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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900430

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Belching is the act of expelling gas from the stomach or esophagus noisily through the oral cavity. Although it is a physiological phenomenon, belching may also be a symptom of upper gastrointestinal diseases such as reflux esophagitis and functional dyspepsia (FD). A detailed epidemiology of belching has not yet been reported. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of clinically significant belching (CSB) in adults. @*Methods@#We analyzed 1998 subjects who visited the hospital for annual health checkups. Belching was evaluated by a simple question “Do you burp a lot?” and scored as 0 (never), 1 (occasionally), 2 (sometimes), 3 (often), or 4 (always). Subjects with CSB were defined ashaving scores ≥ 3. We also collected the clinical parameters, endoscopic findings, and data according to the Athens Insomnia Scale, Rome IV questionnaire, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). @*Results@#Of the 1998 subjects, 121 (6.1%) had CSB. Subjects with CSB had FD more commonly than reflux esophagitis, but presence of heartburn was high (10.7% vs 3.1%). In addition, the HADS and Athens Insomnia Scale scores in subjects with CSB were significantly higher than those in subjects without CSB. Presence of heartburn (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.05-4.09), presence of FD (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.33-3.36), anxiety/depression (OR, 2.29; 95% CI 1.51-3.45), and sleep disturbances (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.14-2.61) were significantly associated with CSB. @*Conclusion@#The detailed epidemiology of belching in the general adult population was clarified.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892726

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Belching is the act of expelling gas from the stomach or esophagus noisily through the oral cavity. Although it is a physiological phenomenon, belching may also be a symptom of upper gastrointestinal diseases such as reflux esophagitis and functional dyspepsia (FD). A detailed epidemiology of belching has not yet been reported. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of clinically significant belching (CSB) in adults. @*Methods@#We analyzed 1998 subjects who visited the hospital for annual health checkups. Belching was evaluated by a simple question “Do you burp a lot?” and scored as 0 (never), 1 (occasionally), 2 (sometimes), 3 (often), or 4 (always). Subjects with CSB were defined ashaving scores ≥ 3. We also collected the clinical parameters, endoscopic findings, and data according to the Athens Insomnia Scale, Rome IV questionnaire, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). @*Results@#Of the 1998 subjects, 121 (6.1%) had CSB. Subjects with CSB had FD more commonly than reflux esophagitis, but presence of heartburn was high (10.7% vs 3.1%). In addition, the HADS and Athens Insomnia Scale scores in subjects with CSB were significantly higher than those in subjects without CSB. Presence of heartburn (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.05-4.09), presence of FD (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.33-3.36), anxiety/depression (OR, 2.29; 95% CI 1.51-3.45), and sleep disturbances (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.14-2.61) were significantly associated with CSB. @*Conclusion@#The detailed epidemiology of belching in the general adult population was clarified.

3.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829780

ABSTRACT

Engaru-Kosei General Hospital expanded its pharmacist duties in hospital wards in April 2018 following the nationwide switch to out-of-hospital prescriptions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of pharmacists’ ward duties on nursing duties. Pharmacists expanded their duties to cover drug distribution management, infusions of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) mixed with drugs, and aseptic preparation of 24-h infusions (including peripheral parenteral nutrition). The effects were compared between April 2018 before the expansion of duties and May-September 2018 after the expansion, and we compared the number of meetings set up to discuss nurses’ overtime hours and patient problems. In addition, interviews were conducted about the changes experienced on site. Drug distribution management averaged 3,150 cases/month. The number of TPN mixed infusions was 25 cases/month before expansion and this increased to 88 cases/month after expansion. The number of mixed injections of 24-h infusions was 296/month. Nurses' overtime hours did not decrease significantly, but the number of meetings increased from 47/month to 79.4/month. In the interviews, positive responses were obtained about, for example, the increased number of meetings held and more time for patient care. The pharmacist and the nurse collaborated to improve work by using their expertise, we think that the results obtained from work improvement contributed to the improvement of medical quality and medical safety.

