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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927078

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium vivax exhibits dormant liver-stage parasites, called hypnozoites, which can cause relapse of malaria. The only drug currently used for eliminating hypnozoites is primaquine. The antimalarial properties of primaquine are dependent on the production of oxidized metabolites by the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2D6 (CYP2D6). Reduced primaquine metabolism may be related to P. vivax relapses. We describe a case of 4 episodes of recurrence of vivax malaria in a patient with decreased CYP2D6 function. The patient was 52-year-old male with body weight of 52 kg. He received total gastrectomy and splenectomy 7 months before the first episode and was under chemotherapy for the gastric cancer. The first episode occurred in March 2019 and each episode had intervals of 34, 41, and 97 days, respectively. At the first and second episodes, primaquine was administered as 15 mg for 14 days. The primaquine dose was increased with 30 mg for 14 days at the third and fourth episodes. Seven gene sequences of P. vivax were analyzed and revealed totally identical for all the 4 samples. The CYP2D6 genotype was analyzed and intermediate metabolizer phenotype with decreased function was identified.

2.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 202-207, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925834

ABSTRACT

African tick-bite fever (ATBF), caused by Rickettsia africae, is the second most frequent cause of fever after malaria in travelers returning from Southern Africa. As the Korean outbound travelers are increasing every year, tick-borne rickettsial diseases as a cause of febrile illness are likely to increase. We describe a febrile Korean returning traveler who showed two eschars after visiting the rural field in Manzini, Swaziland. We performed nested polymerase chain reaction using the eschar and diagnosed the patient with ATBF. He was treated with oral doxycycline for 7 days, and recovered without any complications. We believe that the present case is the first ATBF case diagnosed in a Korean traveler.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892260

ABSTRACT

Background@#Remdesivir is widely used for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but controversies regarding its efficacy still remain. @*Methods@#A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the effect of remdesivir on clinical and virologic outcomes of severe COVID-19 patients from June to July 2020. Primary clinical endpoints included clinical recovery, additional mechanical ventilator (MV) support, and duration of oxygen or MV support. Viral load reduction by hospital day (HD) 15 was evaluated by calculating changes in cycle threshold (Ct) values. @*Results@#A total of 86 severe COVID-19 patients were evaluated including 48 remdesivirtreated patients. Baseline characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. Remdesivir was administered an average of 7.42 days from symptom onset. The proportions of clinical recovery of the remdesivir and supportive care group at HD 14 (56.3% and 39.5%) and HD 28 (87.5% and 78.9%) were not statistically different. The proportion of patients requiring MV support by HD 28 was significantly lower in the remdesivir group than in the supportive care group (22.9% vs. 44.7%, P = 0.032), and MV duration was significantly shorter in the remdesivir group (average, 1.97 vs. 5.37 days; P = 0.017). Analysis of upper respiratory tract specimens demonstrated that increases of Ct value from HD 1–5 to 11–15 were significantly greater in the remdesivir group than the supportive care group (average, 10.19 vs. 5.36; P = 0.007), and the slope of the Ct value increase was also significantly steeper in the remdesivir group (average, 5.10 vs. 2.68; P = 0.007). @*Conclusion@#The remdesivir group showed clinical and virologic benefit in terms of MV requirement and viral load reduction, supporting remdesivir treatment for severe COVID-19.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899964

