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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e89-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967481

ABSTRACT

As the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to sweep across the globe, reports of kidney involvement in adult patients infected with COVID-19 have been documented, and recently, cases in the pediatric population have also been reported.This report highlights the case of an 11-year-old boy who developed acute kidney injury presenting as gross hematuria, proteinuria, and hypertension immediately after a COVID-19 infection. A renal biopsy allowed us to diagnose the patient with post-COVID-19 infectionassociated de novo crescentic immune-mediated glomerulonephritis. Oral prednisolone and cyclophosphamide treatments were initiated after methylprednisolone pulse therapy administration. Currently, the patient is receiving medical treatment for five weeks, and his renal function is gradually recovering. Previous studies have suggested that, although quite rare, a variety of kidney complications can occur after COVID-19 infection or vaccination, and it is recommended to monitor renal function through evaluation. Herein, we report a pediatric case of post-COVID-19 infection-associated de novo crescentic immune-mediated glomerulonephritis consistent with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.

2.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 74-79, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966510

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Children with nephrotic syndrome may experience disease relapse or aggravation triggered by various viral infections. Limited studies on the clinical implications of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in children with nephrotic syndrome have been published worldwide. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of COVID-19 on the clinical course of nephrotic syndrome in children. @*Methods@#The medical records of 59 patients with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome who visited our hospital between February and June 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. @*Results@#Twenty of the total 59 patients with nephrotic syndrome were diagnosed with COVID-19 during the study period. The mean age at the time of the diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome and COVID-19 in all 20 patients was 4.6±3.5 and 8.9±3.9 years, respectively. Three patients (15%) were diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome relapse during COVID-19 and the relapse rate was similar to them without COVID-19 (20.5%, 8/39 patients). At the time of the COVID-19 diagnosis, fever (85%) and cough (40%) were the most common symptoms. After the diagnosis of COVID-19, all patients showed improvement with symptomatic treatment, including antipyretic analgesics and cold medicine. None of the critical patients required hospitalization or oral antiviral medications. @*Conclusions@#Despite the use of immunosuppressants, the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 in children with nephrotic syndrome were not severe and are expected to be similar to that in the general population. The relapse rate of nephrotic syndrome in children with COVID-19 was also not different from them without COVID-19.

3.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 58-65, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926504

ABSTRACT

There have been some cases where abnormal histopathologic findings could not be found in the kidney could even with proper specimen collection through percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) in accordance with its indication. We analyzed the incidence and clinical outcomes of children who showed normal histopathological findings in their PRBs. Methods: The medical records of 552 pediatric subjects who underwent PRB between 2005 and 2016 were reviewed. Twenty-six subjects were excluded because allograft biopsy was performed in nine subjects, and the age at biopsy was greater than 18 years in 17 subjects. Finally, 526 subjects were enrolled in this study. Results: Of the 526 pediatric patients, 32 (6.1%) showed no histopathological abnormalities in their PRBs. The male-to-female ratio of the patients was 1.9:1, and the mean ages at the first visit and at biopsy were 10.6 ± 4.1 and 11.4 ± 3.8 years, respectively. In accordance with the biopsy indications, recurrent gross hematuria showed the highest incidence rate, but combined hematuria and proteinuria had the lowest incidence rate regarding normal renal histopathology among all the subjects. At a mean follow-up of 35.5 ± 23.6 months, urinary abnormalities had improved in more than 50% of the subjects with normal renal histopathology, and none of the patients showed progression to end-stage renal disease or required rebiopsy due to symptom worsening during the follow-up period. Conclusion: The clinical outcomes of children with normal PRB histopathologic findings are generally good. Further studies to evaluate their long-term outcomes are needed.

