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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e230-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001112

ABSTRACT

Background@#Data on the status of long-term follow-up (LTFU) care for childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) in Korea is lacking. This study was conducted to evaluate the current status of LTFU care for CCSs and relevant physicians’ perspectives. @*Methods@#A nationwide online survey of pediatric hematologists/oncologists in the Republic of Korea was undertaken. @*Results@#Overall, 47 of the 74 board-certified Korean pediatric hematologists/oncologists currently providing pediatric hematology/oncology care participated in the survey (response rate = 63.5%). Forty-five of the 47 respondents provided LTFU care for CCSs five years after the completion of primary cancer treatment. However, some of the 45 respondents provided LTFU care only for CCS with late complications or CCSs who requested LTFU care. Twenty of the 45 respondents oversaw LTFU care for adult CCSs, although pediatric hematologists/ oncologists experienced more difficulties managing adult CCSs. Many pediatric hematologists/oncologists did not perform the necessary screening test, although CCSs had risk factors for late complications, mostly because of insurance coverage issues and the lack of Korean LTFU guidelines. Regarding a desirable LTFU care system for CCSs in Korea, 27 of the 46 respondents (58.7%) answered that it is desirable to establish a multidisciplinary CCSs care system in which pediatric hematologists/oncologists and adult physicians cooperate. @*Conclusion@#The LTFU care system for CCS is underdeveloped in the Republic of Korea. It is urgent to establish an LTFU care system to meet the growing needs of Korean CCSs, which should include Korean CCSs care guidelines, provider education plans, the establishment of multidisciplinary care systems, and a supportive national healthcare policy.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 279-290, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966470

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Renal tumors account for approximately 7% of all childhood cancers. These include Wilms tumor (WT), clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK), malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney (MRTK), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), congenital mesoblastic nephroma (CMN) and other rare tumors. We investigated the epidemiology of pediatric renal tumors in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#From January 2001 to December 2015, data of pediatric patients (0–18 years) newly-diagnosed with renal tumors at 26 hospitals were retrospectively analyzed. @*Results@#Among 439 patients (male, 240), the most common tumor was WT (n=342, 77.9%), followed by RCC (n=36, 8.2%), CCSK (n=24, 5.5%), MRTK (n=16, 3.6%), CMN (n=12, 2.7%), and others (n=9, 2.1%). Median age at diagnosis was 27.1 months (range 0-225.5) and median follow-up duration was 88.5 months (range 0-211.6). Overall, 32 patients died, of whom 17, 11, 1, and 3 died of relapse, progressive disease, second malignant neoplasm, and treatment-related mortality. Five-year overall survival and event free survival were 97.2% and 84.8% in WT, 90.6% and 82.1% in RCC, 81.1% and 63.6% in CCSK, 60.3% and 56.2% in MRTK, and 100% and 91.7% in CMN, respectively (p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#The pediatric renal tumor types in Korea are similar to those previously reported in other countries. WT accounted for a large proportion and survival was excellent. Non-Wilms renal tumors included a variety of tumors and showed inferior outcome, especially MRTK. Further efforts are necessary to optimize the treatment and analyze the genetic characteristics of pediatric renal tumors in Korea.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 269-276, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913833

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a rare disease in children and there are some different characteristics between children and adult. We aimed to evaluate incidence, clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of pediatric APL in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Seventy-nine pediatric APL patients diagnosed from January 2009 to December 2016 in 16 tertiary medical centers in Korea were reviewed retrospectively. @*Results@#Of 801 acute myeloid leukemia children, 79 (9.9%) were diagnosed with APL. The median age at diagnosis was 10.6 years (range, 1.3 to 18.0). Male and female ratio was 1:0.93. Thirty patients (38.0%) had white blood cell (WBC) count greater than 10×109/L at diagnosis. All patients received induction therapy consisting of all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy. Five patients (6.6%) died during induction chemotherapy and 66 patients (86.8%) achieved complete remission (CR) after induction chemotherapy. The causes of death were three intracranial hemorrhage, one cerebral infarction, and one sepsis. Five patients (7.1%) suffered a relapse during or after maintenance chemotherapy. The estimated 4-year event-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were 82.1%±4.4%, 89.7%±5.1%, respectively. The 4-year OS was significantly higher in patients with initial WBC < 10×109/L than in those with initial WBC ≥ 10×109/L (p=0.020). @*Conclusion@#This study showed that the CR rates and survival outcomes in Korean pediatric APL patients were relatively good. The initial WBC count was the most important prognostic factor and most causes of death were related to serious bleeding in the early stage of treatment.

