Nicotine dependence and depression were significantly higher in the dual-use group than in the single-use group. Dual-use of the EC and CC was significantly associated with depression among undergraduate students. In addition, quality of sleep was significantly associated with depression among undergraduate students. @*Conclusion@#In order to prevent depression among undergraduate students, it is necessary to improve the awareness of the danger of dual use of the EC and CC.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875436

ABSTRACT

In 2016, the World Health Organization revised the diagnostic criteria for myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) based on the discovery of disease-driving genetic aberrations and extensive analysis of the clinical characteristics of patients with MPNs. Recent studies have suggested that additional somatic mutations have a clinical impact on the prognosis of patients harboring these genetic abnormalities. Treatment strategies have also advanced with the introduction of JAK inhibitors, one of which has been approved for the treatment of patients with myelofibrosis and those with hydroxyurea-resistant or intolerant polycythemia vera. Recently developed drugs aim to elicit hematologic responses, as well as symptomatic and molecular responses, and the response criteria were refined accordingly. Based on these changes, we have revised the guidelines and present the diagnosis, treatment, and risk stratification of MPNs encountered in Korea.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875086

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#:Adolescents cigarette smoking is a major public health concern, because it is highly associated with physical and mental development of adolescents. This study examines the psychosocial variables affecting smoking behaviors and smoking cessation plan. @*Methods@#:A total of 74 (35 smokers and 40 non-smokers) students in Daegu metropolitan city were included in this study. 35 smokers visited smoking cessation center between September 2019 and November 2019. Subjects were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire evaluating smoking status, self-esteem, parent-adolescent communication, parent and peer attachment, and peer relationship quality. The independent t-test was conducted to determine the difference in psychological variables between smoker and non-smoker. Additionally, logistic regression analysis was done to identify the factors that affect smoking cessation plan and willingness. @*Results@#:The majority of adolescent smoker was male (94.3%) and middle school students (82.9%). Twenty-four smokers (68.5%) started smoking at sixth and seventh grade. The smoking amount and smoking days were related to plan and willingness of smoking cessation in logistic regression analysis and the number of friends who smoke was related to smoking cessation plan. The openness of communication in smoking students was significantly higher than that of non-smoking students. @*Conclusion@#:Our findings indicate that the environmental factors such as peer or parental smoking is important in adolescents smoking. In addition to individual factors such as smoking amount and days, openness of communication related with impulsivity and susceptibility in peer pressure can affect plan or willingness of smoking cessation.

6.
Blood Research ; : 6-16, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874333

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis, is a condition characterized by abnormal blood clot formation in the pulmonary arteries and the deep venous vasculature. It is often serious and sometimes even fatal if not promptly and appropriately treated. Moreover, the later consequences of VTE may result in reduced quality of life. The treatment of VTE depends on various factors, including the type, cause, and patient comorbidities. Furthermore, bleeding may occur as a side effect of VTE treatment. Thus, it is necessary to carefully weigh the benefits versus the risks of VTE treatment and to actively monitor patients undergoing treatment. Asian populations are known to have lower VTE incidences than Western populations, but recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence of VTE in Asia. A variety of treatment options are currently available owing to the introduction of direct oral anticoagulants.The current VTE treatment recommendation is based on evidence from previous studies, but it should be applied with careful consideration of the racial, genetic, and social characteristics in the Korean population.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874317

ABSTRACT

Drug addiction influences most communities directly or indirectly. Increasing studies have reported the relationship between circadian-related genes and drug addiction.Per2disrupted mice exhibited more vulnerable behavioral responses against some drugs including methamphetamine (METH). However, its roles and mechanisms are still not clear. Transcriptional profiling analysis in Per2 knockout (KO) mice may provide a valuable tool to identify potential genetic involvement and pathways in enhanced behavioral responses against drugs. To explore the potential genetic involvement, we examined common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the striatum of drug naïve Per2 KO/wild-type (WT) mice, and before/after METH treatment in Per2 KO mice, but not in WT mice. We selected 9 common DEGs (Ncald, Cpa6, Pklr, Ttc29, Cbr2, Egr2, Prg4, Lcn2, and Camsap2) based on literature research. Among the common DEGs, Ncald, Cpa6, Pklr, and Ttc29 showed higher expression levels in drug naïve Per2 KO mice than in WT mice, while they were downregulated in Per2 KO mice after METH treatment. In contrast, Cbr2, Egr2, Prg4, Lcn2, and Camsap2 exhibited lower expression levels in drug naïve Per2 KO mice than in WT mice, while they were upregulated after METH treatment in Per2 KO mice. qRT-PCR analyses validated the expression patterns of 9 target genes before/after METH treatment in Per2 KO and WT mice. Although further research is required to deeply understand the relationship and roles of the 9 target genes in drug addiction, the findings from the present study indicate that the target genes might play important roles in drug addiction.

