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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919191

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Treatment decisions for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LA-HNSCC) are complicated, and multi-modal treatments are usually indicated. However, it is challenging for older patients to complete treatments. Thus, we investigated disease characteristics, real-world treatment, and outcomes in older LA-HNSCC patients. @*Methods@#Older patients (aged ≥ 70 years) were selected from a large nationwide cohort that included 445 patients with stage III–IVB LA-HNSCC from January 2005 to December 2015. Their data were retrospectively analyzed and compared with those of younger patients. @*Results@#Older patients accounted for 18.7% (83/445) of all patients with median age was 73 years (range, 70 to 89). Proportions of primary tumors in the hypopharynx and larynx were higher in older patients and older patients had a more advanced T stage and worse performance status. Regarding treatment strategies of older patients, 44.5% of patients received concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), 41.0% underwent surgery, and 14.5% did not complete the planned treatment. Induction chemotherapy (IC) was administered to 27.7% (23/83) of older patients; the preferred regimen for IC was fluorouracil and cisplatin (47.9%). For CCRT, weekly cisplatin was prescribed 3.3 times more often than 3-weekly cisplatin (62.2% vs. 18.9%). Older patients had a 60% higher risk of death than younger patients (hazard ratio, 1.6; p = 0.035). Oral cavity cancer patients had the worst survival probability. @*Conclusions@#Older LA-HNSCC patients had aggressive tumor characteristics and received less intensive treatment, resulting in poor survival. Further research focusing on the older population is necessary.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913830

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Certain patient subgroups who do not respond to induction chemotherapy (IC) show inherent chemoresistance in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LA-HNSCC). This study aimed to assess the prognostic value of IC, and role of IC in guiding the selection of a definitive locoregional therapy. @*Materials and Methods@#Out of the 445 patients in multi-institutional LA-HNSCC cohort, 158 (36%) receiving IC were enrolled. The study outcome was to assess overall survival (OS) through IC responsiveness and its role to select subsequent treatments. @*Results@#Among 135 patients who completed subsequent treatment following IC, 74% responded to IC (complete response in 17% and partial response in 58%). IC-non-responders showed 4.5 times higher risk of mortality than IC-responders (hazard ratio, 4.52; 95% confidence interval, 2.32 to 8.81; p < 0.001). Among IC-responders, 84% subsequently received definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and OS was not differed by surgery or CCRT (p=0.960). Regarding IC-non-responders, 54% received CCRT and 46% underwent surgery, and OS was poor in CCRT (24-month survival rate of 38%) or surgery (24-month survival rate of 63%). @*Conclusion@#Response to IC is a favorable prognostic factor. For IC-responders, either surgery or CCRT achieved similar survival probabilities. For IC-non-responder, multidisciplinary approach was warranted reflecting patients’ preference, morbidity, and prognosis.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913817

ABSTRACT

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is becoming essential in the fields of precision oncology. With implementation of NGS in daily clinic, the needs for continued education, facilitated interpretation of NGS results and optimal treatment delivery based on NGS results have been addressed. Molecular tumor board (MTB) is multidisciplinary approach to keep pace with the growing knowledge of complex molecular alterations in patients with advanced solid cancer. Although guidelines for NGS use and MTB have been developed in western countries, there is limitation for reflection of Korea’s public health environment and daily clinical practice. These recommendations provide a critical guidance from NGS panel testing to final treatment decision based on MTB discussion.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917765