ABSTRACT

Background@#Remdesivir is widely used for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but controversies regarding its efficacy still remain. @*Methods@#A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the effect of remdesivir on clinical and virologic outcomes of severe COVID-19 patients from June to July 2020. Primary clinical endpoints included clinical recovery, additional mechanical ventilator (MV) support, and duration of oxygen or MV support. Viral load reduction by hospital day (HD) 15 was evaluated by calculating changes in cycle threshold (Ct) values. @*Results@#A total of 86 severe COVID-19 patients were evaluated including 48 remdesivirtreated patients. Baseline characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. Remdesivir was administered an average of 7.42 days from symptom onset. The proportions of clinical recovery of the remdesivir and supportive care group at HD 14 (56.3% and 39.5%) and HD 28 (87.5% and 78.9%) were not statistically different. The proportion of patients requiring MV support by HD 28 was significantly lower in the remdesivir group than in the supportive care group (22.9% vs. 44.7%, P = 0.032), and MV duration was significantly shorter in the remdesivir group (average, 1.97 vs. 5.37 days; P = 0.017). Analysis of upper respiratory tract specimens demonstrated that increases of Ct value from HD 1–5 to 11–15 were significantly greater in the remdesivir group than the supportive care group (average, 10.19 vs. 5.36; P = 0.007), and the slope of the Ct value increase was also significantly steeper in the remdesivir group (average, 5.10 vs. 2.68; P = 0.007). @*Conclusion@#The remdesivir group showed clinical and virologic benefit in terms of MV requirement and viral load reduction, supporting remdesivir treatment for severe COVID-19.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719483

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the neutralizing activity in serum from three patients >1 year after recovery from Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) associated with mild pneumonia treated with antivirals during the MERS outbreak in South Korea at 2015. The neutralizing activity in serum was measured by pseudovirus inhibition assays. Three-fold diluted serum of subjects showed only 9.7%, 10.3%, and 2.2% reductions in relative light units. So, significant neutralizing activity was not demonstrated in any sera of three patients with mild pneumonia >1 year after being successfully treated with antiviral agents and recovering from MERS coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antiviral Agents , Coronavirus Infections , Humans , Korea , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pneumonia
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718081

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum preventive measures with antiretroviral drugs, appropriate delivery methods, and discouraging breastfeeding significantly decrease the risk of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Herein, we investigated the pregnancy outcomes in HIV-infected Korean women. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of childbearing-age HIV-infected women between January 2005 and June 2017 at four tertiary care hospitals in Korea. RESULTS: Among a total of 95 HIV infected women of child-bearing age with 587.61 years of follow-up duration, 15 HIV-infected women experienced 21 pregnancies and delivered 16 infants. The pregnancy rate was 3.57 per 100 patient-years. Among the 21 pregnancies, five ended with an induced abortion, and 16 with childbirth including two preterm deliveries at 24 and 35 weeks of gestation, respectively. The two preterm infants had low birth weight and one of them died 10 days after delivery due to respiratory failure. Among the 14 full-term infants, one infant was small for gestational age. There were no HIV-infected infants. CONCLUSION: The pregnancy rate of HIV-infected women in Korea is lower than that of the general population. Although several adverse pregnancy outcomes were observed, mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection was successfully prevented with effective preventive measures.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Induced , Breast Feeding , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gestational Age , HIV , HIV Infections , Humans , Infant , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Korea , Medical Records , Parturition , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy Rate , Pregnancy , Respiratory Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Healthcare
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-8190

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is one of the most dominant vector-borne diseases, putting approximately 3.9 billion people at risk worldwide. While it is generally vector-borne, other routes of transmission such as needlestick injury are possible. Laboratory workers can be exposed to dengue virus transcutaneously by needlestick injury. This is the first case, to our knowledge, of dengue virus infection by needlestick injury in a laboratory environment. This paper evaluates the risk and related health concerns of laboratory workers exposed to dengue virus. CASE PRESENTATION: We evaluated a 30-year-old female laboratory worker exposed to the dengue virus by needlestick injury while conducting virus filtering. During admission, she showed symptoms of fever, nausea, myalgia, and a characteristic maculopapular rash with elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) of 235 IU/L and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of 269 IU/L. She had been diagnosed by a positive nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigen (Ag) rapid test one day prior to symptom onset along with positive immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on the ninth day of symptom onset. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), also conducted on the ninth day, was negative. After proper symptomatic treatment, she recovered without any sequelae. As a result of thorough epidemiologic investigation, it was determined that she had tried to recap the needle during the virus filtering procedure and a subsequent needlestick injury occurred. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of health promotion of laboratory workers, we suggest that the laboratory biosafety manual be revised and reinforced, and related prevention measures be implemented. Furthermore, health authorities and health care providers in Korea should be fully informed of proper dengue fever management.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alanine Transaminase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Dengue Virus , Dengue , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Exanthema , Female , Fever , Health Personnel , Health Promotion , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Korea , Myalgia , Nausea , Needles , Needlestick Injuries , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription
8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 348-354, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210032

