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1.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 167-175, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968755

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Little is known about the effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on the recurrence of gastric hyperplastic polyps after endoscopic resection. Thus, we evaluated the recurrence rate of gastric hyperplastic polyps based on H. pylori eradication following endoscopic resection. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 201 patients with H. pylori infection who underwent endoscopic resection for gastric hyperplastic polyps at six medical centers. H. pylori status was assessed by histological analysis and a rapid urease test. A total of 149 patients underwent successful H. pylori eradication (eradication group), whereas 52 patients had persistent H. pylori infections (non-eradication group). The recurrence rate of gastric hyperplastic polyps and the risk factors according to H. pylori status were analyzed. @*Results@#During the mean follow-up period of 18.3 months, recurrent gastric polyps developed after endoscopic resection in 10 patients (19.2% [10/52]) in the non-eradication group and 12 patients (8.1% [12/149]) in the eradication group. The cumulative incidence of recurrent gastric hyperplastic polyps was significantly higher in the non-eradication group than in the eradication group (p = 0.041, log‐rank test). In the adjusted analysis, H. pylori eradication reduced the recurrence of gastric hyperplastic polyps (hazard ratio [HR], 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18 to 0.99), whereas anticoagulation therapy increased the risk of recurrence of gastric hyperplastic polyps (HR, 4.91; 95% CI, 1.39 to 17.28). @*Conclusions@#Successful eradication of H. pylori may reduce the recurrence of gastric hyperplastic polyps in patients after endoscopic mucosal resection.

2.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 22-27, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968714

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a well-known gastrointestinal microorganism that causes chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers, which may evolve into gastric cancer. Previous studies have shown that H. pylori eradication inhibits the development of primary and metachronous gastric cancer. Therefore, the Kyoto global consensus recommends eradication therapy for both symptomatic and asymptomatic H. pylori-infected patients. Gastric cancer is detected even in patients after successful H. pylori eradication. Recent studies have reported the role of endoscopy in detection of primary gastric cancers after H. pylori eradication. Development of gastric cancer may be observed several months or even >10 years after successful H. pylori eradication. Therefore, identification of high-risk patients in whom extensive surveillance may prove beneficial represents a clinical dilemma. In this review, the characteristics of gastric cancer patients who have undergone successful H. pylori-eradication therapy are summarized.

3.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 1-16, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968702

ABSTRACT

The introduction of device-assisted enteroscopy (DAE) in the beginning of the 21st century has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the small intestine. In contrast to capsule endoscopy, the other main diagnostic modality of small bowel diseases, DAE has the unique advantages of allowing the observation of the region of interest in detail and enabling tissue acquisition and therapeutic intervention. As DAE becomes an essential procedure in daily clinical practice, there is an increasing need for correct guidelines on when and how it is to be performed and what technical factors should be taken into consideration. In response to these needs, the Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases has developed an expert consensus statement on the performance of DAE by reviewing current evidence. This expert consensus statement particularly focuses on the indications, choice of insertion route, therapeutic intervention, complications, and relevant technical points.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e115-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967390

ABSTRACT

Gastritis is a disease characterized by inflammation of the gastric mucosa. It is very common and has various classification systems such as the updated Sydney system. As there is a lot of evidence that Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with the development of gastric cancer and that gastric cancer can be prevented by eradication, H. pylori gastritis has been emphasized recently. The incidence rate of gastric cancer in Korea is the highest in the world, and due to the spread of screening endoscopy, atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia are commonly diagnosed in the general population. However, there have been no clinical guidelines developed in Korea for these lesions. Therefore, this clinical guideline has been developed by the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research for important topics that are frequently encountered in clinical situations related to gastritis. Evidence-based guidelines were developed through systematic review and de novo processes, and eight recommendations were made for eight key questions. This guideline needs to be periodically revised according to the needs of clinical practice or as important evidence about this issue is published in the future.

5.
Intestinal Research ; : 3-19, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967001

ABSTRACT

The introduction of device-assisted enteroscopy (DAE) in the beginning of 21st century has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the small intestine. In contrast to capsule endoscopy, the other main diagnostic modality of the small bowel diseases, DAE has the unique advantages of observing the region of interest in detail and enabling tissue acquisition and therapeutic intervention. As DAE becomes an essential procedure in daily clinical practice, there is an increasing need for correct guidelines on when and how to perform it and what technical factors should be considered. In response to these needs, the Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases developed an expert consensus statement on the performance of DAE by reviewing the current evidence. This expert consensus statement particularly focuses on the indications, choice of insertion route, therapeutic intervention, complications, and relevant technical points.