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#At the end of life, communication is a key factor for good care. However, in clinical practice, it is difficult to adequately discuss end-of-life care. In order to understand and analyze how decision-making related to life-sustaining treatment (LST) is performed, the shared decision-making (SDM) behaviors of physicians were investigated. @*Methods@#A questionnaire was designed after reviewing the literature on attitudes toward SDM or decision-making related to LST. A final item was added after consulting experts. The survey was completed by internal medicine residents and hematologists/medical oncologists who treat terminal cancer patients. @*Results@#In total, 202 respondents completed the questionnaire, and 88.6% said that the decision to continue or end LST is usually a result of SDM since they believed that sufficient explanation is provided to patients and caregivers, patients and caregivers make their own decisions according to their values, and there is sufficient time for patients and caregivers to make a decision. Expected satisfaction with the decisionmaking process was the highest for caregivers (57.4%), followed by physicians (49.5%) and patients (41.1%). In total, 38.1% of respondents said that SDM was adequately practiced when making decisions related to LST. The most common reason for inadequate SDM was time pressure (89.6%). @*Conclusion@#Although most physicians answered that they practiced SDM when making decisions regarding LST, satisfactory SDM is rarely practiced in the clinical field. A model for the proper implementation of SDM is needed, and additional studies must be conducted to develop an SDM model in collaboration with other academic organizations.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917760

ABSTRACT

Continuous deep sedation (CDS) is an extreme form of palliative sedation to relieve refractory symptoms at the end of life. In this study, we shared our experiences with CDS and examined the clinical characteristics associated with survival in patients with terminal cancer who received CDS. We conducted a chart audit of 106 consecutive patients with terminal cancer who received CDS at a single hospice care unit between January 2014 and December 2016. Survival was defined as the first day of admission to the date of death. The associations between clinical characteristics and survival were presented as hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals using a Cox proportional hazard model. The mean age of participants was 65.2 years, and 33.0% (n=35) were women. Diazepam was the most commonly administered drug, and haloperidol or lorazepam were also used if needed. One sedative was enough for a majority of the patients. Stepwise multivariate analysis identified poor functioning, a high Palliative Prognostic Index score, hyperbilirubinemia, high serum ferritin levels, and a low number of sedatives as independent poor prognostic factors. Our experiences and findings are expected to be helpful for shared decision-making and further research on palliative sedation.

6.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1004-1014, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913806

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) has increased, and staging and optimal therapeutic approaches are challenging. A questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the controversial treatment policy of stage T2 OPC according to the N category and determine the opinions of multidisciplinary experts in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Five OPC scenarios were developed by the Subcommittee on Oropharyngeal Treatment Guidelines of the Korean Society for Head and Neck Oncology and distributed to experts of multidisciplinary treatment hospitals. @*Results@#Sixty-five experts from 45 institutions responded. For the HPV-positive T2N0M0 scenario, 67.7% of respondents selected surgery followed by definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) or radiotherapy alone. For the T2N1M0 HPV-positive scenario, there was a notable difference in the selection of primary treatment by expert specialty; 53.9% of respondents selected surgery and 39.8% selected definitive CCRT as the primary treatment. For the T2N3M0 advanced HPV-positive scenario, 50.0% of respondents selected CCRT and 33.3% considered induction chemotherapy (IC) as the primary treatment. CCRT and IC were significantly more frequently selected for the HPV-related OPC cases (p=0.010). The interdepartmental variability showed that the head and neck surgeons and medical oncologists favored surgery, whereas the radiation oncologists preferably selected definitive CCRT (p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#In this study, surgery was preferred for lymph node-negative OPC, and as lymph node metastasis progressed, CCRT tended to be preferred, and IC was administered. Clinical practice patterns by stage and HPV status showed differences according to expert specialty. Multidisciplinary consensus guidelines will be essential in the future.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897462