4.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 25-30, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937273

ABSTRACT

Dyslipidemia in nephrotic syndrome (NS) is often characterized by marked increases in the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and other lipoproteins, such as very low-density lipoprotein, intermediate-density lipoprotein, and lipoprotein(a). It has been suggested that impaired catabolism of lipoproteins and cholesterol is mainly due to decreased lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase activity, and increased biosynthesis of lipoproteins in the liver. The management strategies for dyslipidemia in patients with NS consist of lifestyle modification, lipid-lowering agents represented by statins, second-line agents such as fibrates and bile acid sequestrants, and lipid apheresis. Compared with dyslipidemia in adult NS patients, whose risks of atherosclerotic disease and progressive renal injury are considered high, clinical data on dyslipidemia in pediatric NS patients are limited. Therefore, it is necessary to pay more attention to the evaluation and management of dyslipidemia in pediatric patients with NS in clinical practice.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e138-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892314

ABSTRACT

Background@#Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a negative impact on growth and development in children and is a risk factor for neurocognitive impairment; however, there is limited research on the cognitive function of children and adolescents with CKD. This study therefore aimed to investigate the mean intelligence and risk factors for low intelligence in children and adolescents with CKD. @*Methods@#Eighty-one patients with CKD under 18 years old were included in the KoreaN cohort study for Outcomes in patients With Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-Ped CKD). Participants completed either the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (6–16 years), or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (> 16 years). @*Results@#The mean full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) was 91 ± 19; 24.7% of participants scored a full-scale IQ below 80. Participants with a short stature (height Z scores < −1.88), failure to thrive (weight Z scores < −1.65), more severe CKD stage (≥ IIIb), longer duration of CKD (≥ 5 years), and those who were Medicare or Medicaid beneficiaries, had significantly lower mean full-scale IQs. @*Conclusion@#On linear regression analysis, the association between the full-scale IQ, and longer duration of CKD and growth failure, remained significant after controlling for demographic and clinical variables. It is therefore necessary to investigate cognitive impairment in pediatric patients with CKD who exhibit growth failure or for a longer postmorbid period. It is believed that early interventions, such as kidney transplantation, will have a positive effect on IQ in children with CKD, as the disease negatively affects IQ due to poor glomerular filtration rate over time.

6.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e138-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900018

ABSTRACT

Background@#Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a negative impact on growth and development in children and is a risk factor for neurocognitive impairment; however, there is limited research on the cognitive function of children and adolescents with CKD. This study therefore aimed to investigate the mean intelligence and risk factors for low intelligence in children and adolescents with CKD. @*Methods@#Eighty-one patients with CKD under 18 years old were included in the KoreaN cohort study for Outcomes in patients With Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-Ped CKD). Participants completed either the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (6–16 years), or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (> 16 years). @*Results@#The mean full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) was 91 ± 19; 24.7% of participants scored a full-scale IQ below 80. Participants with a short stature (height Z scores < −1.88), failure to thrive (weight Z scores < −1.65), more severe CKD stage (≥ IIIb), longer duration of CKD (≥ 5 years), and those who were Medicare or Medicaid beneficiaries, had significantly lower mean full-scale IQs. @*Conclusion@#On linear regression analysis, the association between the full-scale IQ, and longer duration of CKD and growth failure, remained significant after controlling for demographic and clinical variables. It is therefore necessary to investigate cognitive impairment in pediatric patients with CKD who exhibit growth failure or for a longer postmorbid period. It is believed that early interventions, such as kidney transplantation, will have a positive effect on IQ in children with CKD, as the disease negatively affects IQ due to poor glomerular filtration rate over time.

7.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 673-686, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917048