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Over the last 30 years, Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) has emerged as an important pathogen, and a common cause of nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with mortality in patients with S. marcescens bacteremia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 98 patients who had one or more blood cultures positive for S. marcescens between January 2006 and December 2012 in a tertiary care hospital in Seoul, South Korea. Multiple risk factors were compared with association with 28-day all-cause mortality. RESULTS: The 28-day mortality was 22.4% (22/98 episodes). In a univariate analysis, the onset of bacteremia during the intensive care unit stay (p=0.020), serum albumin level (p=0.011), serum C-reactive protein level (p=0.041), presence of indwelling urinary catheter (p=0.023), and Sequential Oran Failure Assessment (SOFA) score at the onset of bacteremia (p<0.001) were significantly different between patients in the fatal and non-fatal groups. In a multivariate analysis, lower serum albumin level and an elevated SOFA score were independently associated with 28-day mortality [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.206, 95% confidential interval (CI) 0.044-0.960, p=0.040, and adjusted OR 1.474, 95% CI 1.200-1.810, p<0.001, respectively]. CONCLUSION: Lower serum albumin level and an elevated SOFA score were significantly associated with adverse outcomes in patients with S. marcescens bacteremia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Cross Infection/mortality , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Serratia Infections/diagnosis , Serratia marcescens/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
9.
Gut and Liver ; : 109-112, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36645

ABSTRACT

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a rare thrombotic complication characterized by a triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. HUS may be caused by several different conditions, including infection, malignancy, and chemotherapeutic agents, such as mitomycin, cisplatin, and most recently, gemcitabine. The outcome of gemcitabine-induced HUS is poor, and the disease has a high mortality rate. This study reports a case of gemcitabine-induced HUS in a patient with pancreatic cancer in Korea.


Subject(s)
Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/adverse effects , Deoxycytidine/adverse effects , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome/chemically induced , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pancreatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
10.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 257-260, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-116972

ABSTRACT

Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is one of the most common acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining malignancies among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, and rectal cancer has recently emerged as a prevalent non-AIDS-defining malignancy. We report a case of rectal squamous cell carcinoma that was metachronous with DLBCL in an HIV-infected patient who was receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. The patient was diagnosed with DLBCL and showed complete remission after chemotherapy. Follow-up imaging showed increased uptake at the rectum, previously treated as lymphoma. Repeated biopsy was performed and squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum was reported. After concurrent chemoradiation therapy, curative resection was performed.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Biopsy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , HIV , Humans , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, AIDS-Related , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Oncogenic Viruses , Rectal Neoplasms , Rectum
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52774

ABSTRACT

Nesidioblastosis is a term used to describe pathologic overgrowth of pancreatic islet cells. It also means maldistribution of islet cells within the ductules of exocrine pancreas. Generally, nesidioblastosis occurs in beta-cell and causes neonatal hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia or adult noninsulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia syndrome. Alpha-cell nesidioblastosis and hyperplasia is an extremely rare disorder. It often accompanies glucagon-producing marco- and mircoadenoma without typical glucagonoma syndrome. A 35-year-old female was referred to our hospital with recurrent acute pancreatitis. On radiologic studies, 1.5 cm sized mass was noted in pancreas tail. Cytological evaluation with EUS-fine-needle aspiration suggested serous cystadenoma. She received distal pancreatectomy. The histologic examination revealed a 1.7 cm sized neuroendocrine tumor positive for immunohistochemical staining with glucagon antibody. Multiple glucagon-producing micro endocrine cell tumors were scattered next to the main tumor. Additionally, diffuse hyperplasia of pancreatic islets and ectopic proliferation of islet cells in centroacinar area, findings compatible to nesidioblastosis, were seen. These hyperplasia and almost all nesidioblastic cells were positive for glucagon immunochemistry. Even though serum glucagon level still remained higher than the reference value, she has been followed-up without any evidence of recurrence or hormone related symptoms. Herein, we report a case of alpha-cell nesidioblastosis and hyperplasia combined with glucagon-producing neuroendocrine tumor with literature review.