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#YoungPEARL (KCSG-BR15-10) trial demonstrated a significant progression-free survival (PFS) benefit for premenopausal patients with hormone receptor–positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–negative (HR+/HER2–) metastatic breast cancer (MBC) for palbociclib plus exemestane with ovarian function suppression compared to capecitabine. However, the number of tamoxifen-sensitive premenopausal patients was small because most recurrences occurred early during adjuvant endocrine therapy (ET), with tamoxifen being the only drug used; hence, the data for these patients were limited. Here we present a subgroup analysis according to tamoxifen sensitivity from the YoungPEARL study. Materials and Methods Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive palbociclib+ET (oral exemestane 25 mg/day for 28 days, palbociclib 125 mg/day for 21 days, plus leuprolide 3.75 mg subcutaneously every 4 weeks) or chemotherapy (oral capecitabine 1,250 mg/m2 twice daily for 14 days every 3 weeks). Tamoxifen resistance was defined as: relapse while on adjuvant tamoxifen, relapse within 12 months of completing adjuvant tamoxifen, or progression while on first-line tamoxifen within 6 months for MBC. @*Results@#In total, 184 patients were randomized and 178 were included in the modified intention-to-treat population. PFS improvement in the palbociclib+ET group was observed in tamoxifen-sensitive patients (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.12 to 1.19). Furthermore, palbociclib+ET prolonged median PFS compared with capecitabine in tamoxifen-sensitive (20.5 months vs. 12.6 months) and tamoxifen-resistant (20.1 months vs. 14.5 months) patients. Palbociclib+ET demonstrated a higher rate of objective response, disease control, and clinical benefit in tamoxifen-sensitive patients. Conclusion This post hoc exploratory analysis suggests that palbociclib+ET is a promising therapeutic option for premenopausal HR+/HER2– MBC patients irrespective of tamoxifen sensitivity.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889758

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#YoungPEARL (KCSG-BR15-10) trial demonstrated a significant progression-free survival (PFS) benefit for premenopausal patients with hormone receptor–positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–negative (HR+/HER2–) metastatic breast cancer (MBC) for palbociclib plus exemestane with ovarian function suppression compared to capecitabine. However, the number of tamoxifen-sensitive premenopausal patients was small because most recurrences occurred early during adjuvant endocrine therapy (ET), with tamoxifen being the only drug used; hence, the data for these patients were limited. Here we present a subgroup analysis according to tamoxifen sensitivity from the YoungPEARL study. Materials and Methods Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive palbociclib+ET (oral exemestane 25 mg/day for 28 days, palbociclib 125 mg/day for 21 days, plus leuprolide 3.75 mg subcutaneously every 4 weeks) or chemotherapy (oral capecitabine 1,250 mg/m2 twice daily for 14 days every 3 weeks). Tamoxifen resistance was defined as: relapse while on adjuvant tamoxifen, relapse within 12 months of completing adjuvant tamoxifen, or progression while on first-line tamoxifen within 6 months for MBC. @*Results@#In total, 184 patients were randomized and 178 were included in the modified intention-to-treat population. PFS improvement in the palbociclib+ET group was observed in tamoxifen-sensitive patients (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.12 to 1.19). Furthermore, palbociclib+ET prolonged median PFS compared with capecitabine in tamoxifen-sensitive (20.5 months vs. 12.6 months) and tamoxifen-resistant (20.1 months vs. 14.5 months) patients. Palbociclib+ET demonstrated a higher rate of objective response, disease control, and clinical benefit in tamoxifen-sensitive patients. Conclusion This post hoc exploratory analysis suggests that palbociclib+ET is a promising therapeutic option for premenopausal HR+/HER2– MBC patients irrespective of tamoxifen sensitivity.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831756

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The multidisciplinary team (MDT) approach is a cornerstone of clinical oncology. This study investigated the current state of MDT care, including patient satisfaction, in Korea. @*Methods@#We obtained the annual number of cancer patients who have received MDT care since 2014 from the registry of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA). In addition, patients who received MDT care from August 2014 to May 2017 at four university hospitals were further characterized, and patient satisfaction was measured prospectively using a patient-reported questionnaire. @*Results@#The total number of patients who received MDT care increased from 2014 to 2016 (2,113 to 9,998 patients, respectively) in the HIRA Cohort. The type of cancer that most often required MDT was breast cancer (23.8%), followed by colorectal cancer (19.1%). In the Representative Cohort (n = 1,032), MDT was requested by the surgeon more than half the time (55.7%). The main focus of MDT was decision making for further treatment planning (99.0%). The number of doctors participating in the MDT was usually five (70.0%). After initiating an MDT approach, the treatment plan changed for 17.4% of patients. Among these patients, 359 completed a prospective satisfaction survey regarding their MDT care. The overall satisfaction with the MDT approach was very high, with an average score of 9.6 out of 10 points. @*Conclusions@#The application of MDT care is a rapidly growing trend in clinical oncology, and shows high patient satisfaction. Further research is needed to determine which types of cancer patients could benefit most from MDT, and to enable MDT care to operate more efficiently so that it may expand successfully throughout Korea.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719422

