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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913833

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a rare disease in children and there are some different characteristics between children and adult. We aimed to evaluate incidence, clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of pediatric APL in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Seventy-nine pediatric APL patients diagnosed from January 2009 to December 2016 in 16 tertiary medical centers in Korea were reviewed retrospectively. @*Results@#Of 801 acute myeloid leukemia children, 79 (9.9%) were diagnosed with APL. The median age at diagnosis was 10.6 years (range, 1.3 to 18.0). Male and female ratio was 1:0.93. Thirty patients (38.0%) had white blood cell (WBC) count greater than 10×109/L at diagnosis. All patients received induction therapy consisting of all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy. Five patients (6.6%) died during induction chemotherapy and 66 patients (86.8%) achieved complete remission (CR) after induction chemotherapy. The causes of death were three intracranial hemorrhage, one cerebral infarction, and one sepsis. Five patients (7.1%) suffered a relapse during or after maintenance chemotherapy. The estimated 4-year event-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were 82.1%±4.4%, 89.7%±5.1%, respectively. The 4-year OS was significantly higher in patients with initial WBC < 10×109/L than in those with initial WBC ≥ 10×109/L (p=0.020). @*Conclusion@#This study showed that the CR rates and survival outcomes in Korean pediatric APL patients were relatively good. The initial WBC count was the most important prognostic factor and most causes of death were related to serious bleeding in the early stage of treatment.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897430

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889726

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1184-1194, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913813

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Effectiveness and safety of clofarabine (one of the treatment mainstays in pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ALL]) was assessed in Korean pediatric patients with ALL to facilitate conditional coverage with evidence development. @*Materials and Methods@#In this multicenter, prospective, observational study, patients receiving clofarabine as mono/combination therapy were followed up every 4-6 weeks for 6 months or until hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Response rates, survival outcomes, and adverse events were assessed. @*Results@#Sixty patients (2-26 years old; 65% B-cell ALL, received prior ≥ 2 regimen, 68.3% refractory to previous regimen) were enrolled and treated with at least one dose of clofarabine; of whom 26 (43.3%) completed 6 months of follow-up after the last dose of clofarabine. Fifty-eight patients (96.7%) received clofarabine combination therapy. Overall remission rate (complete remission [CR] or CR without platelet recovery [CRp]) was 45.0% (27/60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 32.4 to 57.6) and the overall response rate (CR, CRp, or partial remission [PR]) was 46.7% (28/60; 95% CI, 34.0 to 59.3), with 11 (18.3%), 16 (26.7%), and one (1.7%) patients achieving CR, CRp, and PR, respectively. The median time to remission was 5.1 weeks (95% CI, 4.7 to 6.1). Median duration of remission was 16.6 weeks (range, 2.0 to 167.6 weeks). Sixteen patients (26.7%) proceeded to HSCT. There were 24 deaths; 14 due to treatment-emergent adverse events. @*Conclusion@#Remission with clofarabine was observed in approximately half of the study patients who had overall expected safety profile; however, there was no favorable long-term survival outcome in this study.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913812

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to refine the radiotherapy (RT) volume and dose for intracranial germinoma considering recurrences and long-term toxicities. @*Materials and Methods@#Total 189 patients with intracranial germinoma were treated with RT alone (n=50) and RT with upfront chemotherapy (CRT) (n=139). All cases were confirmed histologically. RT fields comprised the extended-field and involved-field only for primary site. The extended-field, including craniospinal, whole brain (WB), and whole ventricle (WV) for cranial field, is followed by involved-field boost. The median follow-up duration was 115 months. @*Results@#The relapses developed in 13 patients (6.9%). For the extended-field, cranial RT dose down to 18 Gy exhibited no cranial recurrence in 34 patients. In CRT, 74 patients (56.5%) showed complete response to chemotherapy and no involved-field recurrence with low-dose RT of 30 Gy. WV RT with chemotherapy for the basal ganglia or thalamus germinoma showed no recurrence. Secondary malignancy developed in 10 patients (5.3%) with a latency of 20 years (range, 4 to 26 years) and caused mortalities in six. WB or craniospinal field rather than WV or involved-field significantly increased the rate of hormone deficiencies, and secondary malignancy. RT dose for extended-field correlated significantly with the rate of hormone deficiencies, secondary malignancy, and neurocognitive dysfunction. @*Conclusion@#De-intensifying extended-field rather than involved-field or total scheme of RT will be critical to decrease the late toxicities. Upfront chemotherapy could be beneficial for the patients with complete response to minimize the RT dose down to 30 Gy. Prospective trials focused on de-intensification of the extended-field RT are warranted.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875230