4.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826241

ABSTRACT

Objective: The use of generic drugs is promoted to reduce medical costs and copayments. However, tumor agents are expensive and generic drugs are not widelyused. Thus, it is necessaryto evaluate the safetyof generic drugs in more detail. We compared the incidence of adverse events between the original drug (Gemzar®: GEM) and generic drug (Gemcitabine [Sandoz]: GE-GEM) using propensityscore (PS) matching.Methods: We investigated adverse events in patients who received one course of GEM or GE-GEM. The patient background (age,sex, BSA, cancer type, stage, metastasis, surgical history, and radiotherapy) and administration status (administration route and RDI) were used to calculate the PS.Results: Among all patients (GEM: 51, GE-GEM: 54), a significantlygreater number in the GE-GEM group had cancer metastasis. On comparison of adverse events, there were significantlymore cases of vascular pain (p<0.05) in the GEM group, and manycases of nausea (p=0.08) and rash (p=0.08). Fortypatients in each group were extracted byPS matching. There were no significant differences in the patient background between the groups, and on comparison of adverse events, the two groups did not significantly differ.Conclusion: Our studysuggested that there is no difference in side effects between Gemzar® and gemcitabine [Sandoz]. To compare the incidence of adverse events, it is useful to use PS matching in clinical practice.

5.
Kampo Medicine ; : 247-253, 2019.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781957

ABSTRACT

We report five female patients (range 33-54 years) with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) that were successfully treated with ireito-­based prescriptions. Showing yin deficiency and weak constitution, they maintained a good state of bowel movement with warming and invigorating prescriptions. However, when it became hot around March to June and these patients encountered stressful conditions, they became thirsty and tended to take a lot of cold food and drink. Then, they developed diarrhea, epigastric and/or abdominal fullness, anxiety and depressive feeling, which are regarded as due to qi stagnation. Stuck sensations in pit of stomach by abdominal examination were reported in all cases. Their symptoms were derived from water retention and qi stagnation, and therefore, we prescribed ireito for one patient, ireito with keishikashakuyakuto or kenchutobased prescriptions (ogikenchuto or shokenchuto) for 3 patients, and ireito with keishibukuryogan for one patient. Ireito is composed of heiisan and goreisan. The Chinese herbs Magnolia Bark and Citrus Unshiu Peel in heiisan not only help the digestive system, but also improve qi stagnation. These results suggest that ireito,containing Peony Root, is effective for patients with IBS, who show stuck sensations in the pit of stomach and suffer from diarrhea with abdominal pain after taking cold food and drink under stressful conditions.

6.
Kampo Medicine ; : 106-112, 2019.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781922

ABSTRACT

In Kampo medicine, general fatigue is categorized as a symptom caused by qi deficiency according to the qi-blood-­water criteria. However, in some patients with general fatigue, formulae for qi deficiency are not ef­fective, and this might be because their chronic symptoms are associated with blood stagnation. Recently, we encountered ten patients (M/F 1/9, mean age 46 years, range 23-55 years) with general fatigue that was im­proved by agents for treating blood stagnation, such as keishibukuryogan and/or tokakujokito. These patients, who were mostly of medium build, complained of neck or shoulder stiffness (9/10), consti­pation (5/10), and blushing or hot flushes (5/10). They had no problem with appetite, except that 5 patients tended to overeat. Remarkable sublingual collateral vessels (8/10), paraumbilical tenderness (9/10) and periorbital dark circles (5/10) were observed on physical examination. The tongue and abdominal signs improved or had disappeared after treatment for 3 to 8 months. Our results suggest that patients with general fatigue, but who present with symptoms associated with blood stagnation, could be treated with drugs for blood stagnation such as keishibukuryogan and/or tokakujokito.