ABSTRACT

Background@#The clinical features of pediatric rhabdomyolysis differ from those of the adults with rhabdomyolysis; however, multicenter studies are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of pediatric rhabdomyolysis and reveal the risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) in such cases. @*Methods@#This retrospective study analyzed the medical records of children and adolescents diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis at 23 hospitals in South Korea between January 2007 and December 2016. @*Results@#Among 880 patients, those aged 3 to 5 years old composed the largest subgroup (19.4%), and all age subgroups were predominantly male. The incidence of AKI was 11.3%. Neurological disorders (53%) and infection (44%) were the most common underlying disorder and cause of rhabdomyolysis, respectively. The median age at diagnosis in the AKI subgroup was older than that in the non-AKI subgroup (12.2 years vs. 8.0 years). There were no significant differences in body mass index, myalgia, dark-colored urine, or the number of causal factors between the two AKI-status subgroups. The multivariate logistic regression model indicated that the following factors were independently associated with AKI: multiorgan failure, presence of an underlying disorder, strong positive urine occult blood, increased aspartate aminotransferase and uric acid levels, and reduced calcium levels. @*Conclusions@#Our study revealed characteristic clinical and laboratory features of rhabdomyolysis in a Korean pediatric population and highlighted the risk factors for AKI in these cases. Our findings will contribute to a greater understanding of pediatric rhabdomyolysis and may enable early intervention against rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI.

8.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 126-130, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831207

ABSTRACT

Nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (NSIAD) is a rare X-linked genetic condition caused by a gain-of-function mutation of arginine vasopressin receptor 2 gene, AVPR2. We report the case of a male neonate diagnosed with NSIAD based on his DNA sequence of the AVPR2 gene and the clinical course. He demonstrated a complete correction of hyponatremia using oral urea. We suggest that (1) sequencing analysis of the AVPR2 gene ought to be done in newborns with prolonged euvolemic hyponatremia, hypo-osmolality, high urinary sodium and normal/low or undetectable AVP levels, and that (2) oral urea is a safe and effective treatment option in infants diagnosed with NSIAD until the patients are grown-up.

9.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 91-97, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831212

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Alport syndrome (AS) is one of the most common inherited renal diseases caused due to mutations of genes encoding specific proteins of the type IV collagen family, and its major clinical manifestations include progressive renal failure, sensorineural deafness, and ocular abnormalities. We investigated the clinical characteristics and long-term prognosis of AS in Korean pediatric and adult populations. @*Methods@#We conducted a retrospective review of medical records of 33 children and adults who had been diagnosed or treated with AS from 1985 to 2019. @*Results@#The mean age of the 33 patients diagnosed with AS was 16.2±13.6 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 2:1. At the first visit, recurrent gross hematuria was the most common initial symptom. In 10 of 33 patients (30.3%), sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) was diagnosed, but none had ophthalmic problems. Moreover, 11 of 33 patients (33.3%) had advanced to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and a significant difference was observed in the age of the patients who progressed to ESRD based on the presence or absence of SNHL (P =0.035). @*Conclusion@#SNHL in AS can be an important prognostic factor for long-term deterioration of renal function. Further investigation is required to confirm the clinical course and the genetic characteristics of AS in Korea through prospective national cohort studies.

10.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 100-104, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785577

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Ureteral duplication is a relatively common congenital urinary tract abnormality that can be associated with various clinical problems such as vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), hydronephrosis, and ectopic ureters. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of pediatric patients with recently diagnosed ureteral duplication and to identify any differences from those described in previous reports.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics and course of pediatric patients who were diagnosed with ureteral duplication between January 2008 and June 2017.RESULTS: A total of 32 pediatric patients were diagnosed with ureteral duplication during the study period. The male to female ratio was 1:2.2. Twenty-seven patients (84.4%) were first diagnosed with ureteral duplication at less than 3 months of age, and 26 (81.3%) were first diagnosed by prenatal ultrasonography. Four of the 32 patients were diagnosed with bilateral ureteral duplication, for a total of 36 occurrences of ureteral duplication. In 17 occurrences of complete ureteral duplication (47.2%), other urinary tract anomalies were also found; namely, ureterocele (7), VUR (11), and ectopic ureter (5). However, none of the patients with incomplete ureteral duplication had ureterocele or VUR.CONCLUSION: With the advent of routine prenatal ultrasound, ureteral duplication is being diagnosed earlier than was previously possible, enabling timely treatment of the various accompanying urinary tract anomalies. Multicenter studies are needed to establish guidelines for standardized evaluation and treatment of ureteral duplication.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Male , Hydronephrosis , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Ureter , Ureterocele , Urinary Tract , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux
11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e156-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764991