6.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 12-21, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918973

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Several conditions may cause difficulties with oral feeding. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is commonly performed on patients who require enteral feeding for >2-3 weeks. This study examined the nutritional state of patients who required enteral feeding and underwent PEG to quantify the benefits of the procedure. @*Methods@#This retrospective study included patients who underwent PEG at the Chungnam National University Hospital between January 2013 and December 2018. A gastroenterologist performed all PEG procedures using the pull technique, and all patients were followed up for >3 weeks postoperatively. The BMI and lymphocyte count, along with the levels of hemoglobin, total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, BUN, and creatinine pre-PEG and between 3 weeks and 6 months post-PEG were evaluated. @*Results@#Overall, 151 patients (116 males; mean age 64.92 years) were evaluated. Of these patients, 112 (74.2%), 34 (22.5%), and five (3.3%) underwent PEG tube insertion because of neurological diseases, malignancy, and other conditions, respectively. The BMI and the hemoglobin, total protein, albumin, and total cholesterol levels were significantly higher post-PEG than pre-PEG. @*Conclusions@#These findings highlight the usefulness of PEG in the management of nutritionally poor patients with difficulties in feeding orally.

7.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 70-92, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938666

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis. Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

8.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 259-266, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926282

ABSTRACT

Gastric cancer is a global health problem, and the incidence and geographical distribution of different types of gastric cancer varies. Particularly, noncardiac gastric cancer is more prevalent in East Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America, and Africa. Infection with Helicobacter pylori, which was discovered in 1982, is a common cause of chronic gastritis, and the association between H. pylori infection and gastric adenocarcinoma is well established.Current Concepts: Gastric cancer is histologically divided into 2 types: intestinal and diffuse. H. pylori infection is considered as the main risk factor for the development of both types of gastric tumors. The most documented course of development of stomach cancer is following cellular metaplasia due to chronic inflammation, damage, and repair. Various molecular alterations caused by H. pylori are identified not only in gastric cancer but also in precancerous lesions. Recently, many studies have attempted to diagnose H. pylori gastritis and precancerous lesions using endoscopy.Discussion and Conclusion: Recent studies have shown that eradication therapy stabilizes or reduces the risk of developing gastric cancer. Therefore, the diagnosis and understanding of gastritis and precancerous lesions caused by H. pylori are the first step in the prevention of gastric cancer.

9.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 237-246, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926112

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The composition of the microbiota in the esophagus is only partially understood, especially in patients with achalasia. We aim to investigate the esophageal microbial community and nutritional intakes in patients with achalasia before and after peroral endoscopicmyotomies (POEM). @*Methods@#Twenty-nine patients were prospectively enrolled from 4 referral institutions across Korea. We collected esophageal samples (mucosal biopsies and retention fluid) and conducted dietary surveys for nutritional intake before and 8 weeks after POEM. The esophageal microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing targeting the V3-V4 region. @*Results@#Out of the 105 samples from 29 patients, 99 samples were subjected to microbial bioinformatic analysis after quality control, which excluded samples with no amplification or low-quality sequence data. The overall esophageal microbial compositions of patientswith achalasia showed that Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria were the dominant phyla, representing over 95% of the total phyla in all groups. At the genus level, Streptococcus was the most abundant in all groups. The observed operational taxonomic unit number was significantly higher in the retention fluid than in the tissue biopsies. However, the esophageal microbial composition showed no significant changes 8 weeks post POEM. The dietary survey analysis showed that nutritional intake significantly improved post POEM. @*Conclusion@#This study determined the unique esophageal microbial composition of patients with achalasia, and also found that the microbial composition did not significantly change after POEM in the short-term, despite a significant improvement in the nutritional intake.

10.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 247-254, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926111

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#To analyze various adverse events (AEs) related to the peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) procedure and to analyze whether these AEs are related to an extended hospital stay. @*Methods@#Patients admitted for POEM for esophageal motility disorders from August 2012 to February 2020 at 5 centers were retrospectively collected. Length of hospital stay, AEs during or after the POEM procedure were analyzed. @*Results@#Of the 328 patients, 63.1% did not have any AEs, but 2.4% had major AEs, and 33.4% had minor AEs. Major AEs included mucosal injury, bleeding, and hemothorax, accounting for 1.5%, 0.6%, and 0.3%, respectively. Among the minor AEs, pneumoperitoneum was the most common gas-related AEs. Among non-gas-related minor AEs, pneumonia was the most common at 4.6%, followed by pain, fever, and pleural effusion. All major AEs had meaningful delayed discharge and significantly extended hospital stay compared to the no AEs group (median differences range 4.5-9.0 days). Among gas-related minor AEs, except for 4 cases of emphysema, the extended hospital stay was meaningless. All non-gas-related minor AEs was associated with a significant prolongation of hospital stay compared to that in the no AEs group (median differences range 2.0-4.0 days). @*Conclusions@#In conclusion, most gas-related minor AEs do not significantly affect the patient’s clinical course. However, subcutaneous emphysema and minor non-gas related AEs such as pneumonia, pain, fever, and pleural effusion can prolong the hospital stay, therefore careful observation is required. Efforts will be made to reduce major AEs that significantly prolong hospitalization.

