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1.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 194-198, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968089

ABSTRACT

Multiple miliary osteoma cutis (MMOC) is a rare variant of osteoma, characterized by multiple eruptive hard nodules on the face. A 70-year-old female presented with multiple solid skin-colored papules on both cheeks, unresponsive to conventional medical treatments. She reported receiving an injection of an unknown cosmetic filler substance into her face by an unlicensed medical practitioner 20 years ago. Facial computed tomography showed multiple small calcifications immediately adjacent to foreign material assumed to be the filler substance in the dermis. Histological examination revealed osteoclasts, osteocytes, and eosinophilic bony tissue in the dermis, suggestive of osteoma cutis. Although the pathogenesis remains unclear, inflammation caused by injected foreign material may induce metaplastic transformation of multipotent mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts, resulting in heterotopic ossification. Dermatologists should be aware that MMOC may occur following injection of foreign material by unlicensed practitioners. Performing a detailed history and clinical evaluation may aid in the diagnosis of such recalcitrant skin lesions.

2.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 79-85, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968067

ABSTRACT

Background@#Oxidative stress is generally accepted as one of the principal pathogenesis of vitiligo, and keratinocyte-melanocyte interactions are also thought to play critical roles. It is well-known that antioxidant response and autophagy protect cells against oxidative damage, but the details and the compensatory relationship between the two mechanisms in the keratinocytes of vitiligo lesions remain unclear. @*Objective@#To evaluate the antioxidant response and autophagy status of patients with vitiligo and to explore the interactions between these two mechanisms. @*Methods@#Ten patients with clinicopathologically proven vitiligo and 10 normal controls were enrolled in our Department of Dermatology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Bucheon, Korea. Tissue samples of vitiligo lesions in the patient group and normal skin in the control group were immunohistochemically stained for nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II, and p62. The immunopositivity of epidermal keratinocytes was evaluated. @*Results@#Keratinocytes in vitiligo lesions had a significantly lower expression of Nrf2 (p=0.002) than that in the cells of normal controls. The levels of autophagy markers did not differ significantly between the two groups, but decreases in the Beclin-1 and LC3-II levels, and an increase in the p62 level in the patient group may indicate a small decrease in autophagy of patients with vitiligo. @*Conclusion@#Decreased antioxidant response and reduced autophagy may trigger melanocyte apoptosis in vitiligo lesions.

3.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 143-153, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924826

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of atomoxetine (ATX) and OROS methylphenidate (MPH) as adjunctive to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with comorbid partially responsive major depressive disorder (MDD). @*Methods@#Sixty Korean adults with ADHD and comorbid partially responsive MDD were recruited in a 12-week, randomized, rater-blinded, active-controlled trial and were evenly randomized to ATX or OROS MPH treatment. @*Results@#Depressive symptoms measured using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale, and ADHD symptoms measured using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, as well as the Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Clinical Global Impression-Improvement, and the Sheehan Disability Scale scores were significantly improved in both groups during the 12 weeks of treatment. The changes in all outcome measures during the 12-week treatment were not significantly different between the two groups (all p > 0.05). No serious adverse events were reported and there were no significant differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, weight, or body mass index between the ATX and MPH groups. @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that ATX and MPH can be used as adjunctive treatments in adults with ADHD and comorbid partially responsive MDD. The efficacy and tolerability of ATX and MPH in adults with ADHD did not differ significantly. Further studies should be conducted to draw a definitive conclusion.

4.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 167-179, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924824

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Childhood trauma is the most important environmental factor for several psychiatric disorders. Depressed patients with childhood trauma appear to have severe symptoms that frequently recur. This study investigated whether depressed patients with childhood trauma showed attenuated Nogo event-related potentials (ERPs) and source activity during response-inhibition tasks. @*Methods@#Forty-four patients patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) were instructed to perform a Go/Nogo task during electroencephalography. Sensors and source activities of N2 and P3 of the Nogo ERPs were analyzed. The participants’ clinical symptoms were assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and Affective Lability Scale. The participants were divided into two groups (low and high), based on their total CTQ scores. @*Results@#MDD subjects with high CTQ scores showed significantly decreased Nogo P3 amplitudes at the frontal, frontocentral, central, and parietal electrodes than those with low CTQ scores (all p < 0.01). In Nogo P3, the source activities of the right cuneus, right posterior cingulate cortex, right precuneus, left supramarginal gyrus, and left lingual gyrus were significantly lower in the high CTQ group than in the low one (all p < 0.01). There were significant negative correlations between the total CTQ scores and the Nogo P3 amplitudes in the frontocentral (p = 0.03) and parietal regions (p = 0.02), which showed lower source activity in the Nogo P3 condition. @*Conclusion@#Depressed patients with severe childhood trauma showed different Nogo-ERP characteristics, which might reflect inhibitory failure and dysfunction in related brain regions.