4.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 30-34, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924814

ABSTRACT

Extramedullary relapse in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) usually occurs in the central nervous system and testes those are known as sanctuary sites. Only a few cases of isolated breast relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have been reported in pediatric ALL, with little known about the optimal treatment and prognosis of such cases. Herein, we report a pediatric case of isolated breast relapse with early T-cell precursor ALL after HSCT. We also describe a literature review of six pediatric cases, including our case.

5.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 93-97, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914058

ABSTRACT

Atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML), BCR-ABL1-negative is a rare myeloid neoplasm, especially in pediatric patients. The mutations identified in aCML have overlapped with those of other myeloid neoplasms. In recent studies, ruxolitinib, a Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor, was found efficient in some patients of aCML with CSF3R mutation. Here, we report a pediatric case of aCML with CSF3Rmutation who did not respond to ruxoritinib, but was successfully rescued with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT). A stuporous 13-year-old boy was transferred with leukocytosis.Computed tomography showed an acute lobar intracranial hemorrhage in the left frontal lobe. The bone marrow aspirate demonstrated significant granulocytic proliferations with predominant dysplasia. Hydroxyurea and imatinib were initially administered to reduce leukocytosis. After BCR-ABL1 was found to be negative, imatinib was discontinued. After the identification of CSF3R mutation by customized targeted DNA sequencing (NGeneBio, Seoul, South Korea), ruxolitinib was added. He seemed to have hematologic and clinical responses on 2 months of ruxolitinib treatment, but the blast counts in the bone marrow increased. He underwent a full-matched unrelated peripheral blood SCT successfully 3 months after his diagnosis and has currently been disease-free 8 months since the transplantation. In conclusion, ruxolitinib for aCML with CSF3R mutation might not always induce a significant response but could be used as bridge to hematopoietic SCT.

6.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 378-388, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889726

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 378-388, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897430

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

8.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e46-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#This study aimed to assess the outcome of stem cell transplantation (SCT), including overall survival (OS), failure-free survival (FFS) and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD)-free/failure-free survival (GFFS), and to analyze prognostic factors in children with aplastic anemia (AA).@*METHODS@#From 1991 to 2018, 43 allogeneic SCT recipients were enrolled in the study to investigate the demographic characteristics, survival outcomes and prognostic factors.@*RESULTS@#With the median follow-up of 7.1 years, the estimated 10-year OS, FFS, GFFS were 86.0%, 60.5%, and 51.2%, respectively. Matched related donors (MRD, n = 28) showed better 10-year OS than unrelated donors (n = 15) (96.4% vs. 66.7%; P = 0.006). Engraftment failure was seen in 13 patients (30.2%). Donor-type aplasia was seen in 13.8% (4/29) after fludarabine (Flu)-based conditioning (Flu-group), while in 42.6% (6/14) after cyclophosphamide (Cy)-based regimen (Cy-group) (P = 0.035). Six patients died. The 10-year OS in Cy-group was 92.9% (n = 14, all MRD), while that of Flu-group was 82.1% (n = 29; P = 0.367). But Flu-group tended to have better FFS and GFFS than Cy-group, although Flu-group had less MRDs (41.4% vs. 100%; P = 0.019), and higher proportion of previous immunosuppressive treatment (IST; 62% vs. 21.4%, P = 0.012). In MRD transplants, OS was similar between Flu-group (100%, n = 14) and Cy-group (92.9%, n = 14), while FFS (100.0% vs. 42.9%; P = 0.001) and GFFS (85.7% vs. 35.7%; P = 0.006) were significantly better in Flu-group. Stem cell sources, irradiation in the conditioning, and method of GvHD prophylaxis did not significantly influence the outcome.@*CONCLUSION@#This study reviewed SCT outcomes for pediatric AA with changes of transplant strategies over the last 25 years. The FFS and GFFS were higher in Flu-group than in Cy-group, especially in matched related transplantation. Graft failure including donor-type aplasia remains troublesome even with Flu-based conditioning. Further refinement of transplant strategies to ensure better quality-of-life should be pursued.

