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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914207

ABSTRACT

Background@#It is unclear whether glycemic variability (GV) is a risk factor for diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), and whether control of GV is beneficial for DPN. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of GV on peripheral nerve damage by inducing glucose fluctuation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. @*Methods@#Rats were divided into four groups: normal (normal glucose group [NOR]), diabetes without treatment (sustained severe hyperglycemia group; diabetes mellitus [DM]), diabetes+once daily insulin glargine (stable hyperglycemia group; DM+LAN), and diabetes+once daily insulin glargine with twice daily insulin glulisine (unstable glucose fluctuation group; DM+Lantus [LAN]+Apidra [API]). We measured anti-oxidant enzyme levels and behavioral responses against tactile, thermal, and pressure stimuli in the plasma of rats. We also performed a quantitative comparison of cutaneous and sciatic nerves according to glucose fluctuation. @*Results@#At week 24, intraepidermal nerve fiber density was less reduced in the insulin-administered groups compared to the DM group (P0.05; 16.2±1.6, 12.4±2.0, 14.3±0.9, and 13.9±0.6 for NOR, DM, DM+LAN, and DM+LAN+API, respectively). The DM group exhibited significantly decreased glutathione levels compared to the insulin-administered groups (2.64±0.10 μmol/mL, DM+LAN; 1.93±0.0 μmol/mL, DM+LAN+API vs. 1.25±0.04 μmol/mL, DM; P<0.05). @*Conclusion@#Our study suggests that glucose control itself is more important than glucose fluctuation in the prevention of peripheral nerve damage, and intra-day glucose fluctuation has a limited effect on the progression of peripheral neuropathy in rats with diabetes.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874523

ABSTRACT

The worldwide diabetes epidemic is estimated to currently afflict almost 500 million persons. Long-term diabetes damages multiple organ systems with the blood vessels, eyes, kidneys and nervous systems being particularly vulnerable. These complications of diabetes reduce lifespan, impede quality of life and impose a huge social and economic burden on both the individual and society. Peripheral neuropathy is a debilitating complication that will impact over half of all persons with diabetes. There is no treatment for diabetic neuropathy and a disturbingly long history of therapeutic approaches showing promise in preclinical studies but failing to translate to the clinic. These failures have prompted re-examination of both the animal models and clinical trial design. This review focuses on the functional and structural parameters used as indices of peripheral neuropathy in preclinical and clinical studies and the extent to which they share a common pathogenesis and presentation. Nerve conduction studies in large myelinated fibers have long been the mainstay of preclinical efficacy screening programs and clinical trials, supplemented by quantitative sensory tests. However, a more refined approach is emerging that incorporates measures of small fiber density in the skin and cornea alongside these traditional assays at both preclinical and clinical phases.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900063

ABSTRACT

Background@#Real-world data analysis is useful for identifying treatment patterns.Understanding drug prescription patterns of type 2 diabetes mellitus may facilitate diabetes management. We aimed to analyze treatment patterns of type 2 diabetes mellitus using Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership Common Data Model based on electronic health records. @*Methods@#This retrospective, observational study employed electronic health records of patients who visited Jeonbuk National University Hospital in Korea during January 2000– December 2019. Data were transformed into the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership Common Data Model and analyzed using R version 4.0.3 and ATLAS ver. 2.7.6. Prescription frequency for each anti-diabetic drug, combination therapy pattern, and prescription pattern according to age, renal function, and glycated hemoglobin were analyzed. @*Results@#The number of adults treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus increased from 1,867 (2.0%) in 2000 to 9,972 (5.9%) in 2019. In the early 2000s, sulfonylurea was most commonly prescribed (73%), and in the recent years, metformin has been most commonly prescribed (64%). Prescription rates for DPP4 and SGLT2 inhibitors have increased gradually over the past few years. Monotherapy prescription rates decreased, whereas triple and quadruple combination prescription rates increased steadily. Different drug prescription patterns according to age, renal function, and glycated hemoglobin were observed. The proportion of patients with HbA1c ≤ 7% increased from 31.1% in 2000 to 45.6% in 2019, but that of patients visiting the emergency room for severe hypoglycemia did not change over time. @*Conclusion@#Medication utilization patterns have changed significantly over the past 20 years with an increase in the use of newer drugs and a shift to combination therapies. In addition, various prescription patterns were demonstrated according to the patient characteristics in actual practice. Although glycemic control has improved, the proportion within the target is still low, underscoring the need to improve diabetes management.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898119

