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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874870

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Gastroparesis is identified as a subject that is understudied in Asia. The scientific committee of the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association performed a Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices survey on gastroparesis among doctors in Asia. @*Methods@#The questionnaire was created and developed through a literature review of current gastroparesis works of literature by the scientific committee of Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association. @*Results@#A total of 490 doctors from across Asia (including Bangladesh, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam) participated in the survey. Gastroparesis is a significant gastrointestinal condition. However, a substantial proportion of respondents was unable to give the correct definition and accurate diagnostic test. The main reason for lack of interest in diagnosing gastroparesis was “the lack of reliable diagnostic tests” (46.8%) or “a lack of effective treatment” (41.5%). Only 41.7% of respondents had access to gastric emptying scintigraphy. Most doctors had never diagnosed gastroparesis at all (25.2%) or diagnosed fewer than 5 patients a year (52.1%). @*Conclusions@#Gastroparesis can be challenging to diagnose due to the lack of instrument, standardized method, and paucity of research data on normative value, risk factors, and treatment studies in Asian patients. Future strategies should concentrate on how to disseminate the latest knowledge of gastroparesis in Asia. In particular, there is an urgent need to estimate the magnitude of the problems in high risk and idiopathic patients as well as a standardized diagnostic procedure in Asia.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833871

ABSTRACT

During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, practices of gastrointestinal procedures within the digestive tract require special precautions due to the risk of contraction of severe acute respiratoy syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Many procedures in the gastrointestinal motility laboratory may be considered moderate to high-risk for viral transmission. Healthcare staff working in gastrointestinal motility laboratories are frequently exposed to splashes, air droplets, mucus, or saliva during the procedures. Moreover, some are aerosol-generating and thus have a high risk of viral transmission. There are multiple guidelines on the practices of gastrointestinal endoscopy during this pandemic. However, such guidelines are still lacking and urgently needed for the practice of gastrointestinal motility laboratories. Hence, the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association had organized a group of gastrointestinal motility experts and infectious disease specialists to produce a position statement paper based-on current available evidence and consensus opinion with aims to provide a clear guidance on the practices of gastrointestinal motility laboratories during the COVID-19 pandemic. This guideline covers a wide range of topics on gastrointestinal motility activities from scheduling a motility test, the precautions at different steps of the procedure to disinfection for the safety and well-being of the patients and the healthcare workers. These practices may vary in different countries depending on the stages of the pandemic, local or institutional policy, and the availability of healthcare resources. This guideline is useful when the transmission rate of SARS-CoV-2 is high. It may change rapidly depending on the situation of the epidemic and when new evidence becomes available.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833835