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a deadly disease in which precision medicine needs to be incorporated. We aimed to implement next-generation sequencing (NGS) in determining actionable targets to guide appropriate molecular targeted therapy in HNSCC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-three tumors and matched blood samples underwent targeted sequencing of 244 genes using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform with an average depth of coverage of greater than 1,000×. Clinicopathological data from patients were obtained from 17 centers in Korea, and were analyzed in correlation with NGS data. RESULTS: Ninety-two of the 93 tumors were amenable to data analysis. TP53 was the most common mutation, occurring in 47 (51%) patients, followed by CDKN2A (n=23, 25%), CCND1 (n=22, 24%), and PIK3CA (n=19, 21%). The total mutational burden was similar between human papillomavirus (HPV)–negative vs. positive tumors, although TP53, CDKN2A and CCND1 gene alterations occurred more frequently in HPV-negative tumors. HPV-positive tumors were significantly associated with immune signature-related genes compared to HPV-negative tumors. Mutations of NOTCH1 (p=0.027), CDKN2A (p < 0.001), and TP53 (p=0.038) were significantly associated with poorer overall survival. FAT1 mutations were highly enriched in cisplatin responders, and potentially targetable alterations such as PIK3CA E545K and CDKN2A R58X were noted in 14 patients (15%). CONCLUSION: We found several targetable genetic alterations, and our findings suggest that implementation of precision medicine in HNSCC is feasible. The predictive value of each targetable alteration should be assessed in a future umbrella trial using matched molecular targeted agents.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cisplatin , Epithelial Cells , Head , Humans , Korea , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neck , Precision Medicine , Statistics as Topic
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Despite increased demand for cancer patient's to make their own decisions based on an adequate understanding of what is involved in chemotherapy, the primary signing agent and the reasons for surrogate signing have not been appropriately evaluated.@*METHODS@#The ethics committee of the palliative medicine subgroup of the Korean Cancer Study Group designed this study and solid cancer patients to whom chemotherapy was offered, from seven institutions, were evaluated. The details relating to surrogate's signing of chemotherapy consent were evaluated. Then, we analyzed the factors associated with surrogate's signing according to patient's demographics and characteristics related to chemotherapy consent.@*RESULTS@#Surrogate's signing was noted for 20.7% (84/405) of patient and over half of surrogate signings were performed by the patients' son or daughter (60.7%). Two main reasons for surrogate signing were patient's incapacity (34.5%) and taking over authorization from patients (33.3%). The factors associated with more frequent surrogate's signing were absence of spouse, lower education level, outpatient, and when residents played a role as a principle provider of chemotherapy consent.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study suggests the lack of patients' own decision making for chemotherapy in some situations. This ethical dilemma must be considered for adequately informed decision making for chemotherapy while ensuring the patients' autonomy is maintained.

12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1632-1638, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763198