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOnly few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsFrom March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.ResultsIn total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; PPConclusionThis study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892359

ABSTRACT

Background@#Real-world data analysis is useful for identifying treatment patterns.Understanding drug prescription patterns of type 2 diabetes mellitus may facilitate diabetes management. We aimed to analyze treatment patterns of type 2 diabetes mellitus using Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership Common Data Model based on electronic health records. @*Methods@#This retrospective, observational study employed electronic health records of patients who visited Jeonbuk National University Hospital in Korea during January 2000– December 2019. Data were transformed into the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership Common Data Model and analyzed using R version 4.0.3 and ATLAS ver. 2.7.6. Prescription frequency for each anti-diabetic drug, combination therapy pattern, and prescription pattern according to age, renal function, and glycated hemoglobin were analyzed. @*Results@#The number of adults treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus increased from 1,867 (2.0%) in 2000 to 9,972 (5.9%) in 2019. In the early 2000s, sulfonylurea was most commonly prescribed (73%), and in the recent years, metformin has been most commonly prescribed (64%). Prescription rates for DPP4 and SGLT2 inhibitors have increased gradually over the past few years. Monotherapy prescription rates decreased, whereas triple and quadruple combination prescription rates increased steadily. Different drug prescription patterns according to age, renal function, and glycated hemoglobin were observed. The proportion of patients with HbA1c ≤ 7% increased from 31.1% in 2000 to 45.6% in 2019, but that of patients visiting the emergency room for severe hypoglycemia did not change over time. @*Conclusion@#Medication utilization patterns have changed significantly over the past 20 years with an increase in the use of newer drugs and a shift to combination therapies. In addition, various prescription patterns were demonstrated according to the patient characteristics in actual practice. Although glycemic control has improved, the proportion within the target is still low, underscoring the need to improve diabetes management.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890415

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOnly few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsFrom March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.ResultsIn total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; PPConclusionThis study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898035

ABSTRACT

BackgroundMetformin is widely marketed medication for the treatment of diabetes, but its pharmacological effect on diabetic peripheral neuropathy remains unclear. In this study, the effect of metformin on peripheral nerves in diabetic rats was investigated using diverse neuronal parameters of nerve fibers.MethodsRats were assigned to one of four groups (n=7 to 10 per group): normal, diabetes mellitus (DM), DM+metformin (100 mg/kg), and DM+alpha lipoic acid (ALA, 100 mg/kg). DM was induced by streptozotocin/high-fat diet (STZ/HFD). After 12 weeks, the sensory thresholds to mechanical and heat stimuli were assessed. Repeated sensory tests, immunofluorescence microscopic comparison of peripheral nerves, and biochemical blood analysis were performed after 24 weeks.ResultsBoth DM+metformin and DM+ALA groups showed similar trends to diverse sensory tests at 24 weeks compared to DM group although the degree of change were different according to the stimulated senses. There was no significant difference in the comparison of the intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) of peripheral nerves between the DM+metformin and DM+ALA groups (11.83±0.07 fibers/mm vs. 12.37±1.82 fibers/mm, respectively). Both groups showed preserved IENFD significantly compared with DM group (8.46±1.98 fibers/mm, PConclusionMetformin has beneficial pharmacological effects on the preservation of peripheral nerves in diabetic rats and its effects are comparable to those of ALA.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890331