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies have reported on breakthrough urinary tract infection (UTI) associated with the susceptibility of index UTI to prophylactic antibiotics in children with primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) receiving continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP). We assessed the impact of the susceptibility of index UTI to prophylactic antibiotics in breakthrough UTIs in children with primary VUR receiving CAP. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 81 children with primary VUR who were diagnosed after febrile or symptomatic UTI and subsequently received trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) as CAP between January 2010 and December 2013. We allocated children to a susceptible group or a resistant group based on the susceptibility of index UTI to TMP-SMX. We evaluated patient demographics and clinical outcomes after CAP according to the susceptibility of index UTI to TMP-SMX. Multivariate analysis was used to identify the predictive factors for breakthrough UTI. RESULTS: Of the 81 children, 42 were classified into the susceptible group and 39 into the resistant group. The proportion of breakthrough UTI was 31.0% (13/42) in the susceptible group and 53.8% (21/39) in the resistant group (P = 0.037). Progression of renal scarring was observed in 0% of children in the susceptible group and 15% in the resistant group (P = 0.053). Multivariate analysis showed that TMP-SMX resistance and initial renal scarring were significant predictors of breakthrough UTI. CONCLUSION: Susceptibility of index UTI to prophylactic antibiotics is a risk factor of breakthrough UTI and is associated with poor clinical outcomes in children with primary VUR receiving CAP.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Cicatrix , Demography , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination , Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Tract , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux
12.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics ; : 327-331, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717618

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rapidly increasing, and several reports have described the renal complications of IBD. We sought to evaluate the clinical manifestations of renal complications in children with IBD in order to enable early detection and prompt treatment of the complications. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 456 children and adolescents aged < 20 years who had been diagnosed with IBD since 2000. We analyzed patient age, sex, medication use, IBD disease activity, and clinical manifestations of renal symptoms. RESULTS: Our study comprising 456 children with IBD included 299 boys (65.6%) and 157 girls (34.4%). The study included 346 children with Crohn disease and 110 children with ulcerative colitis. The incidence of kidney-related symptoms was 14.7%, which was significantly higher than that in normal children. We observed 26 children (38.8%) with isolated hematuria, 30 children (44.8%) with isolated proteinuria, and 11 children (16.4%) with hematuria and concomitant proteinuria. A renal biopsy was performed in 7 children. Histopathological examination revealed immunoglobulin A nephropathy in 5 children (71.4%). All children presented with mild disease and well-controlled disease activity of IBD. CONCLUSION: Children with IBD are more likely to show kidney-related symptoms than healthy children and adolescents are. Therefore, regular screening of urine and evaluation of renal function in such children are necessary for early detection of renal complications.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Biopsy , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Glomerulonephritis, IGA , Hematuria , Incidence , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Kidney , Mass Screening , Medical Records , Proteinuria , Retrospective Studies
13.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 69-74, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136743

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Kidney transplantation (KT) is an ideal treatment for pediatric patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We report the clinical outcomes of pediatric ESRD patients who underwent KT in a single regional center. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the medical records of 60 pediatric patients who were diagnosed with ESRD and underwent KT in our hospital between January 1985 and June 2016. RESULTS: A total of 60 children and adolescents (40 male, 20 female; mean age, 13.86±4.26 years) were included in this study. Six patients (10.0%) underwent KT immediately after receiving the diagnosis of ESRD, while the others underwent KT after dialysis treatment (mean period of dialysis, 368.7±4,41.8 days). The mean donor age (50 living-related [83.3%], 10 deceased [16.7%]) was 40.0±12.85 years and the male:female ratio was 1.07:1. The most common cause of ESRD was chronic glomerulonephritis. The overall survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years after KT were 98%, 98%, and 96%, respectively, while the graft survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 93%, 86%, and 68%, respectively. Children who underwent KT before 10 years of age had better monthly growth rates than those who underwent KT later than 10 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: KT is performed less frequently in children than in adults, but causes of ESRD vary and clinical outcomes after KT greatly affect the growth and development of pediatric patients. Therefore, further analysis and monitoring of clinical progression after KT in pediatric ESRD patients are necessary.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Diagnosis , Dialysis , Glomerulonephritis , Graft Survival , Growth and Development , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Tissue Donors
14.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 69-74, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136739