5.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 334-340, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890204

ABSTRACT

Objective@#There are animal models associating dopamine dysfunction with behavioral impairments that model attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Erythropoietin (EPO) has trophic effects on dopaminergic neurons. The aim of this study was to examine the EPO plasma levels and determine whether there was any correlation between plasma EPO levels and clinical characteristics of ADHD. @*Methods@#Plasma EPO levels were measured in 78 drug-naïve children with ADHD and in 81 healthy children. The severity of ADHD symptoms was determined by scores on the Korean ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS) in ADHD children and healthy controls. @*Results@#The difference between median plasma EPO levels in ADHD children and in healthy controls was not statistically significant. Adjusting for age and sex, a linear regression analysis showed that inattention score was significantly higher in the second highest tertile of plasma EPO compared to those in the lowest tertile. Hyperactivity-impulsivity score was significantly higher in the highest tertile of plasma EPO compared to those in the lowest tertile. Moreover, total K-ARS scores were significantly higher in the second highest tertile of plasma EPO compared to those in the lowest tertile. @*Conclusion@#These findings suggest that plasma EPO levels were related to some ADHD symptoms, which could be used in the monitoring of the disorder.

6.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 334-340, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897908

ABSTRACT

Objective@#There are animal models associating dopamine dysfunction with behavioral impairments that model attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Erythropoietin (EPO) has trophic effects on dopaminergic neurons. The aim of this study was to examine the EPO plasma levels and determine whether there was any correlation between plasma EPO levels and clinical characteristics of ADHD. @*Methods@#Plasma EPO levels were measured in 78 drug-naïve children with ADHD and in 81 healthy children. The severity of ADHD symptoms was determined by scores on the Korean ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS) in ADHD children and healthy controls. @*Results@#The difference between median plasma EPO levels in ADHD children and in healthy controls was not statistically significant. Adjusting for age and sex, a linear regression analysis showed that inattention score was significantly higher in the second highest tertile of plasma EPO compared to those in the lowest tertile. Hyperactivity-impulsivity score was significantly higher in the highest tertile of plasma EPO compared to those in the lowest tertile. Moreover, total K-ARS scores were significantly higher in the second highest tertile of plasma EPO compared to those in the lowest tertile. @*Conclusion@#These findings suggest that plasma EPO levels were related to some ADHD symptoms, which could be used in the monitoring of the disorder.

7.
Mood and Emotion ; (2): 49-56, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918500

ABSTRACT

This study examines how acquired capability for suicide, negative urgency, and social support effectuate a suicide attempt. Sixty-three adults having visited an emergency room due to a suicide attempt were studied. The results can be summarized as follows. First, there were no significant sex differences in acquired capability for suicide, negative urgency, and social support. Second, the correlation among suicidal ideation, acquired capability for suicide, negative urgency, social support, and suicide attempts was examined. Results showed that suicide attempts were significantly and positively correlated with suicide ideation, acquired capability for suicide, and negative urgency. However, social support and suicide attempts did not significantly correlate. Third, results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that acquired capability for suicide and negative urgency significantly predicted suicide attempts even when suicide ideation was controlled, but social support did not significantly explain attempts. In other words, study results imply that suicide attempts increase when acquired capability for suicide and negative urgency are high. Study results offer empirical data for understanding the intrinsic characteristics of individuals attempting suicide.