ABSTRACT

BackgroundMetformin is widely marketed medication for the treatment of diabetes, but its pharmacological effect on diabetic peripheral neuropathy remains unclear. In this study, the effect of metformin on peripheral nerves in diabetic rats was investigated using diverse neuronal parameters of nerve fibers.MethodsRats were assigned to one of four groups (n=7 to 10 per group): normal, diabetes mellitus (DM), DM+metformin (100 mg/kg), and DM+alpha lipoic acid (ALA, 100 mg/kg). DM was induced by streptozotocin/high-fat diet (STZ/HFD). After 12 weeks, the sensory thresholds to mechanical and heat stimuli were assessed. Repeated sensory tests, immunofluorescence microscopic comparison of peripheral nerves, and biochemical blood analysis were performed after 24 weeks.ResultsBoth DM+metformin and DM+ALA groups showed similar trends to diverse sensory tests at 24 weeks compared to DM group although the degree of change were different according to the stimulated senses. There was no significant difference in the comparison of the intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) of peripheral nerves between the DM+metformin and DM+ALA groups (11.83±0.07 fibers/mm vs. 12.37±1.82 fibers/mm, respectively). Both groups showed preserved IENFD significantly compared with DM group (8.46±1.98 fibers/mm, PConclusionMetformin has beneficial pharmacological effects on the preservation of peripheral nerves in diabetic rats and its effects are comparable to those of ALA.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832341

ABSTRACT

Background@#Only few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#From March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated. @*Results@#In total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9± 14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, –1.1%±1.2%; P<0.001). The number of patients with HbA1c <7% increased significantly from 5 to 68 (P<0.005). In addition, lipid profiles and liver enzyme levels were also improved whereas no changes in body weight. There was no significant safety issue in patients treated with quadruple OHA therapy. @*Conclusion@#This study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739219

ABSTRACT

The Korean Endocrine Society (KES) published clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acromegaly in 2011. Since then, the number of acromegaly cases, publications on studies addressing medical treatment of acromegaly, and demands for improvements in insurance coverage have been dramatically increasing. In 2017, the KES Committee of Health Insurance decided to publish a position statement regarding the use of somatostatin analogues in acromegaly. Accordingly, consensus opinions for the position statement were collected after intensive review of the relevant literature and discussions among experts affiliated with the KES, and the Korean Neuroendocrine Study Group. This position statement includes the characteristics, indications, dose, interval (including extended dose interval in case of lanreotide autogel), switching and preoperative use of somatostatin analogues in medical treatment of acromegaly. The recommended approach is based on the expert opinions in case of insufficient clinical evidence, and where discrepancies among the expert opinions were found, the experts voted to determine the recommended approach.


Subject(s)
Acromegaly , Consensus , Expert Testimony , Insurance Coverage , Insurance, Health , Octreotide , Somatostatin
11.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 485-494, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786308

ABSTRACT

Acromegaly is a chronic disorder caused by excessive growth hormone (GH) secretion. In most cases, the excess GH originates from GH-producing pituitary adenomas. Surgery is the preferred first-line treatment for patients with acromegaly, but medical management is considered when the disease persists after surgery or in cases where patients refuse surgery or are poor candidates for surgery. Somatostatin analogues are commonly used to treat acromegaly. The Korean Endocrine Society and the Korean Neuroendocrine Study Group have developed a position statement for the use of somatostatin analogues in the medical treatment of acromegaly. This position statement is based on evidence from the current literature and expert opinions. In the case of discrepancies among expert opinions, the experts voted to determine the recommended approach.


Subject(s)
Acromegaly , Expert Testimony , Growth Hormone , Humans , Octreotide , Pituitary Neoplasms , Somatostatin
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714209

ABSTRACT

Present study investigated the morphologic changes of autonomic nerves in the adipose tissue in diabetic animal model. Male obese type 2 diabetic db/db mice and age matched non-diabetic db/m control mice were used. Epididymal adipose tissue from diabetic db/db mice with that from control heterozygous db/m mice was compared using confocal microscopy-based method to visualize intact whole adipose tissue. Immunohistochemistry with tyrosine hydroxylase for sympathetic (SP), choline acetyltransferase for parasympathetic (PSP), and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) for whole autonomic nerves was performed. The quantity of immunostained portion of SP, PSP, and PGP 9.5 stained nerve fibers showed decreased trend in diabetic group; however, the ratio of SP/PSP of adipose tissue was higher in diabetic group compared with control group as follows (0.70±0.30 vs. 0.95±0.25, P < 0.05; normal vs. diabetic, respectively). Both SP and PSP nerve fibers were observed in white adipose tissue and PSP nerve fibers were suggested as more decreased in diabetes based on our observation.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Adipose Tissue , Adipose Tissue, White , Animals , Autonomic Pathways , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Methods , Mice , Models, Animal , Nerve Fibers , Peripheral Nerves , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716313