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Kidney transplantation (KT) is an ideal treatment for pediatric patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We report the clinical outcomes of pediatric ESRD patients who underwent KT in a single regional center. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the medical records of 60 pediatric patients who were diagnosed with ESRD and underwent KT in our hospital between January 1985 and June 2016. RESULTS: A total of 60 children and adolescents (40 male, 20 female; mean age, 13.86±4.26 years) were included in this study. Six patients (10.0%) underwent KT immediately after receiving the diagnosis of ESRD, while the others underwent KT after dialysis treatment (mean period of dialysis, 368.7±4,41.8 days). The mean donor age (50 living-related [83.3%], 10 deceased [16.7%]) was 40.0±12.85 years and the male:female ratio was 1.07:1. The most common cause of ESRD was chronic glomerulonephritis. The overall survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years after KT were 98%, 98%, and 96%, respectively, while the graft survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 93%, 86%, and 68%, respectively. Children who underwent KT before 10 years of age had better monthly growth rates than those who underwent KT later than 10 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: KT is performed less frequently in children than in adults, but causes of ESRD vary and clinical outcomes after KT greatly affect the growth and development of pediatric patients. Therefore, further analysis and monitoring of clinical progression after KT in pediatric ESRD patients are necessary.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Diagnosis , Dialysis , Glomerulonephritis , Graft Survival , Growth and Development , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Tissue Donors
15.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 15-20, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-172667

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the commonest bacterial infections in children. The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical characteristics of the first episode of febrile UTI occurring in children over 5 years compared to those in infants younger than a year. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 10 patients over 5 years, having febrile UTI, and 25 controls under 1 year. Clinical characteristics including symptoms at admission, the time interval between symptom onset and hospital visit and/or diagnosis, duration of fever, urinalysis, and other laboratory and imaging test results were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Most patients in the control group showed only high fever at the time of presentation to the hospital. However, 60% of the case group had fever along with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms such as abdominal and flank pain, vomiting, as well as relatively mild pyuria. The case group showed a longer duration between symptom onset and hospital visit and/or diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Delay in diagnosis and initiation of treatment of UTI increases the risk of permanent renal scarring and associated complications. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of febrile UTI is vital for very young infants, as well as children considering that febrile UTI could be an important cause of febrile illness in children over 5 years.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant , Bacterial Infections , Cicatrix , Diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Fever , Flank Pain , Medical Records , Pyuria , Retrospective Studies , Urinalysis , Urinary Tract Infections , Vomiting
16.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 33-36, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210765

ABSTRACT

There are two pathogenic models of renovascular hypertension (RVH) originating from renal artery stenosis. We noted a case of a boy who had severe hypertension with atrophic left kidney, hypertrophic right kidney, a segmental stricture of the abdominal aorta, and total occlusion of the right renal artery. Due to the atrophic change of the contralateral, unclipped left kidney, this patient presented with various clinical manifestations related to both models of pathogenesis of RVH occurring at the same time. We conclude that this patient presented with the middle stage of the two RVH pathogenetic models, so called the 'one-clip, one and half-kidney model.'