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To review the occurrence of new solitary tumors during and after intravenous chemotherapy against retinoblastoma. @*Methods@#From 115 eyes of 78 patients with a diagnosis of intraocular retinoblastoma who underwent intravenous chemotherapy and focal treatment without prior treatment, patient demographics, age at diagnosis, laterality, classification (Reese-Ellsworth and International Classification of Retinoblastoma), and treatment options were recorded. In addition, the occurrence of small tumors during and after chemotherapy was documented with a detailed review of medical records and fundus photographs. @*Results@#Of a total of 115 eyes of 78 consecutive patients, new solitary tumors were observed in 50 eyes (50 / 115, 43%) of 40 patients (40 / 78, 51%). Multinominal logistic regression analyses showed that age at diagnosis (before 1 year) and vitreal seeding at diagnosis were linked to the development of isolated and miliary tumors, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analyses demonstrated that all small tumors developed with 20 months from the start of chemotherapy. Twenty-eight eyes (28 / 34, 82%) were salvaged with additional focal treatment in 34 eyes with isolated tumors. @*Conclusions@#Small tumors were observed during and after chemotherapy against retinoblastoma in patients who underwent intravenous chemotherapy and focal treatment. It is necessary to promptly identify and address small tumors for the preservation of eyeball and vision.

7.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 62-67, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874391

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to examine the relationship between hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), one of the indicators of diabetes, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), one of the indicators of inflammation. Raw data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2015-2017) was analyzed. Among the patients diagnosed with diabetes, 1,479 adults were selected as subjects for our study, and their HbA1c levels, hs-CRP levels, sex, age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, level of triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, hypertension, receipt of diagnosis, monthly average income, education, and drinking and smoking habits were recorded. Multiple regression analysis of hs-CRP was performed by dividing hs-CRP into quartiles using HbA1c as the dependent variable. In Model 1, sex, age, and BMI were adjusted, and in Model 2, sex, age, BMI, waist circumference, level of triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol, hypertension, and receipt of diagnosis were adjusted. In Model 3, Model 2 parameters along with monthly average household income, education level, and drinking and smoking habits were adjusted. HbA1c levels increased as the hs-CRP quartile increased, that is, 2nd Quartile=0.307, p=0.003; 3rd Quartile=0.431, p=0.001; and 4 th Quartile=0.550, p=0.001. Of the various factors related to diabetes, this study examined the relationship between inflammation and diabetes.

9.
Blood Research ; : 217-224, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897343

ABSTRACT

Background@#Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with internal tandem duplication in FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3-ITD) is associated with poor outcomes. This study aimed to analyze the outcomes of pediatric AML patients with FLT3-ITD mutations in the pre-FLT3 inhibitor era. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed and identified 18 patients diagnosed with non-M3 AML with FLT3-ITD mutations at Seoul National University Children’s Hospital between May 2008 and August 2019. @*Results@#The median age was 13 years (range, 6‒19 yr). The median follow-up time was 43 months (range, 6‒157 mo). Fourteen patients received BH-AC-based (N4-Behenoy1-1-β-D-arabinofuranosy1cytosine) and 4 received cytarabine-based induction chemotherapy.Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 72.2% of the patients after the first induction chemotherapy and 80% of the patients achieved CR after salvage therapy. The overall CR rate was 94% (17/18 patients). These 17 patients underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (9 matched unrelated donors, 5 matched related donors, and 3 haploidentical donors). Relapse occurred in 22% of the patients. Event free survival and overall survival rates were 53.8±12.1% and 53.6±12.1%, respectively, and they were not significantly different according to the type of induction chemotherapy (P=0.690) or the type of donor (P =0.102). @*Conclusion@#This study outlines the outcomes of pediatric AML patients with FLT3-ITD-mutations in one institution over a decade. Outcomes were significantly improved in this study compared to our previous report in 2004, where RFS and EFS were 0%. This study can provide baseline data for pediatric patients in the pre-FLT3 inhibitor era.