7.
Kampo Medicine ; : 402-406, 2018.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758209

ABSTRACT

Our institute performs retained acupuncture for cold-related symptoms using planar electric heaters. After placing retained acupuncture needles at 8 points on the lower back, the site is covered with a planar electric heater and heated for 20 minutes, with the 6-channel dial of the device set at 5, the second highest temperature. Using this method, we treat and examine patients with cold-related symptoms. If patients feel discomfort during the heating process, the procedure is continued when heat is used for treatment and immediately terminated in the case of examination. On examining related adverse events in 75 cases (224 sessions) within the 8-month period between March and October 2016, there was soreness/irritation of the skin surface in 5 (2.2%), itching in 3 (1.3%), and physical deconditioning in 1 (0.4%). However, all of these events were mild and temporary, supporting the safety of the method. As a future challenge, it may be necessary to expand this study to clinical research on traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture/moxibustion.

8.
Kampo Medicine ; : 22-28, 2018.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-688996

ABSTRACT

In female patients with migraine, the triggering or exacerbating factors for migraine including stress, menstruation and fatigue, should be treated intensively in addition to treatment for headache. Patients with coldness and weak constitution become a state of qi and blood deficiency in terms of Kampo medicine under the circumstances of severe fatigue, lack of sleep and menopausal symptoms. They tend to suffer from migraine at around the 4th or 5th day of menstrual period after rather heavy menstrual bleeding on the 2nd or 3rd day. We experienced 4 patients with headache during the late period of menstruation whose symptoms were successfully treated by juzentaihoto known to improve qi and blood. In Case 1, daily prescription was changed from unkeito to juzentaihoto. In Case 2, during the 7 days of menstrual period, juzentaihoto was added to tokishigyakukagoshuyushokyoto, while juzentaihoto was substituted for tokishakuyakusan in Case 3 and Case 4. In 9 cases of headache, including these 4 cases, juzentaihoto was efficacious against migraine headache during the late period of menstruation with coldness (9/9 cases), fatigability (9/9 cases) and dryness symptoms (7/ 9 cases). These results indicate that juzentaihoto is effective for migraine during the late period of menstruation, especially in patients with fatigue after menstrual bleeding. The administration period of juzentaihoto should be individualized for each patient depending on the severity of qi and blood deficiency.

9.
Kampo Medicine ; : 145-149, 2018.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-688526

ABSTRACT

We present a case of painful trigeminal neuropathy that was successfully treated with hangebyakujutsutenmato (HBT) extract, a traditional Japanese medicine. A 76-year-old woman experienced severe left facial pain caused by a large basilar artery aneurysm compressing the brainstem. Administration of gabapentin (GPT) reduced facial pain slightly. However, attempts to increase the GPT dose aggravated dizziness and gait disorder. GPT combined with HBT relieved both facial pain and dizziness, enabling dose reduction of GPT. The classical text “Hiiron,” the original literature on HBT, recommends this medicine for headaches and/or dizziness secondary to gastrointestinal dysfunction caused by inappropriate treatment. Many different medicines can cause dizziness, and HBT may be useful for the treatment of this side effect.

10.
Kampo Medicine ; : 34-39, 2017.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-378825

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background </b>: Menstrual migraine is more resistant to treatment than that of nonmenstrual episodes. Hormonal progesterone changes may cause <i>sui </i>(water/fluid) disturbance, in Kampo medicine terms. We therefore treated patients with menstrual migraine in which goshuyuto was ineffective, with the combination of goreisan and goshuyuto.<br><b>Subjects & Methods </b>: Subjects were 37 female patients with coldness (mean age 37 years, age range 23-48 years), whose migraine during their intra-menstrual periods was successfully treated with goshuyuto for 3 months. In order to treat migraine in the menstrual period, goreisan was added to goshuyuto from 1 week before onset, until the end of their menstrual period. <b>Results </b>: Among 37 patients, the treatment was effective in 26 patients (70%). Significant variables were found to be dull headache (p = 0.003), edema (p = 0.006), vertigo (p = 0.014) and oliguria (p = 0.014) during attacks, as well as worsening before rain (p = 0.004). <b>Conclusion </b>: The periodical combination of goreisan and goshuyuto seems to be effective in patients with menstrual migraine who report symptoms of <i>sui </i>disturbance, such as dull headache and oliguria during their attacks.</p>