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Male , Aorta, Abdominal , Constriction, Pathologic , Hypertension , Hypertension, Renovascular , Kidney , Renal Artery , Renal Artery Obstruction , Renin-Angiotensin System , Takayasu Arteritis
17.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 50-56, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-218768

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nocturnal enuresis (NE) is one of the most common problems in childhood. NE has a multifactorial etiology and is influenced by sleep and arousal mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to prospectively evaluate sleep problems and patterns in children with NE compared with normal healthy controls. METHODS: Twenty-eight children with NE and 16 healthy controls were included in the study. To evaluate sleep habits and disturbances, parents and children filled out a questionnaire that included items about sleep patterns and sleep-related behaviors prior to treatment for NE. Demographic factors and other data were compared for the two groups based on the responses to the sleep questionnaire. RESULTS: Night awakening, sleepwalking, and periodic limb movements were more prevalent in children with NE, but symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing were not increased in this group. There were statistically significant differences in periodic limb movements and daytime sleepiness between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Children with NE seemed to have more sleep problems such as night awakening, sleepwalking, and periodic limb movements. In addition, a higher level of daytime sleepiness and hyperactivity in patients with NE suggested a relationship between NE and sleep disorders.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Arousal , Demography , Extremities , Nocturnal Enuresis , Parents , Prospective Studies , Sleep Apnea Syndromes , Sleep Wake Disorders , Somnambulism
18.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics ; : 206-210, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83632

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The use of a 12-week steroid regimen (long-term therapy, LT) for the first episode of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS) reportedly induces a more sustained remission and lower relapse rate than previous regimens, including an 8-week steroid regimen (short-term therapy, ST). Here, we assessed the potential for selective application of 2 steroid regimens (LT vs. ST) based on the days to remission (early responders [ER] vs. late responders [LR]) for the first idiopathic NS episode in children. METHODS: Patients were divided into 4 subgroups (ST+ER, ST+LR, LT+ER, and LT+LR) according to the initial steroid regimen used and rapidity of response; the baseline characteristics, relapse rates, and cumulative percentage of children with sustained remission were then compared among the 4 subgroups. RESULTS: Fifty-four children received ST, and the remaining 45 children received LT. As observed in previous studies, children receiving LT showed significantly lower relapse rates during the first year after the first NS episode than those receiving ST. The ST+ER group showed significantly lower relapse rates during the first one year and two years after the first NS episode than the the ST+LR group, whereas there were no significant differences of the relapse rates and duration to the first relapse between the ST+ER and LT+ER groups. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the initial steroid regimen in idiopathic NS patients can be shortened according to the duration to remission i.e., LT in patients achieving remission after the first week of steroid therapy, and ST in those achieving remission within the first week of steroid therapy.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Nephrotic Syndrome , Recurrence , Steroids
19.
Journal of the Korean Child Neurology Society ; (4): 155-159, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-40198

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Febrile seizures are common in children between the ages of 6 months and 5 years of age and are often caused by viral illnesses. Influenza infection presents with a variety of neurological conditions including seizures. This study was aimed to evaluate the correlation of influenza infection and febrile seizures. METHODS: Eighty-four children with febrile seizures were involved in the study from October 2013 to March 2014. They were divided into two groups (febrile seizures with influenza infection, febrile seizures without influenza infection). Their medical records including clinical characteristics such as seizure types, seizure frequency, seizure duration, developmental history, brain magnetic resonance imaging(MRI), cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) study and electroencephalogram(EEG) findings were reviewed. RESULTS: Twenty six out of 242 children between the ages of 6 months and 5 years diagnosed with influenza infection had febrile seizures (10.7%), which is higher than known prevalence of febrile seizures. There were no significant differences in clinical characteristics such as seizure types, seizure frequency, seizure duration, developmental history, brain MRI, CSF study and EEG findings between the two groups. However, onset age of febrile seizures with influenza infection was older than the other group without influenza infection(P<0.001). CONCLUSION: It has been considered that influenza infections are common during the cold seasons and are the main causative factor for febrile seizures. Based on the findings from this study, Influenza infection may be a significant risk factor for febrile seizures. However, further studies are needed.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Age of Onset , Brain , Electroencephalography , Influenza, Human , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Medical Records , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Seasons , Seizures , Seizures, Febrile
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