ABSTRACT

The effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on peripheral nerves and kidneys in diabetes mellitus (DM) remains unexplored. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the effect of empagliflozin in diabetic rats. DM in rats was induced by streptozotocin injection, and diabetic rats were treated with empagliflozin 3 or 10 mg/kg. Following 24-week treatment, response thresholds to four different stimuli were tested and found to be lower in diabetic rats than in normal rats. Empagliflozin significantly prevented hypersensitivity (P < 0.05) and the loss of skin intraepidermal nerve fibers, and mesangial matrix expansion in diabetic rats. Results of this study demonstrate the potential therapeutic effects of empagliflozin for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and nephropathy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Diabetic Nephropathies , Diabetic Neuropathies , Hypersensitivity , Kidney , Nerve Fibers , Peripheral Nerves , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Rats , Skin , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 , Streptozocin , Therapeutic Uses
16.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 248-252, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727023

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus, which is a well-known chronic metabolic disorder with diverse complications, affects over 10% and up to nearly 20% of older adults; its prevalence is increasing rapidly. Fracture is also important issue in a large proportion of older adults and osteoporosis is a common cause of fracture. Therefore, both diabetes and increased fracture risks due to osteoporosis have become serious concerns and health problems in aging societies these days. However, the mechanisms of and exact relationship between diabetes and bone conditions are not fully understood and remain controversial issues because observational and animal studies do not show consistent results. Nonetheless, we should not overlook that bone quality and fractures are also important in older diabetic patients just as in the non-diabetic general population. Therefore, we need a better understanding of how diabetes and its treatment relate to bone health; this will improve morbidity and mortality in older diabetic and osteoporosis patients. Until these questions are answered, we should continue treating diabetic patients for osteoporosis with well-known current medications to improve bone mineral density besides including optimal glucose control and management of micro and macro vascular complications.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aging , Animals , Bone and Bones , Bone Density , Diabetes Mellitus , Glucose , Humans , Mortality , Osteoporosis , Prevalence
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-10415

ABSTRACT

Despite the rapidly increasing prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in type 2 diabetes (T2D), few treatment modalities are currently available. We investigated the hepatic effects of the novel thiazolidinedione (TZDs), lobeglitazone (Duvie) in T2D patients with NAFLD. We recruited drug-naïve or metformin-treated T2D patients with NAFLD to conduct a multicenter, prospective, open-label, exploratory clinical trial. Transient liver elastography (Fibroscan®; Echosens, Paris, France) with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) was used to non-invasively quantify hepatic fat contents. Fifty patients with CAP values above 250 dB/m were treated once daily with 0.5 mg lobeglitazone for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was a decline in CAP values, and secondary endpoints included changes in components of glycemic, lipid, and liver profiles. Lobeglitazone-treated patients showed significantly decreased CAP values (313.4 dB/m at baseline vs. 297.8 dB/m at 24 weeks; P = 0.016), regardless of glycemic control. Lobeglitazone improved HbA1C values (7.41% [57.5 mM] vs. 6.56% [48.2 mM]; P < 0.001), as well as the lipid and liver profiles of the treated patients. Moreover, multivariable linear regression analysis showed that hepatic fat reduction by lobeglitazone was independently associated with baseline values of CAP, liver stiffness, and liver enzymes, and metformin use. Lobeglitazone treatment reduced intrahepatic fat content, as assessed by transient liver elastography, and improved glycemic, liver, and lipid profiles in T2D patients with NAFLD. Further randomized controlled trials using liver histology as an end point are necessary to evaluate the efficacy of lobeglitazone for NAFLD treatment (Clinical trial No. NCT02285205).