ABSTRACT

Esophageal achalasia is a primary motility disorder characterized by insufficient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and loss of esophageal peristalsis. Achalasia is a chronic disease that causes progressive irreversible loss of esophageal motor function. The recent development of high-resolution manometry has facilitated the diagnosis of achalasia, and determining the achalasia subtypes based on high-resolution manometry can be important when deciding on treatment methods. Peroral endoscopic myotomy is less invasive than surgery with comparable efficacy. The present guidelines (the “2019 Seoul Consensus on Esophageal Achalasia Guidelines”) were developed based on evidence-based medicine; the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association and Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility served as the operating and development committees, respectively. The development of the guidelines began in June 2018, and a draft consensus based on the Delphi process was achieved in April 2019. The guidelines consist of 18 recommendations: 2 pertaining to the definition and epidemiology of achalasia, 6 pertaining to diagnoses, and 10 pertaining to treatments. The endoscopic treatment section is based on the latest evidence from meta-analyses. Clinicians (including gastroenterologists, upper gastrointestinal tract surgeons, general physicians, nurses, and other hospital workers) and patients could use these guidelines to make an informed decision on the management of achalasia.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Magnesium oxide (MgO) has been frequently used as a treatment for chronic constipation (CC) since the 1980s in Japan. The aim of this study is to evaluate its therapeutic effects of MgO in Japanese CC patients. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Thirty-four female patients with mild to moderate constipation were randomly assigned to either placebo (n = 17) or MgO group (n = 17) 0.5 g × 3/day for 28 days. Primary endpoint was overall improvement over the 4-week study period. Secondary endpoints were changes from baseline in spontaneous bowel movement (SBM), response rates of complete spontaneous bowel movement (CSBM), stool form, colonic transit time (CTT), abdominal symptom, and quality of life. RESULTS: One patient failed to complete the medication regimen and was omitted from analysis: data from 16 placebo and 17 MgO patients were analyzed. The primary endpoint was met by 25.0% of placebo vs 70.6% of MgO group (P = 0.015). MgO significantly improved SBM changes compared to placebo (P = 0.002). However, MgO did not significantly improved response rates of CSBM compared to placebo (P = 0.76). In addition, MgO significantly improved Bristol stool form scale changes (P < 0.001) and significantly improved CTT compared to the placebo group (P < 0.001). MgO significantly improved the Japanese version of the patient assessment of constipation quality of life (P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Our placebo-controlled study demonstrated that MgO was effective treatment for improving defecation status and shortened CTT in Japanese CC patients with mild to moderate symptoms.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Colon , Constipation , Defecation , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Japan , Magnesium Oxide , Magnesium , Quality of Life , Therapeutic Uses
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: There has been major progress in our understanding of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and novel treatment classes have emerged. The Rome IV guidelines were published in 2016 and together with the growing body of Asian data on IBS, we felt it is timely to update the Asian IBS Consensus. METHODS: Key opinion leaders from Asian countries were organized into 4 teams to review 4 themes: symptoms and epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and investigations, and lifestyle modifications and treatments. The consensus development process was carried out by using a modified Delphi method. RESULTS: Thirty-seven statements were developed. Asian data substantiate the current global viewpoint that IBS is a disorder of gut-brain interaction. Socio-cultural and environmental factors in Asia appear to influence the greater overlap between IBS and upper gastrointestinal symptoms. New classes of treatments comprising low fermentable oligo-, di-, monosacharides, and polyols diet, probiotics, non-absorbable antibiotics, and secretagogues have good evidence base for their efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Our consensus is that all patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders should be evaluated comprehensively with a view to holistic management. Physicians should be encouraged to take a positive attitude to the treatment outcomes for IBS patients.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Consensus , Constipation , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Diet , Epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , Intestines , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Life Style , Methods , Probiotics
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-184080

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gastric motility abnormalities have been considered to be pathophysiological features of functional dyspepsia (FD) that are closely related to dyspepsia symptoms, especially postprandial distress syndrome (PDS). The aims of this study are to (1) investigate the prevalence of gastric motility disorders and (2) evaluate the association between gastric motility abnormalities and dyspeptic symptoms using gastric scintigraphy in the PDS type of FD. METHODS: Forty healthy subjects and 94 PDS type FD patients were enrolled in the study. The volunteers and patients ingested a radiolabeled (technetium-99m) solid test meal, and scintigraphic images were recorded. Gastric accommodation and emptying were assessed by scintigraphic imaging. The patients’ dyspeptic symptoms were also explored using self-completed symptom questionnaires with 10 variables (4 scales, 0–3 points) at the same time. RESULTS: In 94 Japanese FD patients, the prevalence of impaired gastric accommodation and delayed emptying were 14.9% (14/94) and 10.6% (10/94), respectively. Gastric motility abnormalities were seen in 25.5% (24/94) of FD patients. There was no association between gastric motility abnormalities and dyspeptic symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Gastric motility abnormalities were seen in 25.5% of Japanese PDS type FD patients. However, there was no association between gastric motility abnormalities and dyspeptic symptoms on gastric scintigraphy.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Dyspepsia , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Meals , Prevalence , Radionuclide Imaging , Stomach , Volunteers , Weights and Measures
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14797