9.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e46-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899775

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#This study aimed to assess the outcome of stem cell transplantation (SCT), including overall survival (OS), failure-free survival (FFS) and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD)-free/failure-free survival (GFFS), and to analyze prognostic factors in children with aplastic anemia (AA).@*METHODS@#From 1991 to 2018, 43 allogeneic SCT recipients were enrolled in the study to investigate the demographic characteristics, survival outcomes and prognostic factors.@*RESULTS@#With the median follow-up of 7.1 years, the estimated 10-year OS, FFS, GFFS were 86.0%, 60.5%, and 51.2%, respectively. Matched related donors (MRD, n = 28) showed better 10-year OS than unrelated donors (n = 15) (96.4% vs. 66.7%; P = 0.006). Engraftment failure was seen in 13 patients (30.2%). Donor-type aplasia was seen in 13.8% (4/29) after fludarabine (Flu)-based conditioning (Flu-group), while in 42.6% (6/14) after cyclophosphamide (Cy)-based regimen (Cy-group) (P = 0.035). Six patients died. The 10-year OS in Cy-group was 92.9% (n = 14, all MRD), while that of Flu-group was 82.1% (n = 29; P = 0.367). But Flu-group tended to have better FFS and GFFS than Cy-group, although Flu-group had less MRDs (41.4% vs. 100%; P = 0.019), and higher proportion of previous immunosuppressive treatment (IST; 62% vs. 21.4%, P = 0.012). In MRD transplants, OS was similar between Flu-group (100%, n = 14) and Cy-group (92.9%, n = 14), while FFS (100.0% vs. 42.9%; P = 0.001) and GFFS (85.7% vs. 35.7%; P = 0.006) were significantly better in Flu-group. Stem cell sources, irradiation in the conditioning, and method of GvHD prophylaxis did not significantly influence the outcome.@*CONCLUSION@#This study reviewed SCT outcomes for pediatric AA with changes of transplant strategies over the last 25 years. The FFS and GFFS were higher in Flu-group than in Cy-group, especially in matched related transplantation. Graft failure including donor-type aplasia remains troublesome even with Flu-based conditioning. Further refinement of transplant strategies to ensure better quality-of-life should be pursued.

10.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 46-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the outcome of stem cell transplantation (SCT), including overall survival (OS), failure-free survival (FFS) and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD)-free/failure-free survival (GFFS), and to analyze prognostic factors in children with aplastic anemia (AA).METHODS: From 1991 to 2018, 43 allogeneic SCT recipients were enrolled in the study to investigate the demographic characteristics, survival outcomes and prognostic factors.RESULTS: With the median follow-up of 7.1 years, the estimated 10-year OS, FFS, GFFS were 86.0%, 60.5%, and 51.2%, respectively. Matched related donors (MRD, n = 28) showed better 10-year OS than unrelated donors (n = 15) (96.4% vs. 66.7%; P = 0.006). Engraftment failure was seen in 13 patients (30.2%). Donor-type aplasia was seen in 13.8% (4/29) after fludarabine (Flu)-based conditioning (Flu-group), while in 42.6% (6/14) after cyclophosphamide (Cy)-based regimen (Cy-group) (P = 0.035). Six patients died. The 10-year OS in Cy-group was 92.9% (n = 14, all MRD), while that of Flu-group was 82.1% (n = 29; P = 0.367). But Flu-group tended to have better FFS and GFFS than Cy-group, although Flu-group had less MRDs (41.4% vs. 100%; P = 0.019), and higher proportion of previous immunosuppressive treatment (IST; 62% vs. 21.4%, P = 0.012). In MRD transplants, OS was similar between Flu-group (100%, n = 14) and Cy-group (92.9%, n = 14), while FFS (100.0% vs. 42.9%; P = 0.001) and GFFS (85.7% vs. 35.7%; P = 0.006) were significantly better in Flu-group. Stem cell sources, irradiation in the conditioning, and method of GvHD prophylaxis did not significantly influence the outcome.CONCLUSION: This study reviewed SCT outcomes for pediatric AA with changes of transplant strategies over the last 25 years. The FFS and GFFS were higher in Flu-group than in Cy-group, especially in matched related transplantation. Graft failure including donor-type aplasia remains troublesome even with Flu-based conditioning. Further refinement of transplant strategies to ensure better quality-of-life should be pursued.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Anemia, Aplastic , Cyclophosphamide , Follow-Up Studies , Graft vs Host Disease , Methods , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells , Tissue Donors , Transplants , Unrelated Donors
11.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1064-1067, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833330

ABSTRACT

Hemoglobin M (HbM) is a group of abnormal hemoglobin variants that form methemoglobin, which leads to cyanosis and hemolytic anemia. HbM-Milwaukee-2 is a rare variant caused by the point mutation CAC>TAC on codon 93 of the hemoglobin subunit beta (HBB) gene, resulting in the replacement of histidine by tyrosine. We here report the first Korean family with HbM-Milwaukee-2, whose diagnosis was confirmed by gene sequencing. A high index of suspicion for this rare Hb variant is necessary in a patient presenting with cyanosis since childhood, along with methemoglobinemia and a family history of cyanosis.