Subject(s)
Adult , Chromogranin A/blood , Female , Glucagon/metabolism , Glucagon-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Humans , Hyperplasia/complications , Islets of Langerhans/metabolism , Nesidioblastosis/complications , Neuroendocrine Tumors/complications , Pancreas/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 422-430, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-62687

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection (SSI) is a potentially morbid and costly complication of surgery. While gastrointestinal surgery is relatively common in Korea, few studies have evaluated SSI in the context of gastric surgery. Thus, we performed a prospective cohort study to determine the incidence and risk factors of SSI in Korean patients undergoing gastric surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 2,091 patients who underwent gastric surgery was performed in 10 hospitals with more than 500 beds (nine tertiary hospitals and one secondary hospital). Patients were recruited from an SSI surveillance program between June 1, 2010, and August 31, 2011 and followed up for 1 month after the operation. The criteria used to define SSI and a patient's risk index category were established according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System. We collected demographic data and potential perioperative risk factors including type and duration of the operation and physical status score in patients who developed SSIs based on a previous study protocol. RESULTS: A total of 71 SSIs (3.3%) were identified, with hospital rates varying from 0.0 - 15.7%. The results of multivariate analyses indicated that prolonged operation time (P = 0.002), use of a razor for preoperative hair removal (P = 0.010), and absence of laminar flow in the operating room (P = 0.024) were independent risk factors for SSI after gastric surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Longer operation times, razor use, and absence of laminar flow in operating rooms were independently associated with significant increased SSI risk after gastric surgery.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Cross Infection , Hair Removal , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , Operating Rooms , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tertiary Care Centers
13.
The Ewha Medical Journal ; : S25-S29, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-141199

ABSTRACT

Primary amyloidosis has unfavorable prognosis, particularly with organ involvement. Here, we report a case of clinical remission of renal amyloidosis after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation. A 51-year-old female patient visited our hospital due to generalized edema. Initial evaluation showed hyperlipidemia, hypoalbuminemia, and heavy proteinuria, which were consistent with nephrotic syndrome. However, IgM lamda type monoclonal gammopathy was detected in serum and urine electrophoresis studies. Renal biopsy showed Congo red-positive amyloid deposition in mesangial area, glomerular capillary walls, and arterioles and amyloid fibers were confirmed by electron microscopy. Immunohistochemial study of the biopsy tissue demonstrated systemic light-chain amyloidosis (AL amyloidosis). Multiple myeloma was not evident on bone marrow examination. She received autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation after high dose melphalan treatment. Complete remissions were achieved after the treatment, respectively. Our findings suggest the potential role of autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in treatment of AL amyloidosis.


Subject(s)
Amyloid , Amyloidosis , Arterioles , Biopsy , Bone Marrow Examination , Capillaries , Cell Transplantation , Congo , Edema , Electrophoresis , Female , Humans , Hyperlipidemias , Hypoalbuminemia , Immunoglobulin M , Melphalan , Microscopy, Electron , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma , Nephrotic Syndrome , Paraproteinemias , Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation , Plaque, Amyloid , Prognosis , Proteinuria , Transplants
14.
The Ewha Medical Journal ; : S25-S29, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-141198

ABSTRACT

Primary amyloidosis has unfavorable prognosis, particularly with organ involvement. Here, we report a case of clinical remission of renal amyloidosis after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation. A 51-year-old female patient visited our hospital due to generalized edema. Initial evaluation showed hyperlipidemia, hypoalbuminemia, and heavy proteinuria, which were consistent with nephrotic syndrome. However, IgM lamda type monoclonal gammopathy was detected in serum and urine electrophoresis studies. Renal biopsy showed Congo red-positive amyloid deposition in mesangial area, glomerular capillary walls, and arterioles and amyloid fibers were confirmed by electron microscopy. Immunohistochemial study of the biopsy tissue demonstrated systemic light-chain amyloidosis (AL amyloidosis). Multiple myeloma was not evident on bone marrow examination. She received autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation after high dose melphalan treatment. Complete remissions were achieved after the treatment, respectively. Our findings suggest the potential role of autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in treatment of AL amyloidosis.