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: When a person is experiencing stress, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) can modulate gut physiologies, such as visceral sensation or gastrointestinal motility, and its intravenous administration mimics stress-induced physiological changes. However, the influence of CRH on the esophagus is yet unknown. Accordingly, we investigated whether intravenous CRH administration increases esophageal sensitivity to electrical stimulation in healthy Japanese subjects. METHODS: Twenty healthy subjects were recruited. We quantified the initial perception threshold (IPT) every 15 minutes after CRH injection. Venous blood was collected with a cannula, and both plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol were measured at pre-stimulation, 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. The results from each time point were compared against a baseline IPT obtained before electrical stimulation was initiated. RESULTS: When compared to the baseline IPT value (16.9 ± 4.5), CRH significantly decreased electrical threshold of the esophagus at 30, 45, 60, 75 minutes (14.1 ± 4.2, 13.1 ± 5.0, 12.1 ± 5.7, 14.0 ± 5.8 minutes, P < 0.01, respectively) after CRH injection, suggesting that CRH increased esophageal sensitivity to the electrical stimulus. CRH also significantly increased plasma ACTH levels at 30 minutes (50.3 ± 17.7, P < 0.01), and cortisol levels at 30 minutes (22.0 ± 6.7 minutes, P < 0.01) and 60 minutes (20.3 ± 6.7 minutes, P < 0.01) after CRH injection, when compared to the pre-stimulation ACTH and cortisol values. CONCLUSION: Intravenous CRH administration increased esophageal electrical sensitivity in normal subjects, emphasizing the important role of stress in esophageal sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravenous , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Catheters , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone , Electric Stimulation , Esophagus , Gastrointestinal Motility , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Plasma , Sensation
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195313

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Few studies are available that have investigated the risk factors for overlapping irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like symptoms in patients with inactive inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The present study has 3 objectives: (1) to assess the prevalence of IBS-like symptoms in Japanese patients with inactive IBD using Rome III criteria, (2) to examine the relationship of IBS-like symptoms to health related quality of life (HR-QOL), and (3) to investigate associations for developing IBS-like symptoms in patients with inactive IBD. METHODS: IBS-like symptoms were evaluated using the Rome III questionnaire for functional gastrointestinal disorders. HR-QOL and hospital anxiety and depression scale were evaluated. RESULTS: IBS-like symptoms were found in 17.5% (7/40) of patients with inactive ulcerative colitis, 27.1% (29/107) of patients with inactive Crohn’s disease (CD), and 5.3% (23/438) of healthy control subjects. The QOL level was significantly lower and anxiety score was significantly higher in inactive CD patients with IBS-like symptoms than in those without such symptoms (P = 0.003, P = 0.009). Use of anti-anxiety drugs was associated with the presence of IBS symptoms (P = 0.045). HR-QOL score was lower and anxiety score was higher in patients with inactive ulcerative colitis, but the difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of IBS-like symptoms in inactive IBD patients was significantly higher than in healthy controls. Inactive CD patients with IBS-like symptoms has low QOL and anxiety; suggesting that anxiety may be associated with symptom development in such patients.


Subject(s)
Anti-Anxiety Agents , Anxiety , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Colitis, Ulcerative , Depression , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Prevalence , Quality of Life , Risk Factors
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109532

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although chronic constipation is a common symptom, to date no international consensus has been reached regarding its definition. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate defecation habits and (2) to examine the prevalence of constipation using the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine (JSIM) and the Rome III criteria using an online survey. METHODS: An online questionnaire composed of items on the frequency, interval, form of defecation, the management, and self-recognition of constipation (reference standard of constipation) was created. A total of 5155 valid responses were received. In addition, constipation symptoms were evaluated through a survey using the JSIM and the Rome III criteria. RESULTS: In the internet survey, 28.4% of the respondents considered themselves to be constipated. Stratified by sex, significantly more females (37.5%) than males (19.1%) considered themselves to be constipated (P < 0.001). The prevalence of constipation among the respondents was 28.0% using the Rome III, but only 10.1% using the JSIM. The diagnostic accuracy was 73.2% for the Rome III and 78.1% for the JSIM, while the diagnostic specificity was 81.1% for the Rome III and 97.5% for the JSIM. However, the diagnostic sensitivities for both measures were low, at 52.2% and 29.2% for the Rome III and the JSIM, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The online survey developed for this study was able to provide clarification regarding defecation patterns. The results also suggest a discrepancy between the self-recognized prevalence of constipation in Japan and prevalence of constipation based on the JSIM criteria.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Consensus , Constipation , Defecation , Female , Humans , Internal Medicine , Internet , Japan , Male , Prevalence , Sensitivity and Specificity , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186690