10.
11.
Blood Research ; : 217-224, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889639

ABSTRACT

Background@#Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with internal tandem duplication in FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3-ITD) is associated with poor outcomes. This study aimed to analyze the outcomes of pediatric AML patients with FLT3-ITD mutations in the pre-FLT3 inhibitor era. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed and identified 18 patients diagnosed with non-M3 AML with FLT3-ITD mutations at Seoul National University Children’s Hospital between May 2008 and August 2019. @*Results@#The median age was 13 years (range, 6‒19 yr). The median follow-up time was 43 months (range, 6‒157 mo). Fourteen patients received BH-AC-based (N4-Behenoy1-1-β-D-arabinofuranosy1cytosine) and 4 received cytarabine-based induction chemotherapy.Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 72.2% of the patients after the first induction chemotherapy and 80% of the patients achieved CR after salvage therapy. The overall CR rate was 94% (17/18 patients). These 17 patients underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (9 matched unrelated donors, 5 matched related donors, and 3 haploidentical donors). Relapse occurred in 22% of the patients. Event free survival and overall survival rates were 53.8±12.1% and 53.6±12.1%, respectively, and they were not significantly different according to the type of induction chemotherapy (P=0.690) or the type of donor (P =0.102). @*Conclusion@#This study outlines the outcomes of pediatric AML patients with FLT3-ITD-mutations in one institution over a decade. Outcomes were significantly improved in this study compared to our previous report in 2004, where RFS and EFS were 0%. This study can provide baseline data for pediatric patients in the pre-FLT3 inhibitor era.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831569

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) constitutes 10%–20% of all malignant lymphomas and has a high cure rate (5-year survival, around 90%). Recently, interest has increased concerning preventing secondary complications (secondary cancer, endocrine disorders) in long-term survivors. We aimed to study the epidemiologic features and therapeutic outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. @*Methods@#We performed a multicenter, retrospective study of 224 patients aged < 25 years diagnosed with HL at 22 participating institutes in Korea from January 2007 to August 2016. @*Results@#A higher percentage of males was diagnosed at a younger age. Nodular sclerosis histopathological HL subtype was most common, followed by mixed cellularity subtype.Eighty-one (36.2%), 101 (45.1%), and 42 (18.8%) patients were classified into low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively. Doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine was the most common protocol (n = 102, 45.5%). Event-free survival rate was 86.0% ± 2.4%, while five-year overall survival (OS) rate was 96.1% ± 1.4%: 98.7% ± 1.3%, 97.7% ± 1.6%, and 86.5% ± 5.6% in the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively (P = 0.021). Five-year OS was worse in patients with B-symptoms, stage IV disease, highrisk, splenic involvement, extra-nodal lymphoma, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase level.In multivariate analysis, B-symptoms and extra-nodal involvement were prognostic factors for poor OS. Late complications of endocrine disorders and secondary malignancy were observed in 17 and 6 patients, respectively. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study on the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. Future prospective studies are indicated to develop therapies that minimize treatment toxicity while maximizing cure rates in children, adolescents, and young adults with HL.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831549