8.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 52-60, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874119

ABSTRACT

Background@#Understanding the age-related morphological changes of facial soft tissue is fundamental in achieving improved outcomes of rejuvenating procedures. Three-dimensional (3D) photogrammetry is a reliable and convenient anthropometric tool to assess facial soft tissue. @*Objective@#The aim of this study was to establish age-related facial soft tissue morphology in Korean adult females using non-invasive 3D photogrammetry. @*Methods@#One hundred and ninety-two female participants were divided into three groups based on age: the younger group (aged 20∼39 years), middle group (40∼59 years), and older group (60∼79 years). Thirty-six landmarks were identified via 3D photogrammetric scanning (Morpheus 3D, Morpheus Co., Ltd., Seongnam, Korea). Fortyone facial dimensions were analyzed using the imaging software to find significance between the age groups. @*Results@#Smaller upper-facial volume (p=0.019) and shorter upperfacial height (p=0.034) were observed in the older group than in the younger group. In the mid-face, narrowed palpebral fissure (p<0.001) with elongated upper eyelid height (p<0.001) and widened nose (p<0.001) were observed in the older group compared with the younger group. Longer lower-facial height (p<0.001) with longer and wider philtrum (p<0.001, p=0.004, respectively), shorter lower vermilion height (p<0.001), wider mouth width (p<0.001), and smaller lower vermilion angle (p<0.001) were seen in the older group when compared with the younger group. Moreover, greater angles of nasofrontal, nasomental, and labiomental angle (p=0.015, p=0.015, p=0.080, respectively), and smaller nasofacial angle (p=0.034) were observed in the older group than in the younger group. @*Conclusion@#Our results provide clues of aging-related facial morphological characteristics in Korean female population.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891441

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: Reportedly 30–50% of patients being treated for chronic illnesses do not adhere to their medication regimen. We assessed the impact of a nurse-led education program for caregivers of Korean de novo Alzheimer’s disease patients who had newly been prescribed donepezil. @*Methods@#This multicenter study analyzed 93 participants in a caregiver education group and 92 participants in a caregiver no-education group. At every visit up to the end of the study (1 year), caregivers in the education group were given educational brochures regarding Alzheimer’s disease and the efficacy and adverse events of donepezil treatment. The primary endpoint was the discontinuation rate of donepezil treatment during the 1-year observation period. The secondary endpoints included the effect of education on compliance with donepezil treatment assessed at each visit using a clinician rating scale (CRS) and visual analog scale (VAS), and changes from baseline in cognitive assessment tests. @*Results@#The donepezil discontinuation rates at 1 year were 5.38% (5/93) and 6.52% (6/92) in the caregiver education and no-education groups, respectively (p=0.742). No significant between-group differences in donepezil compliance rates on the CRS and VAS were observed, but significant changes were observed in some cognitive tests from baseline to the end of the study. @*Conclusions@#Caregiver education had no significant effect on treatment discontinuation, but this may have been due to the low severity of cognitive impairment among the included population at baseline. In addition, the low discontinuation rates meant that no significant difference in treatment compliance was observed.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891440