ABSTRACT

Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), represented by functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are a group of disorders that include variable combinations of chronic or recurrent gastrointestinal symptoms not explained by structural or biochemical abnormalities. FGIDs account for a significant percentage of patients seen in primary care settings with abdominal symptoms. Although the definition of FGIDs can easily affect the prevalence, the prevalences of dyspepsia/FD and IBS diagnosed by the Rome III criteria in the general population are 5.3-20.4% and 1.1-29.2%, respectively. Recent reports of FD and IBS defined by the Rome III criteria indicated a female predominance. Regarding the subtype prevalence of FD, postprandial distress syndrome was more prevalent than epigastric pain syndrome (5.6-13.9% vs 0.9-9.5%). The subtype prevalence of IBS is characterized by male predominance for IBS with diarrhea and female predominance for IBS with constipation. Factors affecting the development of FGIDs such as epidemiological factors including genetic and environmental factors, are important. Gene polymorphisms are involved in the development of FGIDs. The prevalence differs among races and geographic areas. Foods may affect the development of FGIDs, but the causal relationships between food and FGIDs are not conclusive. The symptoms often regress and appear in the course of these entities. Building a favorable patient-doctor relationship is effective for controlling symptoms of FGIDs. Physicians should explain that FGIDs are highly prevalent conditions, impair the patients' quality of life even without evident underlying organic causes and are not life-threatening conditions to ensure patients' understanding.


Subject(s)
Constipation , Continental Population Groups , Diarrhea , Dyspepsia , Epidemiology , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Japan , Male , Prevalence , Primary Health Care , Quality of Life
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21893

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Reliable diagnostic instruments for measuring the presence of functional gastrointestinal disorders based on the Rome III criteria have been lacking in Japan. The aims of the present study were to translate and validate the Rome III diagnostic questionnaire which was widely used in Western countries. METHODS: The original version of Rome III diagnostic questionnaire was translated from English into Japanese through 3 independent forward translations, resolution, back translation and reconciliation of the differences. Forty-nine patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), 32 patients with functional dyspepsia (FD) and 56 subjects without any current GI symptoms as controls were recruited from three hospitals located in different regions of Japan and completed the IBS and FD diagnostic modules twice within 14 days. Kappa statistic was used to assess test-retest reliability. The sensitivity and specificity of each diagnostic module for distinguishing IBS or FD patients from controls was tested. RESULTS: Median kappa statistics were 0.63 for the translated IBS diagnostic module and 0.68 for the FD module. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predict value of the IBS module against physician diagnosis was 61.2%, 100%, and 100% and those of the FD module was 53.2%, 98.2%, and 94.4%, respectively. Meanwhile, IBS patients were significantly more likely to report blood in stools compared to controls (18.4% vs 1.8%, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The IBS and FD diagnostic modules on the Japanese version of the Rome III diagnostic questionnaire are valid and reliable. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the diagnostic utility of the red flag questionnaire.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Diagnosis , Dyspepsia , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Japan , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Translations
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-46118

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Esophagus
13.
Gut and Liver ; : 427-433, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58007

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Weekly granulocyte/monocyte adsorption (GMA) to deplete elevated and activated leucocytes should serve as a non-pharmacological intervention to induce remission in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). This trial assessed the efficacy of monthly GMA as a maintenance therapy to suppress UC relapse. METHODS: Thirty-three corticosteroid refractory patients with active UC received 10 weekly GMA sessions as a remission induction therapy. They were then randomized to receive one GMA session every 4 weeks (True, n=11), extracorporeal circulation without the GMA column every 4 weeks (Sham, n=11), or no additional intervention (Control, n=11). The primary endpoint was the rate of avoiding relapse (AR) over 48 weeks. RESULTS: At week 48, the AR rates in the True, Sham, and Control groups were 40.0%, 9.1%, and 18.2%, respectively. All patients were steroid-free, but no statistically significant difference was seen among the three arms. However, in patients who could taper their prednisolone dose to <20 mg/day during the remission induction therapy, the AR in the True group was better than in the Sham (p<0.03) or Control (p<0.05) groups. CONCLUSIONS: Monthly GMA may potentially prevent UC relapse in patients who have achieved remission through weekly GMA, especially in patients on <20 mg/day PSL at the start of the maintenance therapy.