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hereditary hemolytic anemia (HHA) is a rare disease characterized by premature red blood cell (RBC) destruction due to intrinsic RBC defects. The RBC Disorder Working Party of the Korean Society of Hematology established and updated the standard operating procedure for making an accurate diagnosis of HHA since 2007. The aim of this study was to investigate a nationwide epidemiology of Korean HHA. @*Methods@#We collected the data of a newly diagnosed pediatric HHA cohort (2007–2016) and compared this cohort's characteristics with those of a previously surveyed pediatric HHA cohort (1997–2006) in Korea. Each participant's information was retrospectively collected by a questionnaire survey. @*Results@#A total of 369 children with HHA from 38 hospitals distributed in 16 of 17 districts of Korea were investigated. RBC membranopathies, hemoglobinopathies, RBC enzymopathies, and unknown etiologies accounted for 263 (71.3%), 59 (16.0%), 23 (6.2%), and 24 (6.5%) of the cases, respectively. Compared to the cohort from the previous decade, the proportions of hemoglobinopathies and RBC enzymopathies significantly increased (P < 0.001 and P = 0.008, respectively). Twenty-three of the 59 hemoglobinopathy patients had immigrant mothers, mostly from South-East Asia. @*Conclusion@#In Korea, thalassemia traits have increased over the past 10 years, reflecting both increased awareness of this disease and increased international marriages. The enhanced recognition of RBC enzymopathies is due to advances in diagnostic technique; however, 6.5% of HHA patients still do not have a clear diagnosis. It is necessary to improve accessibility of diagnosing HHA.

14.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 115-119, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831209

ABSTRACT

Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is a rare renal tubular disorder characterized by normal anion gap metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, and high urine pH. It can be inherited or acquired. In untreated pediatric patients with dRTA, rickets and growth retardation are common. We report the case of a 12-year-old Lao girl who presented with typical clinical features of dRTA with severe bone deformities that developed after a bed-ridden state due to a bicycle accident at the age of 8 years. Initial laboratory tests revealed metabolic acidosis with a normal anion gap, hypokalemia, and alkali urine. Renal ultrasonography revealed bilateral medullary nephrocalcinosis. Whole exome sequencing revealed no pathogenic mutations. After treatment with oral alkali, potassium, and vitamin D, she could walk and run. Later, she underwent corrective orthopedic surgeries for bony deformities. Thus, in pediatric dRTA patients, despite severe symptoms remaining untreated, accurate diagnosis and proper management can improve quality of life.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765034

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is one of the major complications of organ transplantation, especially in children with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viremia (EV). We performed a retrospective study to evaluate risk factors for PTLD in children with EV. METHODS: Among 199 pediatric kidney transplantation (KT) recipients at our center from January 2001 to October 2015, records of those with EBV viral loads of > 1,000 copies/mL and/or PTLD were reviewed. RESULTS: Diagnosis of PTLD was made in seven patients (PTLD group), and 39 patients had EV only (EV only group). The median time from KT to EV and PTLD diagnosis was 6.7 (range 0.4–47.8) months and 8.2 (range, 2.8–98.9) months, respectively. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of sex, age at transplantation, donor type, EBV viral load, or EV-free duration after KT. Higher tacrolimus level before EV (hazard ratio, 44.5; P = 0.003) was an independent risk factor for PTLD in multivariate Cox regression analysis. Six patients with a high EBV load (median 171,639 copies/mL) were treated with preemptive rituximab (RTX) therapy, resulting in transient reduction of EBV load. None of these patients developed PTLD (median follow-up 51.5 months); however, two had neutropenia and two developed infection requiring hospital admission. CONCLUSION: In pediatric KT recipients, higher tacrolimus levels were associated with a higher incidence of PTLD. Conversely, those who received preemptive RTX for EV did not develop PTLD.


Subject(s)
Allografts , Child , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Neutropenia , Organ Transplantation , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Rituximab , Tacrolimus , Tissue Donors , Transplants , Viral Load , Viremia
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719418