11.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 453-481, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892738

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis.Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

12.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 555-562, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890032

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#A new medical fiber-guided diode laser system (FDLS) is expected to offer high-precision cutting with simultaneous hemostasis. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using the 1,940-nm FDLS to perform endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in the gastrointestinal tract of an animal model. @*Methods@#In this prospective animal pilot study, gastric and colorectal ESD using the FDLS was performed in ex vivo and in vivo porcine models. The completeness of en bloc resection, the procedure time, intraprocedural bleeding, histological injuries to the muscularis propria (MP) layer, and perforation were assessed. @*Results@#The en bloc resection and perforation rates in the ex vivo study were 100% (10/10) and 10% (1/10), respectively; those in the in vivo study were 100% (4/4) and 0% for gastric ESD and 100% (4/4) and 25% (1/4) for rectal ESD, respectively. Deep MP layer injuries tended to occur more frequently in the rectal than in the gastric ESD cases, and no intraprocedural bleeding occurred in either group. @*Conclusions@#The 1,940-nm FDLS was capable of yielding high en bloc resection rates without intraprocedural bleeding during gastric and colorectal ESD in animal models.

13.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : S18-S23, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889055

ABSTRACT

Paradoxical reactions to tuberculosis (TB) treatment are characterized by an initial improvement of the clinical symptoms followed by clinical or radiological deterioration of existing tuberculous lesions, or by development of new lesions. Intestinal perforation in gastrointestinal TB can occur as a paradoxical reaction to antitubercular therapy. A 55-year-old man visited the outpatient department with lower abdominal pain and weight loss. He was diagnosed with intestinal TB and started antitubercular therapy. After 3 months of antitubercular therapy, a colonoscopy revealed improvement of the disease. Three days after the colonoscopy, the patient visited the emergency room complaining of abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography revealed extraluminal air-filled spaces in the pelvic cavity. We diagnosed a small bowel perforation and performed an emergency laparotomy and a right hemicolectomy with small bowel resection. This report describes the case of intestinal perforation presenting as a paradoxical reaction to antitubercular and provides a brief literature review.

14.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 453-481, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900442

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis.Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

15.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 555-562, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897736

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#A new medical fiber-guided diode laser system (FDLS) is expected to offer high-precision cutting with simultaneous hemostasis. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using the 1,940-nm FDLS to perform endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in the gastrointestinal tract of an animal model. @*Methods@#In this prospective animal pilot study, gastric and colorectal ESD using the FDLS was performed in ex vivo and in vivo porcine models. The completeness of en bloc resection, the procedure time, intraprocedural bleeding, histological injuries to the muscularis propria (MP) layer, and perforation were assessed. @*Results@#The en bloc resection and perforation rates in the ex vivo study were 100% (10/10) and 10% (1/10), respectively; those in the in vivo study were 100% (4/4) and 0% for gastric ESD and 100% (4/4) and 25% (1/4) for rectal ESD, respectively. Deep MP layer injuries tended to occur more frequently in the rectal than in the gastric ESD cases, and no intraprocedural bleeding occurred in either group. @*Conclusions@#The 1,940-nm FDLS was capable of yielding high en bloc resection rates without intraprocedural bleeding during gastric and colorectal ESD in animal models.

16.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : S18-S23, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896759

ABSTRACT

Paradoxical reactions to tuberculosis (TB) treatment are characterized by an initial improvement of the clinical symptoms followed by clinical or radiological deterioration of existing tuberculous lesions, or by development of new lesions. Intestinal perforation in gastrointestinal TB can occur as a paradoxical reaction to antitubercular therapy. A 55-year-old man visited the outpatient department with lower abdominal pain and weight loss. He was diagnosed with intestinal TB and started antitubercular therapy. After 3 months of antitubercular therapy, a colonoscopy revealed improvement of the disease. Three days after the colonoscopy, the patient visited the emergency room complaining of abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography revealed extraluminal air-filled spaces in the pelvic cavity. We diagnosed a small bowel perforation and performed an emergency laparotomy and a right hemicolectomy with small bowel resection. This report describes the case of intestinal perforation presenting as a paradoxical reaction to antitubercular and provides a brief literature review.