Subject(s)
Adsorption , Arm , Blood Component Removal , Colitis, Ulcerative , Extracorporeal Circulation , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Prednisolone , Prospective Studies , Recurrence , Remission Induction , Salicylamides , Ulcer
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-107624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Environmental factors such as food, lifestyle and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection are widely different in Asian countries compared to the West, and physiological functions and genetic factors of Asians may also be different from those of Westerners. Establishing an Asian consensus for functional dyspepsia is crucial in order to attract attention to such data from Asian countries, to articulate the experience and views of Asian experts, and to provide a relevant guide on management of functional dyspepsia for primary care physicians working in Asia. METHODS: Consensus team members were selected from Asian experts and consensus development was carried out using a modified Delphi method. Consensus teams collected published papers on functional dyspepsia especially from Asia and developed candidate consensus statements based on the generated clinical questions. At the first face-to-face meeting, each statement was reviewed and e-mail voting was done twice. At the second face-to-face meeting, final voting on each statement was done using keypad voting system. A grade of evidence and a strength of recommendation were applied to each statement according to the method of the GRADE Working Group. RESULTS: Twenty-nine consensus statements were finalized, including 7 for definition and diagnosis, 5 for epidemiology, 9 for pathophysiology and 8 for management. Algorithms for diagnosis and management of functional dyspepsia were added. CONCLUSIONS: This consensus developed by Asian experts shows distinctive features of functional dyspepsia in Asia and will provide a guide to the diagnosis and management of functional dyspepsia for Asian primary care physicians.


Subject(s)
Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Consensus , Dyspepsia , Electronic Mail , Helicobacter pylori , Humans , Life Style , Physicians, Primary Care , Politics , Prevalence
15.
Gut and Liver ; : 37-45, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Infliximab (IFX), an antibody to tumor necrosis factor, (TNF)-alpha has efficacy in treating Crohn's disease (CD). However, knowledge of the potential effects of IFX on patients' immune profiles is lacking. The purpose of this study was to reveal the immunological effects of IFX. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with a CD activity index (CDAI) of 194.2+/-92.9 and an average duration of disease of 3.26 months and 21 healthy controls were included. Patients were to have their first IFX remission induction therapy with 3 infusions (5 mg/kg) at weeks 0, 2, and 6. Oral 5-aminosalicylic acid was the only ongoing medication in the patient population. Blood samples at baseline, 12 hours after the first infusion and at week 14 were labeled with anti-CD4/CD25 antibodies for immunohistochemical measurement of regulatory T-cells (Treg). Serum cytokines and chemokines were measured by suspension array and ELISA. RESULTS: CDAI significantly decreased prior to the second IFX infusion (p<0.001). Clinical remission rates were 77.3% and 91% by the second and third infusions, respectively. At baseline, interleukin (IL)-6 (p<0.03), IL-8 (p<0.03), IL-10 (p=0.050), IL-13 (p<0.01), transforming growth factor-beta1 (p<0.01), and 'regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted' (RANTES) (p<0.01) were elevated in patients. After the initial IFX infusion, TNF-alpha (p<0.04), IL-6 (p<0.03), interferon (IFN)-gamma (p<0.04), IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10 (p<0.01), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (p<0.01), macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta (p<0.01), and RANTES (p<0.01) were decreased. IFX infusion was associated with an increase in Treg (p<0.01) and a decrease in the Th1 (IFN-gamma)/Th2 (IL-4) ratio (p<0.03). CONCLUSIONS: IFX use was associated with restoration of the Th1/Th2 balance after a single infusion and seemed to promote induction of naive Th0 lymphocytes to Treg. This knowledge should have clinical relevance.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Chemokine CCL2 , Chemokine CCL5 , Chemokines , Crohn Disease , Cytokines , Humans , Immune System , Interferons , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Interleukins , Lymphocytes , Macrophages , Mesalamine , Remission Induction , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Infliximab
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-98065