11.
Kampo Medicine ; : 394-398, 2016.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-378816

ABSTRACT

<p>In Kampo, respiratory symptoms are treated with prescriptions related not only to “lung”, but also other parenchymatous viscera. We report 2 patients whose stress-induced chronic cough was ameliorated by <i>hachimijiogan</i>. Case 1 was a 25-year-old female who was working under stressful circumstances at her company and reported an oppressive feeling in the chest. She was initially prescribed <i>hangekobokuto </i>because of a feeling that something was stuck in the pit of her stomach on abdominal examination, but her cough did not get better. As she also noted a dull feeling in her back ; she was switched to <i>hachimigan</i>, and her cough disappeared. Case 2 was 42-year-old female who suffered from depression, sore throat and an obstructive feeling in the throat ; she had been receiving infertility treatment for several years. <i>Hangekobokuto </i>and <i>bakumondoto </i>showed insufficient effect on her persistent cough. Her coughing stopped when she was prescribed <i>hachimigan </i>for back pain. Neither of these patients showed lack of resistance of the lower abdomen on abdominal examination.<br>Chronic <i>ki </i>(qi) stagnation under stressful conditions may cause <i>ki </i>deficiency, especially kidney deficiency. The symptom of stress-induced cough in our cases was considered to be due to kidney deficiency, and therefore <i>hachimijiogan</i>, but not <i>hangekobokuto</i>, was effective. The short duration of the complaints and relatively young age (20-40's) of the patients may account for the absence of the typical abdominal sign of kidney deficiency. Back stiffness and pain may also be important signs for cough due to kidney deficiency.</p>

12.
Kampo Medicine ; : 291-295, 2016.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-378408

ABSTRACT

<p>We present two cases of aged males with cold-induced colic successfully treated with tokishigyakukagoshuyushokyoto. The first case is a 74-year-old male with bilateral sciatic neuralgia, who had a history of right leg amputation following a traffic accident. The second case is an 80-year-old male with chills of the lower body, who has undergone excision of biliary duct cancer. Their physical status appeared normal to excessive by traditional medical examination, whereas the pulse and abdominal patterns are usually deficient in female cases in whom tokishigyakukagoshuyushokyoto is effective. The common features in our cases are age and history of trauma by injury or surgery. Although males are more tolerant of cold than females, advancing age and history of injury or surgery tend to cause cold-induced colic in males. The number of male cases that can be effectively treated with tokishigyakukagoshuyushokyoto is likely to increase in our aging society, and we conclude that it is important to consider the presence of cold when we examine male cases.</p>

13.
Kampo Medicine ; : 85-92, 2016.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-378153

ABSTRACT

This study reports the efforts of acupuncturists to promote multidisciplinary cooperation in our laboratory. We conducted a questionnaire survey involving all employees of our laboratory in December 2013 to investigate problems regarding multidisciplinary cooperation, and identified a lack of information and problems concerning treatment plans and costs. After implementing measures to tackle these problems between January and November 2014, we conducted the questionnaire survey again. As the results, 79% of the employees responded that they had gained more information about acupuncture compared to the previous year, and 72% of them responded that treatment plans and costs were appropriate. Compared to the number of new patients who sought acupuncture treatment between January and November 2013 (n = 273), there was an increase of 40% in the same period of 2014 (n = 385). These results showed that employees' understanding of acupuncture and multidisciplinary cooperation were promoted.

14.
Kampo Medicine ; : 302-306, 2015.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-377429

ABSTRACT

We describe three cases of calf cramps successfully treated with shimbuto. Case 1 was a 74-year-old female who suffered from calf cramps and knee pain caused by gonarthrosis. She was treated with boiohito, but did not respond. When she complained of diarrhea, shimbuto was substituted for boiohito. After taking shimbuto, her knee pain improved, and her cramps disappeared. Case 2 was a 77-year-old female who suffered from leg edema and calf cramps. Tokishakuyakusan was prescribed, but she complained of an upset stomach. Tokishakuyakusan was replaced with shimbuto, and her cramps improved together with a decrease in the coldness and edema in her legs. Case 3 was a 79-year-old female who took kososan for uneasiness and restlessness after the death of her husband. She had edema and coldness in her legs, and suffered from calf cramps during the daytime and early in the morning. Shimbuto was added to kososan, and her coldness improved ; subsequently the leg edema diminished, and finally her cramps disappeared.<br>These cases suggest that shimbuto is indicated for patients with calf cramps, who report internal coldness caused by kidney deficiency with gastrointestinal dysfunction.