8.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 996-1005, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832599

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Attention-deficit and poor impulse control have frequently been observed in major depressive disorder (MDD) and attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Altered event-related potential (ERP) performance, such as GoNogo tasks, has been regarded as a neurocognitive process associated with attention and behavioral inhibition. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Nogo ERP and adult ADHD in MDD. @*Methods@#A total of 64 participants with MDD (32 comorbid with ADHD) and 32 healthy controls aged 19–45 years were recruited; they performed GoNogo paradigms during electroencephalogram measurement. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) were evaluated. Clinical measures and GoNogo ERP were compared between three groups: depression with ADHD, depression without ADHD, and healthy controls. @*Results@#MDD subjects with ADHD showed significantly decreased Nogo P3 amplitude at frontal electrode, compared with those without ADHD and healthy controls. MDD subjects with ADHD showed significantly longer Nogo N2 latency at frontal and frontocentral electrodes, compared with those without ADHD and healthy controls. In MDD subjects with ADHD, the Nogo P3 amplitude at the frontal electrode was negatively correlated with the ASRS score and inattention. The Nogo N2 latency at the frontal electrode was positively correlated with false alarm rate. @*Conclusion@#The decreased Nogo P3 amplitude in the frontal area might be a potential biological marker for inattention in depressed patients with ADHD.

9.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2018014-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937484

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The rates of asymptomatic infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus vary. A serologic study was conducted to determine the asymptomatic MERS infection rate in healthcare workers and non-healthcare workers by exposure status.@*METHODS@#Study participants were selected from contacts of MERS patients based on a priority system in 4 regions strongly affected by the 2015 MERS outbreak. A sero-epidemiological survey was performed in 1,610 contacts (average duration from exposure to test, 4.8 months), and the collected sera were tested using an enzyme-linked immunespecific assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and plaque reduction neutralization antibody test (PRNT). Among the 1,610 contacts, there were 7 ELISA-positive cases, of which 1 exhibited positive IFA and PRNT results.@*RESULTS@#The asymptomatic infection rate was 0.060% (95% confidence interval, 0.002 to 0.346). The asymptomatic MERS case was a patient who had been hospitalized with patient zero on the same floor of the hospital at the same time. The case was quarantined at home for 2 weeks after discharge, and had underlying diseases, including hypertension, angina, and degenerative arthritis.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The asymptomatic infection was acquired via healthcare-associated transmission. Thus, it is necessary to extend serologic studies to include inpatient contacts who have no symptoms.

10.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2018014-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721366

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The rates of asymptomatic infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus vary. A serologic study was conducted to determine the asymptomatic MERS infection rate in healthcare workers and non-healthcare workers by exposure status. METHODS: Study participants were selected from contacts of MERS patients based on a priority system in 4 regions strongly affected by the 2015 MERS outbreak. A sero-epidemiological survey was performed in 1,610 contacts (average duration from exposure to test, 4.8 months), and the collected sera were tested using an enzyme-linked immunespecific assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and plaque reduction neutralization antibody test (PRNT). Among the 1,610 contacts, there were 7 ELISA-positive cases, of which 1 exhibited positive IFA and PRNT results. RESULTS: The asymptomatic infection rate was 0.060% (95% confidence interval, 0.002 to 0.346). The asymptomatic MERS case was a patient who had been hospitalized with patient zero on the same floor of the hospital at the same time. The case was quarantined at home for 2 weeks after discharge, and had underlying diseases, including hypertension, angina, and degenerative arthritis. CONCLUSIONS: The asymptomatic infection was acquired via healthcare-associated transmission. Thus, it is necessary to extend serologic studies to include inpatient contacts who have no symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asymptomatic Infections , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Cross Infection , Delivery of Health Care , Epidemiology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Hypertension , Inpatients , Korea , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Middle East , Osteoarthritis
11.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2018014-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786859