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Dexrazoxane has been used as an effective cardioprotector against anthracycline cardiotoxicity. This study intended to analyze cardioprotective efficacy and secondary malignancy development, and elucidate risk factors for secondary malignancies in dexrazoxane-treated pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data was collected from 15 hospitals in Korea. Patients who received any anthracyclines, and completed treatment without stem cell transplantation were included. For efficacy evaluation, the incidence of cardiac events and cardiac event-free survival rates were compared. Data about risk factors of secondary malignancies were collected. RESULTS: Data of total 1,453 cases were analyzed; dexrazoxane with every anthracyclines group (D group, 1,035 patients) and no dexrazoxane group (non-D group, 418 patients). Incidence of the reported cardiac events was not statistically different between two groups; however, the cardiac event-free survival rate of patients with more than 400 mg/m2 of anthracyclines was significantly higher in D group (91.2% vs. 80.1%, p=0.04). The 6-year cumulative incidence of secondary malignancy was not different between both groups after considering follow-up duration difference (non-D, 0.52%±0.37%; D, 0.60%±0.28%; p=0.55). The most influential risk factor for secondary malignancy was the duration of anthracycline administration according to multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Dexrazoxane had an efficacy in lowering cardiac event-free survival rates in patients with higher cumulative anthracyclines. As a result of multivariate analysis for assessing risk factors of secondary malignancy, the occurrence of secondary malignancy was not related to dexrazoxane administration.


Subject(s)
Anthracyclines , Cardiotoxicity , Dexrazoxane , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasms, Second Primary , Risk Factors , Stem Cell Transplantation
18.
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759860

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Pediatric palliative care (PPC) is emphasized as standard care for children with life-limiting conditions to improve the quality of life. In Korea, a government-funded pilot program was launched only in July 2018. Given that, this study examined various PPC delivery models in other countries to refine the PPC model in Korea. METHODS: Target countries were selected based on the level of PPC provided there: the United Kingdom, the United States, Japan, and Singapore. Relevant literature, websites, and consultations from specialists were analyzed by the integrative review method. Literature search was conducted in PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar, focusing publications since 1990, and on-site visits were conducted to ensure reliability. Analysis was performed on each country's process to develop its PPC scheme, policy, funding model, target population, delivery system, and quality assurance. RESULTS: In the United Kingdom, community-based free-standing facilities work closely with primary care and exchange advice and referrals with specialized PPC consult teams of children's hospitals. In the United States, hospital-based specialized PPC consult teams set up networks with hospice agencies and home healthcare agencies and provide PPC by designating care coordinators. In Japan, palliative care is provided through several services such as palliative care for cancer patients, home care for technology-dependent patients, other support services for children with disabilities and/or chronic conditions. In Singapore, a home-based PPC association plays a pivotal role in providing PPC by taking advantage of geographic accessibility and cooperating with tertiary hospitals. CONCLUSION: It is warranted to identify unmet needs and establish an appropriate PPD model to provide need-based individualized care and optimize PPC in South Korea.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Delivery of Health Care , Disabled Children , Financial Management , United Kingdom , Health Services Needs and Demand , Home Care Services , Hospice Care , Hospices , Humans , Japan , Korea , Methods , Palliative Care , Pediatrics , Primary Health Care , Quality of Life , Referral and Consultation , Singapore , Specialization , Tertiary Care Centers , United States
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741215

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was performed to investigate the current status of pediatric palliative care provision and how it is perceived by the palliative care experts. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted with 61 hospice institutions. From September through October 2017, a questionnaire was completed by experts from the participating institutions. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0. RESULTS: Among 61 institutions, palliative care is currently provided for pediatric cancer patients by 11 institutions (18.0%), all of which are concentrated in Seoul, Incheon and Gyeonggi and Gyengsang provinces; 85.2% of all do not plan to provide specialized pediatric palliative care in the future. According to the experts, the main barriers in providing pediatric palliative care were the insufficient number of trained specialists regardless of the delivery type. Experts said that it was appropriate to intervene when children were diagnosed with cancer that was less likely to be cured (33.7%) and to move to palliative care institutions when their conditions worsened (38.2%); and it was necessary to establish a specialized pediatric palliative care system, independent from the existing institutions for adult patients (73.8%). CONCLUSION: It is necessary to develop an education program to establish a nationwide pediatric palliative care centers. Pediatric palliative care intervention should be provided upon diagnosis rather than at the point of death. Patients should be transferred to palliative care institutions after intervention by their existing pediatric palliative care team at the hospital is started.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Diagnosis , Education , Hospices , Humans , Palliative Care , Republic of Korea , Seoul , Specialization , Terminal Care
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