Subject(s)
Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Humans , Linear Models , Liver , Metformin , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Prevalence , Prospective Studies
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149428

ABSTRACT

Diabetic neuropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes, and it increases morbidity and mortality in patients with both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Because the autonomic nervous system, for example, parasympathetic axons, has a diffuse and wide distribution, we do not know the morphological changes that occur in autonomic neural control and their exact mechanisms in diabetic patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN). Although the prevalence of sympathetic and parasympathetic neuropathy is similar in T1DM versus T2DM patients, sympathetic nerve function correlates with parasympathetic neuropathy only in T1DM patients. The explanation for these discrepancies might be that parasympathetic nerve function was more severely affected among T2DM patients. As parasympathetic nerve damage seems to be more advanced than sympathetic nerve damage, it might be that parasympathetic neuropathy precedes sympathetic neuropathy in T2DM, which was Ewing's concept. This could be explained by the intrinsic morphologic difference. Therefore, the morphological changes in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves of involved organs in T1DM and T2DM patients who have DAN should be evaluated. In this review, evaluation methods for morphological changes in the epidermal nerves of skin, and the intrinsic nerves of the stomach will be discussed.


Subject(s)
Autonomic Nervous System , Autonomic Pathways , Axons , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Neuropathies , Humans , Mortality , Prevalence , Skin , Stomach
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44474

ABSTRACT

Methimazole-induced agranulocytosis is a rare but critical side effect which may cause a life-threatening state during Graves' disease treatment. In management of methimazole-induced agranulocytosis, the most important thing is withdrawal of ATD (anti-thyroid drug) and empirical broad spectrum antibiotics can be used. Also, G-CSF or GM-CSF is generally recommended as it could be helpful in restoration of neutropenia. Pathophysiology of appendicitis is obstruction of the lumen of the appendix caused by infection or hyperplasia of submucosal follicles. Recently, management of appendicitis has been reported to be successful with conservative antibiotics administration without appendectomy. A 27-year-old man visited our hospital experiencing febrile sensation, painful throat, and abdominal pain. The patient had been diagnosed with Graves' disease 1 month previously and had taken methimazole 10 mg daily (tapered dose from initial 30 mg daily). Agranulocytosis was confirmed with neutrophils count and peripheral blood smear, and the finding of ultrasonography and abdominal CT scan were compatible with acute appendicitis. We report a rare case of methimzole-induced agranulocytosis combined with acute appendicitis in the course of Graves' disease treatment. In this case, withdrawal of ATD (anti-thyroid drug) caused thyroid storm and appendectomy was not performed due to operative risk. Thyroid storm was treated with radioiodine ablation, and appendicitis was treated with antibiotics without appendectomy. With the use of G-CSF and conservative management, improvement of not only the clinical manifestation but also agranulocytosis was seen.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Adult , Agranulocytosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Appendectomy , Appendicitis , Appendix , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Graves Disease , Humans , Hyperplasia , Methimazole , Neutropenia , Neutrophils , Pharynx , Sensation , Thyroid Crisis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28815

ABSTRACT

Disorders of the endocrine system including hormone hyperfunction and hypofunction have multiple effects on cardiovascular system. However, in clinical practice, there are many cases of delayed or overlooked diagnosis of underlying endocrine dysfunction in patients presenting chest pain or other cardiac symptoms. Herein, we report three cases of endocrine hyperfunction presenting as coronary spasm; Graves' hyperthyroidism, pheochromocytoma, and primary hyperparathyroidism. Chest pains disappear after treatment for these endocrine diseases. Endocrine hyperfunctions such as the three cases described above should be considered as possible diagnosis in patients with complaint of chest pain. High index of suspicion are needed.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular System , Chest Pain , Coronary Vessels , Diagnosis , Endocrine System , Endocrine System Diseases , Humans , Hyperparathyroidism , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary , Hyperthyroidism , Pheochromocytoma , Spasm
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