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The rates of asymptomatic infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus vary. A serologic study was conducted to determine the asymptomatic MERS infection rate in healthcare workers and non-healthcare workers by exposure status.METHODS: Study participants were selected from contacts of MERS patients based on a priority system in 4 regions strongly affected by the 2015 MERS outbreak. A sero-epidemiological survey was performed in 1,610 contacts (average duration from exposure to test, 4.8 months), and the collected sera were tested using an enzyme-linked immunespecific assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and plaque reduction neutralization antibody test (PRNT). Among the 1,610 contacts, there were 7 ELISA-positive cases, of which 1 exhibited positive IFA and PRNT results.RESULTS: The asymptomatic infection rate was 0.060% (95% confidence interval, 0.002 to 0.346). The asymptomatic MERS case was a patient who had been hospitalized with patient zero on the same floor of the hospital at the same time. The case was quarantined at home for 2 weeks after discharge, and had underlying diseases, including hypertension, angina, and degenerative arthritis.CONCLUSIONS: The asymptomatic infection was acquired via healthcare-associated transmission. Thus, it is necessary to extend serologic studies to include inpatient contacts who have no symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asymptomatic Infections , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Cross Infection , Delivery of Health Care , Epidemiology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Hypertension , Inpatients , Korea , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Middle East , Osteoarthritis
12.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 5-11, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-45959

ABSTRACT

Zika virus was first isolated in from nonhuman primate in 1947. It is in the genus Flavivirus, closely related to other flavivirus like Dengue, West Nile, Yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis virus. Since 2007 epidemic in Yap island, zika virus infections had spread to the countries in Micronesia and South Pacific. In 2015, Zika virus outbreak occurred in Brazil and now more than 40 countries in American continents reported autochthonous infection. The virus is transmitted mainly by Ae. aegypti mosquito with many other Aedes mosquito species known as vector. Recently, Zika virus infection is known to cause severe neurological complications and congenital malformation. In this paper, we will review current knowledge on Zika virus history, biology, clinical characteristics and preventive method.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Biology , Brazil , Culicidae , Dengue , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Flavivirus , Methods , Microcephaly , Micronesia , Primates , Yellow Fever , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus
13.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 132-135, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51103

ABSTRACT

The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections continue to increase throughout the world. Although neurologic complications are frequent in individuals with HIV infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), vestibulocochlear neuritis is still a relatively rare manifestation. We report the first case of vestibulocochlear neuritis occurring in an AIDS patient in Korea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Hearing Loss , HIV , HIV Infections , Incidence , Korea , Neuritis , Vestibulocochlear Nerve Diseases
14.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 443-451, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-224835

ABSTRACT

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne member of the genus Flavivirus, closely related to the dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and yellow fever viruses and is transmitted by Aedes spp. mosquitoes. It has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. Following the first detection of ZIKV on the American continent, autochthonous ZIKV transmission has been confirmed throughout Central and South America. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice patterns of the associated incidence of congenital microcephaly, Gillain-Barre symdrome, and acute diffuse encephalomyelitis. Here we review the history, emergence, biology, transmission, and control strategies for the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches on ZIKV to date.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Americas , Arboviruses , Biology , Culicidae , Dengue , Disease Outbreaks , Encephalitis, Japanese , Encephalomyelitis , Flavivirus , Incidence , Microcephaly , Micronesia , South America , Yellow fever virus , Zika Virus
15.
Korean Journal of Family Medicine ; : 191-194, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-46105

ABSTRACT

Infection with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and other multidrug resistant bacteria has increased rapidly in Korea. The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported 1,609 cases of CRE infection in the country in 2013. The risk factors for CRE infection include history of treatment with antibiotics such as cephalosporins or carbapenem, trauma, diabetes, cancer, and history of ventilator support. Herein, we report four cases of CRE infection seen during a 3-month period in our hospital in 2014. CRE infection is associated with a high mortality rate of 30% to 50%, even with combination antibiotic therapy. Prevention of CRE infection in hospital settings is fundamental to controlling its transmission. Key preventive measures include, contact precautions, hand hygiene, education of healthcare personnel, screening for CRE when indicated, and exercising discretion in prescribing carbapenem or cephalosporins.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteria , Cephalosporins , Delivery of Health Care , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Education , Enterobacter cloacae , Enterobacteriaceae , Enterobacteriaceae Infections , Hand Hygiene , Korea , Mass Screening , Mortality , Risk Factors , Ventilators, Mechanical
16.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 278-302, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-92656