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose The rate of donepezil discontinuation and the underlying reasons for discontinuation in Asian patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are currently unknown. We aimed to determine the treatment discontinuation rates in AD patients who had newly been prescribed donepezil in routine clinical practice in Asia. @*Methods@#This 1-year observational study involved 38 institutions in seven Asian countries, and it evaluated 398 participants aged 50–90 years with a diagnosis of probable AD and on newly prescribed donepezil monotherapy. The primary endpoint was the rate of donepezil discontinuation over 1 year. Secondary endpoints included the reason for discontinuation,treatment duration, changes in cognitive function over the 1-year study period, and compliance as assessed using a clinician rating scale (CRS) and visual analog scale (VAS). @*Results@#Donepezil was discontinued in 83 (20.9%) patients, most commonly due to an adverse event (43.4%). The mean treatment duration was 103.67 days in patients who discontinued. Among patients whose cognitive function was assessed at baseline and 1 year, there were no significant changes in scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Trail-Making Test–Black and White scores, whereas the Clinical Dementia Rating score increased significantly (p<0.001). Treatment compliance at 1 year was 96.8% (306/316) on the CRS and 92.6±14.1% (mean±standard deviation) on the VAS. @*Conclusions@#In patients on newly prescribed donepezil, the primary reason for discontinuation was an adverse event. Cognitive assessments revealed no significant worsening at 1 year, indicating that continuous donepezil treatment contributes to the maintenance of cognitive function.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890201

ABSTRACT

Objective@#In somatic symptom disorder (SSD), cognitive dysfunction is related to perceptive distortion that excessively amplifies bodily sensations. The association between high body mass index (BMI) and cognitive dysfunction could be attributed to underlying systemic inflammation. We aimed to evaluate whether patients with SSD and high BMI exhibit increased somatic symptom severity and whether this is mediated by cognitive dysfunction. @*Methods@#This retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted on 54 patients with SSD (20 males/34 females, mean age ± standard deviation: 40.65 ± 13.23 years). Participants’ BMI, laboratory data including complete blood count and lipid profile, results from the Korean Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV, and scores of the Korean-Symptom Checklist 95-Somatization (SCL95-SOM) were analyzed. We performed a path analysis to evaluate BMI as a predictor of somatic symptoms. @*Results@#In a path analysis, the SCL95-SOM score was directly influenced by working memory (b = −0.326, p = 0.032), which was significantly influenced by BMI (b = −0.338, p = 0.009), although there was no direct effect of BMI on the SCL95-SOM score. The path analytic model showed a close fit to the data with the following values: χ2 (df) = 0.918 (1), p = 0.338, root mean square error of approximation = 0.000 (< 0.001), and comparative fit index = 1.00. @*Conclusion@#Patients with SSD and high BMI may exhibit increased somatic symptom severity, and this is mediated by working memory dysfunction. Weight management may help improve symptoms in patients with SSD and high BMI.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914164

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: In this study we evaluated the relationship between amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition and 3 aspects of sleep quality in a group of clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. @*Methods@#We used self-report questionnaires to assess the quality of sleep using 3 previously established surveys: the Glasgow Sleep Effort Scale (GSES), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). These questionnaires focused on the sleep effort, sleep efficiency, and circadian rhythm patterns of each participant. Also, we evaluated the regional distribution of Aβ in the brain by amyloid positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) in healthy normal (HN), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD dementia groups. The MCI and AD dementia groups were combined to form the group with cognitive impairment due to AD (CIAD). @*Results@#GSES and MEQ scores differed significantly between the HN, MCI, and AD dementia groups (p<0.037), whereas PSQI scores were similar across the groups (p=0.129). GSES and MEQ scores also differed between the HN and CIAD groups (p<0.018). Circadian rhythm scores positively correlated with amyloid PET-CT SUVR in posterior cingulate cortices (p<0.049). @*Conclusions@#Sleep effort and abnormal shifts in circadian rhythm were more significant in the CIAD group than in the HN group. At the same time, HN subjects had minimal sleep disturbance, irrespective of clinical status. Thus, alterations in circadian rhythm may be indicative of neurodegeneration due to Aβ deposition.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903705

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder that usually follows an indolent clinical course. However, some patients show an aggressive clinical course leading to death. We explored the risk factors predicting poor prognosis in WM patients. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 47 patients diagnosed with WM between 2000 and 2018 to explore risk factors predicting poor prognosis using various clinical and laboratory parameters and risk models including the International Prognostic Staging System for WM (IPSS-WM). @*Results@#Over a median follow-up duration of 80.4 months, 29 patients died. The main causes of death were disease progression, organ failure related to amyloidosis, and infection. The median overall survival (OS) was 55.1 months, and 14 patients, including three with amyloidosis, died within 2 years. Serum β2-microglobulin level higher than 4 mg/dL was significantly associated with poor OS. Accordingly, the IPSS-WM showed a significant association with poor prognosis compared with other risk models, and the low-risk group had better OS than intermediate- and high-risk groups. In the retrospective analysis using the results of targeted sequencing in two cases representing good and bad prognosis, different patterns of mutation profiles were observed, including mutations of MYD88, TP53, ARID1A, and JAK2 in a refractory case. @*Conclusions@#Serum β2-microglobulin could be a single biomarker strongly predictive of poor survival of WM patients, and the low-risk group of the IPSS-WM risk model including serum β2-microglobulin has better prognostic value than other risk models. Mutation analysis also might provide additional information to predict high-risk patients.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903586