12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e393-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831569

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) constitutes 10%–20% of all malignant lymphomas and has a high cure rate (5-year survival, around 90%). Recently, interest has increased concerning preventing secondary complications (secondary cancer, endocrine disorders) in long-term survivors. We aimed to study the epidemiologic features and therapeutic outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. @*Methods@#We performed a multicenter, retrospective study of 224 patients aged < 25 years diagnosed with HL at 22 participating institutes in Korea from January 2007 to August 2016. @*Results@#A higher percentage of males was diagnosed at a younger age. Nodular sclerosis histopathological HL subtype was most common, followed by mixed cellularity subtype.Eighty-one (36.2%), 101 (45.1%), and 42 (18.8%) patients were classified into low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively. Doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine was the most common protocol (n = 102, 45.5%). Event-free survival rate was 86.0% ± 2.4%, while five-year overall survival (OS) rate was 96.1% ± 1.4%: 98.7% ± 1.3%, 97.7% ± 1.6%, and 86.5% ± 5.6% in the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively (P = 0.021). Five-year OS was worse in patients with B-symptoms, stage IV disease, highrisk, splenic involvement, extra-nodal lymphoma, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase level.In multivariate analysis, B-symptoms and extra-nodal involvement were prognostic factors for poor OS. Late complications of endocrine disorders and secondary malignancy were observed in 17 and 6 patients, respectively. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study on the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. Future prospective studies are indicated to develop therapies that minimize treatment toxicity while maximizing cure rates in children, adolescents, and young adults with HL.

13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e279-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831549

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hereditary hemolytic anemia (HHA) is a rare disease characterized by premature red blood cell (RBC) destruction due to intrinsic RBC defects. The RBC Disorder Working Party of the Korean Society of Hematology established and updated the standard operating procedure for making an accurate diagnosis of HHA since 2007. The aim of this study was to investigate a nationwide epidemiology of Korean HHA. @*Methods@#We collected the data of a newly diagnosed pediatric HHA cohort (2007–2016) and compared this cohort's characteristics with those of a previously surveyed pediatric HHA cohort (1997–2006) in Korea. Each participant's information was retrospectively collected by a questionnaire survey. @*Results@#A total of 369 children with HHA from 38 hospitals distributed in 16 of 17 districts of Korea were investigated. RBC membranopathies, hemoglobinopathies, RBC enzymopathies, and unknown etiologies accounted for 263 (71.3%), 59 (16.0%), 23 (6.2%), and 24 (6.5%) of the cases, respectively. Compared to the cohort from the previous decade, the proportions of hemoglobinopathies and RBC enzymopathies significantly increased (P < 0.001 and P = 0.008, respectively). Twenty-three of the 59 hemoglobinopathy patients had immigrant mothers, mostly from South-East Asia. @*Conclusion@#In Korea, thalassemia traits have increased over the past 10 years, reflecting both increased awareness of this disease and increased international marriages. The enhanced recognition of RBC enzymopathies is due to advances in diagnostic technique; however, 6.5% of HHA patients still do not have a clear diagnosis. It is necessary to improve accessibility of diagnosing HHA.

14.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 42-46, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831199

ABSTRACT

Disturbances in water and salt balances are relatively common in children afterbrain tumor surgery. However, the coexistence of different diseases of water andsodium homeostasis is challenging to diagnose and treat. The coexistence ofcombined central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and cerebral salt wasting syndrome(CSWS) is rare and may impede accurate diagnosis. Herein, we report the case ofan 18-year-old girl who underwent surgery for a germinoma and who presentedprolonged coexistence of CDI and CSWS. The patient was diagnosed with panhypopituitarismwith CDI at presentation and was treated with hydrocortisone, levothyroxine,and desmopressin. Postoperatively, she developed polyuria of morethan 3L/day, with a maximum daily urine output of 7.2 L/day. Her serum sodiumlevel decreased from 148 to 131 mEq/L. Polyuria was treated with desmopressin atincremental doses, and hyponatremia was managed with fluid replacement. At 2months after surgery, she presented with hyponatremia-induced seizure. Polyuriaand hyponatremia combined with natriuresis indicated CSWS. Treatment with fludrocortisonewere initiated; then, her electrolyte level gradually normalized. CSWSis self-limiting and generally resolves within 2 weeks. However, the patient in thisstudy still required treatment with vasopressin and fludrocortisone at 16-monthsafter surgery.Hyponatremia in a patient with CDI may be erroneously interpretedas inadequateCDI control or syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormonesecretion, leading to inappropriate treatment. The identification of the potentialcombination of CDI and CSWS is important for early diagnosis and treatment.