ABSTRACT

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is an acute viral respiratory illness with high mortality caused by a new strain of betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Since the report of the first patient in Saudi Arabia in 2012, large-scale outbreaks through hospital-acquired infection and inter-hospital transmission have been reported. Most of the patients reported in South Korea were also infected in hospital settings. Therefore, to eliminate the spread of MERS-CoV, infection prevention and control measures should be implemented with rigor. The present guideline has been drafted on the basis of the experiences of infection control in the South Korean hospitals involved in the recent MERS outbreak and on domestic and international infection prevention and control guidelines. To ensure efficient MERS-CoV infection prevention and control, care should be taken to provide comprehensive infection control measures including contact control, hand hygiene, personal protective equipment, disinfection, and environmental cleaning.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care , Disease Outbreaks , Disinfection , Hand Hygiene , Infection Control , Korea , Middle East , Mortality , Quarantine , Saudi Arabia
17.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 64-67, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-221777

ABSTRACT

We report the first case of bacteremia by a novel Paenibacillus species, Paenibacillus pasadenensis, from a 55-year-old male patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome, following a microsurgical clipping procedure of a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. The bacterium was identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis, which was applied because current conventional methods employed in the clinical microbiology laboratory proved unsuccessful. Since this bacterium was first identified in 2006 and has never been reported elsewhere, we believe this report can provide practitioners with useful insight on the pathogenicity of this species.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bacteremia , Genes, rRNA , Intracranial Aneurysm , Paenibacillus , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , RNA, Ribosomal , Virulence
18.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 48-51, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195674

ABSTRACT

We report a rare case of sepsis with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by Candida parapsilosis and Candida famata after a small bowel bezoar operation. The patient was successfully treated with intensive care including mechanical ventilation and systemic antifungal therapy. A strong association was observed between the intestinal obstruction caused by the bezoar and candidemia presenting as ARDS. This is the first case in which candidemia has led to ARDS after a bezoar removal operation in a patient who was neither immunocompromised nor self-administering an illicit intravenous drug.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bezoars , Candida , Candidemia , Critical Care , Intestinal Obstruction , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Sepsis
19.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2014017-2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721153

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The symptoms of fungal infections vary from minor to severe. According to recent reports, fungal infection prevalence is increasing due to increases in the aging population and in patients with compromised immune systems. However, the total prevalence of fungal infections in South Korea is unknown. We investigated the recent 5-year prevalence of each type of fungal infection in South Korea across age, sex, and regional groups. METHODS: Nationwide data from the National Health Insurance of South Korea were used. The target population included patients who had received treatment for a fungal infection that was listed as the main disease. For each patient, multiple treatments were counted as one case per year in the data analysis. RESULTS: The annual prevalence of all-type mycoses increased from 6.9% in 2009 to 7.4% in 2013. Among the specific groups, the prevalence of dermatophytosis was highest (5.2%), followed by that of opportunistic mycoses (1.7%) and superficial mycoses (0.2%). The prevalence of subcutaneous mycoses and generalized mycoses was very low (8 cases per 100,000 persons and 3 cases per 1 million persons, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Every year, approximately 7.1% of the Korean population receives treatment for fungal diseases. Cases of opportunistic mycoses are assumed to increase each year. Therefore, further research is needed to understand and monitor the prevalence of mycoses to establish management policies to reduce the burden of fungal diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aging , Health Services Needs and Demand , Immune System , Insurance, Health , Korea , Mycoses , National Health Programs , Prevalence , Statistics as Topic , Tinea
20.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 80-83, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-202489

ABSTRACT

Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are at higher risks of bacterial pneumonia than the general population, and the pathogen is the most commonly involved Streptococcus pneumoniae. We hereby report a case of pneumococcal pneumonia associated with leptomeningitis, osteomyelitis and epidural abscess in a patient with AIDS. He is being successfully treated with ampicillin/sulbactam and clindamycin. And because the pneumococcal infection is usually associated with morbidity and mortality rates in the setting of AIDS, we should consider for pneumococcal vaccinations among the AIDS populations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Clindamycin , Epidural Abscess , Meningitis , Mortality , Osteomyelitis , Pneumococcal Infections , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Bacterial , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal , Streptococcus , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Vaccination
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