15.
Kampo Medicine ; : 228-235, 2015.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-377185

ABSTRACT

We present seven cases of insomnia successfully treated with hochuekkito. Two patients showed improvement of their insomnia after taking hochuekkito before going to bed, and three patients showed improvement after taking hochuekkito twice per day. The other two patients could sleep better after adding hochuekkito to other Kampo formulations. All these patients were light sleepers, and became easily tired, excessive sleepy after meals, and had daytime sleepiness. However, they had no gastrointestinal symptoms, such as appetite loss. Five of the seven patients reported waking up feeling better after taking hochuekkito. Two other Kampo formulations, sansoninto and kihito, were also given to patients with deficient constitution, who complained of insomnia. Sansoninto and kihito are formulae that compensate for qui and blood deficiency. Kihito contains more herbs with beneficial effects on “spleen and stomach”, and “heart” functions more than sansoninto, and therefore, kihito may be preferred for patients with a more deficient constitution. The reason why our patients were able to sleep more deeply and wake up smoothly with hochuekkito may be that they exhibited remarkable qui deficiency, showing general fatigue, excessive sleepiness after meals, and daytime sleepiness, but without the symptoms of blood deficiency, such as palpitations or uneasiness, being easily frightened or forgetful, or showing anemia or bleeding.

16.
Kampo Medicine ; : 273-277, 2014.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-376182

ABSTRACT

We describe three cases of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and menstrual pain successfully treated with kamikihito. Case 1 was a 26-year-old female who became irritated and had breast pain before menstruation, as well as suffering from menstrual pain. She was treated with kamikihito, because she easily became fatigued, which is a symptom of <i>qi </i>deficiency, and had insomnia. After taking kamikihito, the fatigue and insomnia initially improved, and then her PMS and menstrual pain were also ameliorated. Case 2 was a 38-year-old female with general fatigue that prevented her from performing daily housekeeping tasks, insomnia, and irritability before menstruation. Case 3 was a 31-year-old female who frequently suffered from cystitis, as well as general fatigue, insomnia, and depression. After taking kamikihito, the PMS and menstrual pain were improved, and her cystitis did not recur.<br>Kamikihito is based on kihito, with the addition of bupleurum root and gardenia fruit. Kamikihito could be a suitable herbal medicine for patients with PMS and menstrual pain, who have symptoms of <i>qi </i>deficiency and report insomnia or show signs of <i>qi </i>stagnation.

17.
Kampo Medicine ; : 180-184, 2014.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-375887

ABSTRACT

We investigated original texts for yokukansan, a familiar Kampo formula, focusing on the classical literature <i>Xue-shi yi-an</i> (薛氏医案) . Yokukansan was described in the <i>Bao-ying jin-jing-lu</i> (保嬰金鏡録) written by Xue ji (薛己) in 1550, the <i>Xiao-er yao-zheng zhi-jue</i> (小児薬証直訣) revised by Xue ji (薛己) in 1551,the <i>Bao-ying cuo-yao</i> (保嬰撮要) by Xue kai (薛鎧) in 1556, and the <i>Xiao-er dou-zhen fang-lun</i> (小児痘疹方論) in 1550. The phrase “one's own work” was used in “<i>Bao-ying jin-jing-lu</i> (保嬰金鏡録)” and in the <i>Xiao-er dou-zhen fang-lun</i> (小児痘疹方論) by Chen wen-zhong (陳文仲). However, there was no mention of “one's own work” in the same title, the <i>Xiao-er dou-zhen fang-lun</i> (小児痘疹方論), as summarized by Xiong zong-li (熊宗立).<br>Yokukansan was found only in the <i>Xiao-er yao-zheng zhi-jue</i> (小児薬証直訣) revised by Xue ji (薛己) in 1551, but not in the other copies of the same text. Therefore, it seems likely that yokukansan was created by Xue ji (薛己) himself.<br>Yokukansan was previously thought to have originated with the <i>Bao-ying cuo-yao</i> (保嬰撮要). However, based on use of the phrase “one's own work” in the classical literature, it appears that the original text for yokukansan should be the <i>Bao-ying jin-jing-lu</i> (保嬰金鏡録). Therefore, yokukansan seems to have been made by Xue ji (薛己), and not Xue kai (薛鎧), who was his father.