15.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : e17-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831028

ABSTRACT

From 2004 to 2020, we studied three pediatric patients (age: 9-13 years, all male) and one adult patient (age: 29 years, female) with tectal plate glioma with obstructing hydrocephalus on MRI. One patient had neurofibromatosis type 1. All patients complained about headaches and vomiting, and one patient had diplopia. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) was underwent in all patients and a biopsy was obtained from two patients. Pathologic diagnoses were a pilocytic astrocytoma and a lowgrade glioma. After ETV with or without biopsy, neurological symptoms were improved in all patients.Three patients did the clinical and radiological follow-up without adjuvant treatment. One patient underwent gamma knife radiosurgery. In two pediatric patients and the adult patient, there was no clinical and radiological progression after 6.2, 6.9, and 8.0 years, respectively. One pediatric patient whose lesion had focal enhancement had radiologic progression without any neurologic symptoms after 5.1 years. Without adjuvant treatment for this lesion, there was no clinical deterioration neither further radiological progression for 6.2 years after radiological aggravation. Tectal plate gliomas showed indolent clinical courses, even after radiologic tumor progression. After the treatment of obstructing hydrocephalus, clinical and radiologic follow-up can be recommended for indolent tectal plate gliomas.

16.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 110-114, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763512

ABSTRACT

Hepatic osteodystrophy is frequent complication in patients with chronic liver disease, particularly with chronic cholestasis. We report a male infant with congenital hepatoblastoma, who had osteodystrophy complicated by multiple bone fractures despite adequate supplementation of fat-soluble vitamins including vitamin D. He was born by Caesarean section because of a 7 cm–sized abdominal mass detected by prenatal ultrasonography. The pathologic diagnosis was hepatoblastoma, PRETEXT staging III or IV. Whole body bone scan at the time of diagnosis showed no abnormal uptake. Oral vitamin D3 of 2,000 IU/day was administered with other fat-soluble vitamins. Serum direct bilirubin level gradually increased up to 28.9 mg/dL at postnatal 6 days and was above 5 mg/dL until 110 days of age. Bony changes consistent with rickets became apparent in left proximal humerus since 48 days of age, and multiple bone fractures developed thereafter. With resolving cholestasis by chemotherapy, his bony lesions improved gradually after add-on treatment of bisphosphonate and parenteral administration of vitamin D with calcium. High level of suspicion and prevention of osteodystrophy is needed in patients with hepatoblastoma, especially when cholestasis persists.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Pregnancy , Bilirubin , Calcium , Cesarean Section , Cholecalciferol , Cholestasis , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Fractures, Bone , Hepatoblastoma , Humerus , Liver Diseases , Rickets , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Vitamin D , Vitamins
17.
Blood Research ; : 198-203, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of extended half-life, full-length, pegylated recombinant factor VIII rurioctocog alfa pegol [BAX 855, ADYNOVATE (USA)/ADYNOVI (Europe); Baxalta US Inc., a Takeda company, Lexington, MA, USA] was investigated in previously treated Korean patients with severe hemophilia A (HA). METHODS: A post hoc data analysis from the international, multicenter, phase 2/3 PROLONG-ATE study of rurioctocog alfa pegol in patients with severe HA (NCT01736475) determined annualized bleeding rates (ABRs) and rates of adverse events (AEs) in Korean patients treated in this study. RESULTS: All 10 enrolled Korean patients receiving rurioctocog alfa pegol (9 prophylaxis, 1 on-demand) completed the study [median (range) age, 28.0 (12–50) yr; weight, 64.8 (45–90) kg; 8 patients had ≥1 target joint at screening]. Median (range) ABR was 1.9 (0.0–14.5) for patients on prophylaxis and 62.2 for the patient receiving on-demand treatment. The hemostatic efficacy of rurioctocog alfa pegol was rated “excellent” or “good” and only single infusions were required per bleeding episode. ABRs improved in most patients compared with prestudy values. No dose adjustments were required for prophylaxis, and the dosing frequency was reduced in 8 patients, compared with their previous prophylaxis regimen. No serious AEs were reported; all 9 nonserious AEs (in 3 patients) were mild in severity and unrelated to the study treatment. CONCLUSION: This post hoc analysis of a small group of Korean patients with severe HA indicated that rurioctocog alfa pegol was effective, and no serious AEs were observed. For most patients, the dosing frequency was also reduced compared with their previous regimen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Factor VIII , Half-Life , Hemophilia A , Hemorrhage , Joints , Statistics as Topic
18.
Blood Research ; : 63-73, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute leukemia (AL), not clearly assigned to myeloid, B-lymphoid, or T-lymphoid lineage, is classified as either biphenotypic acute leukemia (BAL) based on the European Group for Immunological Classification of Leukemias (EGIL) or acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage (ALAL) encompassing acute undifferentiated leukemia (AUL) and mixed-phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) based on the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. METHODS: Medical records of children newly diagnosed with BAL or ALAL, based on the EGIL or the 2008/2016 WHO criteria, respectively, admitted at Chonnam National University Hospital in 2001–2017 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Twelve (3.2%) of 377 AL patients satisfied the BAL or ALAL definitions based on the EGIL or the WHO criteria, respectively. Among 12 patients including 11 with BAL and another with undefined case based on the EGIL criteria, 7 (1.9%) had ALAL based on more stringent 2016 WHO criteria (AUL, 2; MPAL, 5). One patient had MPAL with t(9;22)(q34;q11.2), BCR-ABL+, and two had MLL gene abnormality. ALL-directed regimen was associated with better complete remission rate compared with AML-directed regimen (100.0% vs. 16.7%; P=0.015). The 5-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were 51.1±15.8% and 51.9±15.7%, respectively. AUL was associated with poor OS and EFS compared with MPAL (0.0% vs. 75.0±21.7%; P=0.008). CONCLUSION: Due to the rarity of the cases, future multicenter, prospective studies incorporating large number of cases are urgently warranted to identify the clinical, biologic, and molecular markers for the prediction of prognosis and determine the best tailored therapy for each patient.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Classification , Disease-Free Survival , Immunophenotyping , Leukemia , Leukemia, Biphenotypic, Acute , Medical Records , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , World Health Organization
19.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 357-367, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719418