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) form is a legal document for terminally ill patients to make medical decisions with physicians near the end-of-life. A multicenter prospective study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of POLST administration in actual oncological practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with terminal cancer, age ≥ 20 years, and capable of communicating were eligible. The primary endpoint was the completion rate of POLST. Data about physicians' or patients' barriers were also collected. RESULTS: From June to December 2017, 336 patients from seven hospitals were eligible. Median patient age was 66 years (range, 20 to 94 years); 52.7% were male; and 60.4% had poor performance status. Primary cancer sites were hepato-pancreato-biliary (26.2%), lung (23.2%), and gastrointestinal (19.9%). Expected survival duration was 10.6±7.3 weeks, with 41.2% receiving hospice care, 37.9% showing progression after cancer treatment, and the remaining patients were under active treatment (15.8%) or initially diagnosed with terminal cancer (5.1%). POLST forms were introduced to 60.1% of patients, and 31.3% signed the form. Physicians' barriers were reluctance of family (49.7%), lack of rapport (44.8%), patients' denial of prognosis (34.3%), lack of time (22.7%), guilty feelings (21.5%), and uncertainty about either prognosis (21.0%) or the right time to discuss POLST (16.6%). The patients' barriers were the lack of knowledge/understanding of POLST (65.1%), emotional discomfort (63.5%), difficulty in decision-making (66.7%), or denial of prognosis (14.3%). CONCLUSION: One-third of patients completed POLST forms, and various barriers were identified. To overcome such barriers, social engagement, education, and systematic support might be necessary.


Subject(s)
Denial, Psychological , Education , Feasibility Studies , Hospice Care , Humans , Lung , Male , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Terminally Ill , Uncertainty
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#We investigated the time taken for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to develop brain metastases (BM), as well as their subsequent overall median survival following diagnosis, considering the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutational status.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively investigated the medical records of 259 patients diagnosed with advanced NSCLC from January 2010 to August 2013, who were tested for EGFR mutations. The time from the diagnosis of advanced NSCLC to the development of BM and the overall median survival after BM development (BM-OS) were evaluated and compared by EGFR mutational status.@*RESULTS@#Sixty-seven patients (25.9%) developed BM. Synchronous BM occurred more often in patients with EGFR mutation type (MT) (n = 20, 27.4%) compared with EGFR wild type (WT) (n = 27, 14.5%, p < 0.009). The median BM-OS was significantly longer in patients with EGFR MT than in those with EGFR WT (25.7 months vs. 3.8 months, p < 0.001), and a similar trend was noticed for patients with synchronous BM (25.7 months for EGFR MT vs. 6.8 months for EGFR WT, p < 0.001). However, in patients with metachronous BM development, the difference in BM-OS between patients with EGFR MT (14.6 months) and EGFR WT (2.5 months) did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.230).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Synchronous BM was more common in NSCLC patients with EGFR MT than in those with EGFR WT. However, EGFR mutations were associated with significantly longer median BM-OS, especially when the brain was the first metastatic site.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-170078

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed versus gefitinib in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced (stage IIIB or IV) or recurrent NSCLC were randomly assigned to receive either 500 mg/m(2) of pemetrexed intravenously every 3 weeks or gefitinib 250 mg/day orally. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) at 6 months. RESULTS: A total of 95 patients were enrolled (47 for pemetrexed and 48 for gefitinib). Most patients were male (72%) and current/ex-smokers (69%), and 80% had non-squamous cell carcinoma. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status was determined in 38 patients (40%); one patient per each arm was positive for EGFR mutation. The 6-month PFS rates were 22% and 15% for pemetrexed and gefitinib, respectively (p=0.35). Both arms showed an identical median PFS of 2.0 months and a median overall survival (OS) of 8.5 months. In EGFR wild-type patients, higher response rate (RR) and longer PFS as well as OS were achieved via pemetrexed compared with gefitinib, although there were no significant differences (RR: 39% vs. 9%, p=0.07; median PFS: 6.6 months vs. 3.1 months, p=0.45; median OS: 29.6 months vs. 12.9 months, p=0.62). Toxicities were mild in both treatment arms. Frequently reported toxicities were anemia and fatigue for pemetrexed, and skin rash and anorexia for gefitinib. CONCLUSION: Both pemetrexed and gefitinib had similar efficacy with good tolerability as second-line treatment in unselected patients with advanced NSCLC. However, pemetrexed is considered more effective than gefitinib for EGFR wild-type patients.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Anorexia , Arm , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Exanthema , Fatigue , Humans , Male , ErbB Receptors
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72541