Subject(s)
Amyloid , Amyloidosis , Arterioles , Biopsy , Bone Marrow Examination , Capillaries , Cell Transplantation , Congo , Edema , Electrophoresis , Female , Humans , Hyperlipidemias , Hypoalbuminemia , Immunoglobulin M , Melphalan , Microscopy, Electron , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma , Nephrotic Syndrome , Paraproteinemias , Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation , Plaque, Amyloid , Prognosis , Proteinuria , Transplants
15.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 420-425, 1997.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Massive hemoptysis is one of the major medical emergency with high risk of mortality. Though the best predictor of mortality associated with hemoptysis appears to be the amount of bleeding within the first 24 hours, catastrophic hemorrhage could be occurred to the patients who were apparently in a stable condition with scanty hemoptysis at the time of admission. We evaluated APACHE III score system to find if it could be a prognostic index that can predict the mortality of the patients with hemoptysis. METHODS: We identified all the patients who had admitted with hemoptysis in the Medical Intensive Care Unit of Asan Medical Center between May 25, 1989, and July 31, 1995. A retrospective analysis was done in 66 patients with hemoptysis on APA- CHE III score. RESULTS: The overall mortality rate was 17.4% (12/69). In univariate analysis of possible prognostic factors, independent predictors of mortality were age(P=0.016), amount of hemoptysis(P=0.012), AaDO2 (P=0.017), requirement of transfusion(P=0.036), mechanical ventilatory care(P<0.05) and APACHE III score(P=0.02), In multivariate analysis with sex, age, amount of hemoptysis, AaDO2, requirement of transfusion and APACHE III score, APACHE III score was the only independent predictor of mortality(P=0.015, odd ratio=19.3, 95% confidence interval, 3.4 to 249.7) CONCLUSION: APACHE IU score may be a clinically significantly important independent predictor of outcome in the patients with hemoptysis. In addition, invasive procedure, such as bronchial artery embolizaticn or operation, could be considered in advance in the patients with more than 30 points of APACHE III.


Subject(s)
APACHE , Bronchial Arteries , Emergencies , Hemoptysis , Hemorrhage , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Critical Care , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-187513

ABSTRACT

As public awareness of the various warning signs of malignancy increases, so does the concern evoked by the self identified finding of mass in the head and neck area. Not all the palpable masses are always significantly abnormal, but any nontender mass especially to the adult is significant enough to warrant further full investigation and follow up, the object of which should be to determine the possibility of malignancy and urgency of treatment. Approach to the diagnosis of the neck mass is so important in that it affects decision regarding further evaluation would lead to the determination of the most efficacious mode of therapy, eventually to the good prognosis. So, it should be emphasized that approach to the diagnosis of neck mass should be planned, systematic and thorough, this begins with the taking careful history following performance of complete examination of the head and neck especially to the nasopharynx, tongue base, pyriform sinus, palatine tonsil and larynx. Then a number of laboratory and radiologic studies are available, following triple endoscopy under general anesthesia and blind biopsy if needed. The most important rule to keep is that any biopsy procedures should be delayed to the last modality of effort to the diagnosis and if it should be done, under the plan of radical neck dissection.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anesthesia, General , Biopsy , Diagnosis , Endoscopy , Follow-Up Studies , Head , Humans , Larynx , Nasopharynx , Neck Dissection , Neck , Palatine Tonsil , Prognosis , Pyriform Sinus , Tongue
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