ABSTRACT

Centrally mediated abdominal pain syndrome (CAPS), known as functional abdominal pain syndrome in the Rome III criteria of functional gastrointestinal diseases, has a reported population prevalence of between 0.5% and 2.1%, with a female preponderance. The pathogenesis of CAPS has not been completely established, and various studies are being conducted. On the other hand, central nervous system sensitization with disinhibition of the pain signaling pathways appears to play a more important role than the up-regulation of peripheral afferent neuronal excitability. The diagnosis of CAPS is based on the Rome IV criteria (2016) and is established around the gastrointestinal symptoms combination. Various new treatment trials and effective patient-physician relationships showed progressive results.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899145

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: Reportedly 30–50% of patients being treated for chronic illnesses do not adhere to their medication regimen. We assessed the impact of a nurse-led education program for caregivers of Korean de novo Alzheimer’s disease patients who had newly been prescribed donepezil. @*Methods@#This multicenter study analyzed 93 participants in a caregiver education group and 92 participants in a caregiver no-education group. At every visit up to the end of the study (1 year), caregivers in the education group were given educational brochures regarding Alzheimer’s disease and the efficacy and adverse events of donepezil treatment. The primary endpoint was the discontinuation rate of donepezil treatment during the 1-year observation period. The secondary endpoints included the effect of education on compliance with donepezil treatment assessed at each visit using a clinician rating scale (CRS) and visual analog scale (VAS), and changes from baseline in cognitive assessment tests. @*Results@#The donepezil discontinuation rates at 1 year were 5.38% (5/93) and 6.52% (6/92) in the caregiver education and no-education groups, respectively (p=0.742). No significant between-group differences in donepezil compliance rates on the CRS and VAS were observed, but significant changes were observed in some cognitive tests from baseline to the end of the study. @*Conclusions@#Caregiver education had no significant effect on treatment discontinuation, but this may have been due to the low severity of cognitive impairment among the included population at baseline. In addition, the low discontinuation rates meant that no significant difference in treatment compliance was observed.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899144

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose The rate of donepezil discontinuation and the underlying reasons for discontinuation in Asian patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are currently unknown. We aimed to determine the treatment discontinuation rates in AD patients who had newly been prescribed donepezil in routine clinical practice in Asia. @*Methods@#This 1-year observational study involved 38 institutions in seven Asian countries, and it evaluated 398 participants aged 50–90 years with a diagnosis of probable AD and on newly prescribed donepezil monotherapy. The primary endpoint was the rate of donepezil discontinuation over 1 year. Secondary endpoints included the reason for discontinuation,treatment duration, changes in cognitive function over the 1-year study period, and compliance as assessed using a clinician rating scale (CRS) and visual analog scale (VAS). @*Results@#Donepezil was discontinued in 83 (20.9%) patients, most commonly due to an adverse event (43.4%). The mean treatment duration was 103.67 days in patients who discontinued. Among patients whose cognitive function was assessed at baseline and 1 year, there were no significant changes in scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Trail-Making Test–Black and White scores, whereas the Clinical Dementia Rating score increased significantly (p<0.001). Treatment compliance at 1 year was 96.8% (306/316) on the CRS and 92.6±14.1% (mean±standard deviation) on the VAS. @*Conclusions@#In patients on newly prescribed donepezil, the primary reason for discontinuation was an adverse event. Cognitive assessments revealed no significant worsening at 1 year, indicating that continuous donepezil treatment contributes to the maintenance of cognitive function.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897905