ABSTRACT

Noxious stimuli in the esophagus activate nociceptive receptors on esophageal mucosa, such as transient receptor potential, acid-sensing ion channel and the P2X family, a family of ligand-gated ion channels responsive to ATP, and this generates signals that are transmitted to the central nervous system via either spinal nerves or vagal nerves, resulting in esophageal sensation. Among the noxious stimuli, gastric acid and other gastric contents are clinically most important, causing typical reflux symptoms such as heartburn and regurgitation. A conventional acid penetration theory has been used to explain the mechanism of heartburn, but much recent evidence does not support this theory. Therefore, it may be necessary to approach the causes of heartburn symptoms from a new conceptual framework. Hypersensitivity of the esophagus, like that of other visceral organs, includes peripheral, central and probably psychosocial factor-mediated hypersensitivity, and is known to play crucial roles in the pathoegenesis of nonerosive reflux disease, functional heartburn and non-cardiac chest pain. There also are esophagitis patients who do not perceive typical symptoms. This condition is known as silent gastroesophageal reflux disease. Although the pathogenesis of silent gastroesophageal reflux disease is still not known, hyposensitivity to reflux of acid may possibly explain the condition.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Central Nervous System , Chest Pain , Esophagitis , Esophagus , Gastric Acid , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Heartburn , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Ion Channels , Ligand-Gated Ion Channels , Mucous Membrane , Nociceptors , Sensation , Spinal Nerves
19.
Gut and Liver ; : 192-196, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Epidemiological studies suggest that there is a considerable overlap between functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of this study was to examine concurrent gastrointestinal symptoms in FD and IBS. METHODS: A total of 186 college students filled out a questionnaire regarding whether they had uninvestigated dyspepsia (UD, FD without endoscopic examination) and IBS based on Rome-II criteria. Gastrointestinal symptoms were measured using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 181 students (98 males, mean age 24.6 years) completed both questionnaires. The prevalence of UD, IBS, and UD+IBS overlap was 12 (6.7%), 40 (22.1%), and 8 (4.4%), respectively. A significant UD+IBS overlap was observed (66.7% IBS in UD, 20.0% UD in IBS). Reflux scores of GSRS in either UD or IBS were significantly greater than in those without. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), defined as weekly occurring moderate symptoms of heartburn and/or acid regurgitation and evaluated using the GSRS, was found in 16 (8.8%) of the subjects. The prevalence of IBS was significantly higher in GERD patients than in non-GERD patients (50.0% vs 19.4%). CONCLUSIONS: The considerable overlap not only between UD and IBS, but also between GERD and IBS, suggests the involvement of common pathophysiological disturbances in the two conditions.


Subject(s)
Dyspepsia , Epidemiologic Studies , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Heartburn , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Male , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Gut and Liver ; : 41-47, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-111174

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cytapheresis (CAP) is a novel strategy for ulcerative colitis (UC). However, there is insufficient data on the long-term outcome of UC patients who achieve remission by CAP. This study involved patients with severe UC who refracted to intravenous (iv) corticosteroid. METHODS: Forty-seven UC patients who had received CAP therapy for the first time within 1 year after UC diagnosis were followed for 36 months. One of the inclusion criteria was a clinical activity index (CAI) of > or =7 points at the end of a 2-week iv course of corticosteroid therapy. CAP therapy consisted of ten sessions over 10 weeks. RESULTS: CAP induced clinical remission (CAI or =12, n=25) than for moderately severe UC at entry (7< or =CAI<12, p=15; p<0.02). The cumulative rates of avoiding surgery and relapse were 54.5% and 24.2%, respectively, at 36 months in patients who responded to CAP therapy. This was similar to that of iv cyclosporine reported recently. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggest that CAP is an effective therapy in patients who are refractory to conventional medications including iv corticosteroid. Increased remission rates should be expected in refractory patients with moderately severe UC.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Colectomy , Colitis, Ulcerative , Cyclosporine , Cytapheresis , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Leukapheresis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Ulcer
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