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: While the Trastuzumab for Gastric Cancer (ToGA) trial demonstrated the efficacy and safety of trastuzumab-based chemotherapy in HER2-positive metastatic gastric cancer, the overall survival (OS) benefit was not found in Asian and diffuse-type cancer patients. The aim of the study is to investigate predictive markers for trastuzumab-based chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of patients with HER2-positive gastric cancer treated with trastuzumab-based chemotherapy were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: A total of 168 Asian patients were included. The median age was 60 years (range, 27 to 85 years) and the male:female ratio was 118 (70.2%):50 (29.8%). Fourteen (8.3%), 63 (37.5%), 75 (44.6%), and 11 (6.5%) patients had well, moderately, poorly-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma and signet ring cell carcinoma, respectively. With 14 complete responses and 73 partial responses, the response rate was 50.6%. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 10.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.7 to 11.7), and the median OS was 18.5 months (95% CI, 16.4 to 50.6). Next, we investigated the effect of poorly-differentiated histology (PDH, poorly-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma+signet ring cell carcinoma) on clinical outcomes. The median PFS (8.9 months vs. 11.5 months, p=0.16) was slightly inferior in PDH patients, and the median OS was significantly shorter in PDH patients (14.6 months vs. 19.0 months, p=0.025). CONCLUSION: While subset analysis of the ToGA trial demonstrated that trastuzumab-based chemotherapy may not be beneficial for Asians and patients with PDH, our data may suggest that even in Asian patients and patients with PDH, trastuzumab-based chemotherapy could be associated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with HER2-positive gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Asians , Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Ethnicity , Humans , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms
16.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1264-1273, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109750

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to verify prognostic factors including sarcopenia in patients with recurrent or metastatic pancreatic cancer receiving gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records and computed tomography scan of consecutive patients treated with palliative gemcitabine-based chemotherapy from 2008 to 2014 were reviewed. The lumbar skeletal muscle index at third lumbar spine level was computed, and together with clinicolaboratory factors, univariate and multivariable analyses for overall survival (OS) were performed. RESULTS: A total of 88 patients were found. Median age was 65 years, and male patients were predominant (67.0%). Most patients had initially metastatic disease (72.7%), and gemcitabine monotherapy was administered in 29 patients (33.0%) while gemcitabine plus erlotinib was administered in 59 patients (67.0%). Seventy-six patients (86.3%) had sarcopenia. With a median follow-up period of 44.3 months (range, 0.6 to 44.3 months), median OS was 5.35 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.11 to 6.59). In univariate and multivariable analysis, high carcinoembryonic antigen level (hazard ratio [HR], 4.18; 95% CI, 1.95 to 8.97; p < 0.001), initially metastatic disease (HR, 3.37; 95% CI, 1.55 to 7.32; p=0.002), sarcopenia (HR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.20 to 7.36; p=0.019), neutrophilia (HR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.27 to 6.79; p=0.012), and high lactate dehydrogenase level (HR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.07 to 3.58; p=0.029) were identified as independent prognostic factors for OS. CONCLUSION: Five independent prognostic factors in patients with recurrent or metastatic pancreatic cancer who received gemcitabine-based chemotherapy were identified. These findings may be helpful in prediction of prognosis in clinical practice and can be used as a stratification factor for clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Drug Therapy , Erlotinib Hydrochloride , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Male , Medical Records , Muscle, Skeletal , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Prognosis , Sarcopenia , Spine
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90542

ABSTRACT

Oxaliplatin is a third-generation platinum derivative used for metastatic or advanced colorectal cancer treatment. Although myelosuppression is the most common cause of oxaliplatin-induced thrombocytopenia, rare cases of oxaliplatin-induced immune-mediated thrombocytopenia are reported. We report a case of a 57-year-old woman with colon cancer who developed gum bleeding and petechiae after oxaliplatin infusion. Laboratory tests revealed grade 4 thrombocytopenia and grade 4 neutropenia. She recovered from the thrombocytopenia and accompanying neutropenia within 4 days with no recurrence following discontinuation of oxaliplatin. Physicians need to be aware of the risk of severe acute thrombocytopenia following oxaliplatin administration.