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Dexrazoxane has been used as an effective cardioprotector against anthracycline cardiotoxicity. This study intended to analyze cardioprotective efficacy and secondary malignancy development, and elucidate risk factors for secondary malignancies in dexrazoxane-treated pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data was collected from 15 hospitals in Korea. Patients who received any anthracyclines, and completed treatment without stem cell transplantation were included. For efficacy evaluation, the incidence of cardiac events and cardiac event-free survival rates were compared. Data about risk factors of secondary malignancies were collected. RESULTS: Data of total 1,453 cases were analyzed; dexrazoxane with every anthracyclines group (D group, 1,035 patients) and no dexrazoxane group (non-D group, 418 patients). Incidence of the reported cardiac events was not statistically different between two groups; however, the cardiac event-free survival rate of patients with more than 400 mg/m2 of anthracyclines was significantly higher in D group (91.2% vs. 80.1%, p=0.04). The 6-year cumulative incidence of secondary malignancy was not different between both groups after considering follow-up duration difference (non-D, 0.52%±0.37%; D, 0.60%±0.28%; p=0.55). The most influential risk factor for secondary malignancy was the duration of anthracycline administration according to multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Dexrazoxane had an efficacy in lowering cardiac event-free survival rates in patients with higher cumulative anthracyclines. As a result of multivariate analysis for assessing risk factors of secondary malignancy, the occurrence of secondary malignancy was not related to dexrazoxane administration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anthracyclines , Cardiotoxicity , Dexrazoxane , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasms, Second Primary , Risk Factors , Stem Cell Transplantation
20.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 312-318, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765260

ABSTRACT

Surgery and radiotherapy are mainstays of treatment for ependymomas (EPNs). Recent molecular subgrouping could be superior to histopathological grading for predicting the prognosis of patients with EPNs. Gross total resection is an effective treatment approach regardless of its locations or pathologic grades. Adjuvant therapeutic strategies could be decided based on molecular subgrouping with risk-stratification. Information of histologic-molecular biology is now providing clues to therapeutic insights.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biology , Ependymoma , Global Health , Molecular Medicine , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
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