18.
Kampo Medicine ; : 28-32, 2014.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-375864

ABSTRACT

Kampo treatment is frequently effective for patients with acne vulgaris who are unresponsive to standard treatment with western medicine. We report two cases of acne vulgaris successfully treated with tokikenchuto. In the first case, a 32-year-old woman complained of mild acne, loose stool and menstrual pain. Her abdomen was soft and a pulsation above the navel was noted. These symptoms were considerably improved after taking tokikenchuto. In the second case, a 26-year-old woman presented with moderate acne, loose stool and menstrual pain with excessive strain of the abdominal muscles and objective tenderness on the sides of the abdomen. Kamishoyosan and tokishakuyakusan were first prescribed, although these caused bowel disturbances, and eventually tokikenchuto was prescribed, which improved the acne. We suggest tokikenchuto is effective for patients with mild to moderate acne who have bowel disturbance with soft abdomen or excessive strain of the abdominal muscles, which are considered indicators of gastrointestinal weakness. In addition, yokuinin has a synergistic effect in the treatment of acne.

19.
Kampo Medicine ; : 205-211, 2013.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-376172

ABSTRACT

<i><b>Objectives </b></i>: We evaluated the efficacy of tokishakuyakusan and kamishoyosan for patients who complained of feeling cold, and identified key symptoms that would predict positive treatment outcomes for coldness with these medicines.<br><i><b>Design </b></i>: A retrospective cohort study<br><i><b>Subjects and Methods </b></i>: The subjects were 188 patients who reported feeling cold. They were treated with tokishakuyakusan or kamishoyosan according to their <i>Sho </i>for more than one month. The relationships between improvement of cold sensation and 62 factors, including other symptoms noted at the first medical examination, were evaluated by means of cross-sectional analysis, followed by logistic regression.<br><i><b>Results </b></i>: The factors of coldness of the abdomen (odds ratio, 5.0), vertigo (7.7), dimness of sight (16) and blushing (5.6), without anger (0.11) or tinnitus (0.025), were found to be predictors of a positive effect with tokishakuyakusan treatment (p < 0.001). The factors of hot flushes (14), without coldness of the whole body (0.099), and faint feeling (0.21) were significant for kamishoyosan (p < 0.001). This suggests that kamishoyosan can improve subjective coldness of the extremities (AIC -8.64), especially of the legs (-2.23).<br><i><b>Conclusions </b></i>: Coldness in the abdomen was an important indicator for treatment with tokishakuyakusan, while coldness in the legs, but not in the whole body, was important in the case of kamishoyosan.

20.
Kampo Medicine ; : 166-172, 2013.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-376168

ABSTRACT

We describe four cases of menopausal symptoms with respiratory complaints successfully treated with saikokeishikankyoto. Case 1 was a 49-year-old female who became easily tired and often caught colds, as well as suffered from cough, hot flushes and insomnia. Case 2 was a 47-year-old female who became easily fatigued and irritated, and suffered from dry cough. Case 3 was a 51-year-old female, who became easily exhausted and suffered from nasal congestion and swelling of the gums. Case 4 was a 53-year-old female, who suffered from sensations of coldness and hot flushes, insomnia, sore throat and dry cough. Although saikokeishikankyoto has been classically applied for diverse symptoms, respiratory signs are associated with the most preferable outcome. Saikokeishikankyoto could be a suitable herbal medicine for menopausal patients with a weak constitution, who present with respiratory symptoms caused by coldness, <i>qi </i>deficiency and <i>qi </i>stagnation.

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