Subject(s)
Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Female , Gingiva , Hemorrhage , Humans , Middle Aged , Neutropenia , Platinum , Purpura , Recurrence , Thrombocytopenia
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-18556

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although vitamin D deficiency is more commonly found in cancer patient than in non-cancer patients, there have been little data regarding the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in cancer patients at the very end of life. We examined vitamin D deficiency in terminally ill cancer patients and related factors. METHODS: This study was based on a retrospective chart review of 133 patients in a hospice ward. We collected data regarding age, sex, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, cancer type, physical performance, current medications and various laboratory findings. We investigated factors related to serum vitamin D levels after multivariate adjustment for potential confounders. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D<20 ng/mL was considered deficient and <10 ng/mL severely deficient. RESULTS: Ninety-five percent of the patients were serum vitamin D deficient. Severe vitamin D deficiency was more common in male patients, non-lung cancer patients, H2 blocker users and non-anticonvulsant users. Elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were also associated with low serum vitamin D levels. Multiple regression analysis showed that severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with male gender (aOR 3.82, 95% CI: 1.50~9.72, P=0.005), H2 blocker users (aOR 3.94, 95% CI: 1.61~9.65, P=0.003) and elevated serum ALT levels (aOR 4.52, 95% CI: 1.35~15.19, P=0.015). CONCLUSION: Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent among terminally ill cancer patients. Severe vitamin D deficiency was more common in male patients, H2 blocker users, and patients with elevated ALT levels.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Hospices , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Terminally Ill , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-213729

ABSTRACT

Paraneoplastic pemphigus is an autoimmune blistering and erosive mucocutaneous syndrome associated with underlying neoplasm. It is primarily associated with lymphoproliferative disorders, and uncommonly with malignancies of epithelial origin. We report on a case of a 68-year-old male who presented with whole body bullous and erosive skin lesions. Findings on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and skin biopsy revealed esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and paraneoplastic pemphigus. Palliative chemotherapy and systemic glucocorticoid were started, however, the patient died of overwhelming sepsis on the ninth day of chemotherapy. This case demonstrates that paraneoplastic pemphigus can occur in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and could be a cause of morbidity.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Blister , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Esophageal Neoplasms , Humans , Lymphoproliferative Disorders , Male , Paraneoplastic Syndromes , Pemphigus , Sepsis , Skin
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78973

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The degree of benefit from palliative chemotherapy differs widely among patients with metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (MESCC). The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a prognostic nomogram to predict survival and aid physicians and patients in the decision-making process regarding treatment options. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinicopathologic variables and treatment outcomes of 239 patients who were diagnosed with MESCC and received either fluorouracil/cisplatin (FP) or capecitabine/cisplatin (XP) as first-line chemotherapy were reviewed. A nomogram was developed as a prognostic scoring system incorporating significant clinical and laboratory variables based on a multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model. An independent series of 61 MESCC patients treated with FP served as an independent data set for nomogram validation. RESULTS: No difference in response rate was observed between the FP group (44.8%) and the XP group (54.2%). Similarly, no significant differences in median progression-free survival and median overall survival were observed between regimen groups. Multivariate analysis showed that poor performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group [ECOG] status> or =2), weight loss (10% of the weight loss for 3 months), low albumin level (135) prognostic groups. The median survival for those with a favorable ECOG was 13.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.8 to 18.6 months), for intermediate 11.2 months (95% CI, 8.7 to 11.9 months), and for poor, 7.0 months (95% CI, 3.6 to 10.0 months). External validation of the nomogram in a different patient cohort yielded significantly similar findings. CONCLUSION: The nomogram described here predicts survival in MESCC patients and could serve as a guide for the use of FP/XP chemotherapy in MESCC patients.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cohort Studies , Dataset , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Esophagectomy , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Nomograms , Treatment Outcome , Weight Loss
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