17.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 180-203, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833835

ABSTRACT

Esophageal achalasia is a primary motility disorder characterized by insufficient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and loss of esophageal peristalsis. Achalasia is a chronic disease that causes progressive irreversible loss of esophageal motor function. The recent development of high-resolution manometry has facilitated the diagnosis of achalasia, and determining the achalasia subtypes based on high-resolution manometry can be important when deciding on treatment methods. Peroral endoscopic myotomy is less invasive than surgery with comparable efficacy. The present guidelines (the “2019 Seoul Consensus on Esophageal Achalasia Guidelines”) were developed based on evidence-based medicine; the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association and Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility served as the operating and development committees, respectively. The development of the guidelines began in June 2018, and a draft consensus based on the Delphi process was achieved in April 2019. The guidelines consist of 18 recommendations: 2 pertaining to the definition and epidemiology of achalasia, 6 pertaining to diagnoses, and 10 pertaining to treatments. The endoscopic treatment section is based on the latest evidence from meta-analyses. Clinicians (including gastroenterologists, upper gastrointestinal tract surgeons, general physicians, nurses, and other hospital workers) and patients could use these guidelines to make an informed decision on the management of achalasia.

18.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 282-286, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786618

ABSTRACT

Gastric schwannoma, a rare mesenchymal tumor originating from the schwann cells of peripheral nerves, rarely occurs in the gastrointestinal tract. It accounts for only 0.2% of all gastric tumors and 2~6% of gastric mesenchymal tumors. Gastric schwannoma is observed as a subepithelial tumor on endoscopy; it is covered with normal mucosa, rendering its preoperative differential diagnosis difficult. An asymptomatic 43-year-old woman visited our hospital after a 7-cm ulcerofungating mass was detected in the lesser curvature of the gastric body on gastroscopy. Abdominal CT revealed multiple enlarged lymph nodes, and ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET demonstrated a subtle uptake of FDG, suggestive of advanced gastric cancer. After three failed attempts of endoscopic biopsy, the patient underwent total gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy and was subsequently diagnosed with gastric schwannoma. Herein, we report this case with a literature review.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Biopsy , Diagnosis, Differential , Endoscopy , Gastrectomy , Gastrointestinal Tract , Gastroscopy , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Mucous Membrane , Neurilemmoma , Peripheral Nerves , Schwann Cells , Stomach Neoplasms , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
Journal of Digestive Cancer Report ; (2): 8-12, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787286

ABSTRACT

Despite its declining incidence, gastric cancer is globally, still, the third most common cause of cancer-related mortality. Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous disease with diverse pathogenesis and molecular backgrounds. Therefore several systems have been proposed to aid in the classification of gastric adenocarcinoma based on the macroscopic, microscopic and anatomical features of the tumor. However, these classifications did not reflect the pathogenesis of the disease. Recently, genomic analysis has identified several subtypes of gastric adenocarcinoma and a detailed understanding of the molecular biology behind the neoplastic phenotype is possible to develop of more effective therapies. We will describe the existing various classification of gastric cancer and the recently introduced molecular biology and immunological classification.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Classification , Incidence , Molecular Biology , Mortality , Phenotype , Stomach Neoplasms
20.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 308-312, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718629

ABSTRACT

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is widely used to provide nutritional support for patients with dysphagia and/or disturbed consciousness preventing oral ingestion, and PEG tube placement is a relatively safe and convenient non-surgical procedure performed under local anesthesia. However, the prevention of PEG-insertion-related complications is important. A 64-year-old man with recurrent pneumonia underwent tracheostomy and nasogastric tube placement for nutritional support and opted for PEG tube insertion for long-term nutrition. However, during the insertion procedure, needle puncture had to be attempted twice before successful PEG tube placement was achieved, and a day after the procedure his hemoglobin had fallen and he developed hypotension. Abdominal computed tomography revealed injury to a pancreatic branch of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) associated with bleeding, hemoperitoneum, and pancreatitis. Transarterial embolization was performed using a microcatheter to treat hemorrhage from the injured branch of the SMA, and the acute pancreatitis was treated using antibiotics and supportive care. The patient was discharged after an uneventful recovery. Clinicians should be mindful of possible pancreatic injury and bleeding after PEG tube insertion. Possible complications, such as visceral injuries or bleeding, should be considered in patients requiring multiple puncture attempts during a PEG procedure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Anesthesia, Local , Angiography , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Consciousness , Deglutition Disorders , Eating , Endoscopy , Gastrostomy , Hemoperitoneum , Hemorrhage , Hypotension , Mesenteric Artery, Superior , Needles , Nutritional Support , Pancreatitis , Pneumonia , Punctures , Tracheostomy
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