ABSTRACT

Objective@#In somatic symptom disorder (SSD), cognitive dysfunction is related to perceptive distortion that excessively amplifies bodily sensations. The association between high body mass index (BMI) and cognitive dysfunction could be attributed to underlying systemic inflammation. We aimed to evaluate whether patients with SSD and high BMI exhibit increased somatic symptom severity and whether this is mediated by cognitive dysfunction. @*Methods@#This retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted on 54 patients with SSD (20 males/34 females, mean age ± standard deviation: 40.65 ± 13.23 years). Participants’ BMI, laboratory data including complete blood count and lipid profile, results from the Korean Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV, and scores of the Korean-Symptom Checklist 95-Somatization (SCL95-SOM) were analyzed. We performed a path analysis to evaluate BMI as a predictor of somatic symptoms. @*Results@#In a path analysis, the SCL95-SOM score was directly influenced by working memory (b = −0.326, p = 0.032), which was significantly influenced by BMI (b = −0.338, p = 0.009), although there was no direct effect of BMI on the SCL95-SOM score. The path analytic model showed a close fit to the data with the following values: χ2 (df) = 0.918 (1), p = 0.338, root mean square error of approximation = 0.000 (< 0.001), and comparative fit index = 1.00. @*Conclusion@#Patients with SSD and high BMI may exhibit increased somatic symptom severity, and this is mediated by working memory dysfunction. Weight management may help improve symptoms in patients with SSD and high BMI.

18.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 304-307, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896694

ABSTRACT

The nerve to the mylohyoid muscle has been well studied but there are no specific anatomical landmarks for identifying it. Therefore, we aimed to identify anatomical landmarks for localizing the nerve to the mylohyoid muscle in the submandibular region. Sixteen sides from eight embalmed Caucasian cadaveric heads were used in this study. The mean age at the time of death of the specimens was 80.3 years. The anterior and posterior bellies of the digastric muscle, submental artery, and mylohyoid muscle were dissected to verify their relationships with the nerve to the mylohyoid muscle. The nerve to the mylohyoid muscle was found medial to the submental artery, lateral to the anterior belly of the digastric muscle, and anterior to the posterior border of the mylohyoid muscle on all sides. Herein, we identified what we term the mylohyoid triangle. This anatomical region can help localize the nerve to the mylohyoid muscle.

19.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 59-64, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896673

ABSTRACT

Body donation trends in Korea have changed significantly over the last 3 decades. Establishing a body donation system will promote donations to universities for academic purposes. Yonsei University College of Medicine started its own body donation system in 1992, including documenting donors’ records. However, there has been no reported attempt to analyze the trend of these records, which could provide noteworthy information that can be interpreted for medical advances. This study performed a statistical analysis of the donors’ records between 1992 and 2019 to analyze the sociological and anthropological changes. Donor personal information such as sex, age, religion, and place and cause of death were extracted from the Yonsei University College of Medicine database. Our statistical analysis revealed significant correlations between donors’ records and the changes in the number of geriatric hospitals, religious beliefs, number of donations, and donor age.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896001

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder that usually follows an indolent clinical course. However, some patients show an aggressive clinical course leading to death. We explored the risk factors predicting poor prognosis in WM patients. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 47 patients diagnosed with WM between 2000 and 2018 to explore risk factors predicting poor prognosis using various clinical and laboratory parameters and risk models including the International Prognostic Staging System for WM (IPSS-WM). @*Results@#Over a median follow-up duration of 80.4 months, 29 patients died. The main causes of death were disease progression, organ failure related to amyloidosis, and infection. The median overall survival (OS) was 55.1 months, and 14 patients, including three with amyloidosis, died within 2 years. Serum β2-microglobulin level higher than 4 mg/dL was significantly associated with poor OS. Accordingly, the IPSS-WM showed a significant association with poor prognosis compared with other risk models, and the low-risk group had better OS than intermediate- and high-risk groups. In the retrospective analysis using the results of targeted sequencing in two cases representing good and bad prognosis, different patterns of mutation profiles were observed, including mutations of MYD88, TP53, ARID1A, and JAK2 in a refractory case. @*Conclusions@#Serum β2-microglobulin could be a single biomarker strongly predictive of poor survival of WM patients, and the low-risk group of the IPSS-WM risk model including serum β2-microglobulin has better prognostic value than other risk models. Mutation analysis also might provide additional information to predict high-risk patients.

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