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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915509

ABSTRACT

Subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is a painful thyroiditis that often requires steroid therapy. Here, we report the first case of severe SAT in a patient who received the first dose of mRNA coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. A 34-year-old man without a viral prodrome felt a lump when swallowing 5 days after his first dose of mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccination. Ten days after , the patient visited the hospital and was advised to rest and take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. He revisited the hospital 10 days later as symptoms aggravated with anterior neck pain, headache, fatigue, muscle weakness, and weight loss. Thyroid hormone levels and inflammatory markers were consistent with thyrotoxicosis. A thyroid ultrasound scan revealed typical SAT findings. His symptoms rapidly improved after receiving prednisone. A week later, the patient successfully completed his second dose of the vaccine. The thyroid function test results were nearly normal 1 month after the completion of the vaccination. We report this case to raise awareness of the occurrence of SAT after COVID-19 vaccination. As the risk of COVID-19 outweighs the minor risks of the vaccine, managing the side effects of the first vaccine dose is crucial to complete COVID-19 vaccination.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925098

ABSTRACT

Thyroid hormones have an important physiological role in maintaining adult bone structure and strength. Therefore, thyroid dysfunction is inevitably associated with various degrees of skeletal consequences. Endogenous overt hyperthyroidism is an established cause of high bone turnover with accelerated bone loss, resulting in osteoporosis and an increased risk of fractures. Hyperthyroidism induced by thyroid stimulating hormone suppression therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer also has emerged as a contributing factor to osteoporosis and fragility fractures. While, there is lack of evidence that hypothyroidism negatively affects bone health. Although there is growing clinical evidence of the importance of bone health in hyperthyroidism, clinical guidelines on how to evaluate and manage bone health in these diseases have not yet been published worldwide. The Task Force from the Korean Thyroid Association Committee of Clinical Practice Guideline has developed this position statement for the evaluation and management of bone health in patients with thyroid diseases, particularly focused on endogenous hyperthyroidism and thyroid stimulating hormone suppression therapyassociated hyperthyroidism in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925093

ABSTRACT

Lenvatinib prolongs the survival of patients with advanced thyroid cancer. At initiation of lenvatinib therapy, advanced thyroid cancer patients frequently have lung metastasis and are vulnerable to pulmonary complications due to concealed lung damage caused by previous therapies including radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. Among 24 patients treated with lenvatinib, pulmonary events were observed in three patients with lung metastasis, including one with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and two with pneumothorax. One patient who was previously treated with 750 mCi RAI developed uncontrolled ILD after lenvatinib therapy and died of respiratory failure. Two pneumothorax cases had previous cavitation of metastatic lung nodules. Pneumothorax resolved spontaneously in both patients. Pulmonary events in patients with lung metastases treated with lenvatinib are uncommon and manageable in most cases, but may be fatal if detection and management are delayed. Special attention should be given to patients with lung metastasis treated with high cumulative dose of RAI therapy or cavitary changes that develop after lenvatinib therapy.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924926

ABSTRACT

Background@#We evaluated the achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) according to up-to-date Korean Diabetes Association (KDA), European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS), and American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines. @*Methods@#This retrospective cohort study collected electronic medical record data from patients with T2DM (≥20 years) managed by endocrinologists from 15 hospitals in Korea (January to December 2019). Patients were categorized according to guidelines to assess LDL-C target achievement. KDA (2019): Very High-I (atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease [ASCVD]) <70 mg/dL; Very High-II (target organ damage [TOD], or cardiovascular risk factors [CVRFs]) <70 mg/dL; high (others) <100 mg/dL. ESC/EAS (2019): Very High-I (ASCVD): <55 mg/dL; Very High-II (TOD or ≥3-CVRF) <55 mg/dL; high (diabetes ≥10 years without TOD plus any CVRF) <70 mg/dL; moderate (diabetes <10 years without CVRF) <100 mg/dL. ADA (2019): Very High-I (ASCVD); Very High-II (age ≥40+ TOD, or any CVRF), for high intensity statin or statin combined with ezetimibe. @*Results@#Among 2,000 T2DM patients (mean age 62.6 years; male 55.9%; mean glycosylated hemoglobin 7.2%) ASCVD prevalence was 24.7%. Of 1,455 (72.8%) patients treated with statins, 73.9% received monotherapy. According to KDA guidelines, LDL-C target achievement rates were 55.2% in Very High-I and 34.9% in Very High-II patients. With ESC/EAS guidelines, target attainment rates were 26.6% in Very High-I, 15.7% in Very High-II, and 25.9% in high risk patients. Based on ADA guidelines, most patients (78.9%) were very-high risk; however, only 15.5% received high-intensity statin or combination therapy. @*Conclusion@#According to current dyslipidemia management guidelines, LDL-C goal achievement remains suboptimal in Korean patients with T2DM.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924856

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate associations between baseline serum serotonin levels and short- and long-term treatment outcomes in outpatients with depressive disorders in a naturalistic one-year prospective study design. @*Methods@#Patients were recruited at a University hospital in South Korea from March 2012 to April 2017. At baseline, blood samples were obtained from 1,094 patients who received initial antidepressant monotherapy (Step 1). After the Step 1 treatment, further treatment steps (at least Steps 2−4) could be administered every 3 weeks during the acute treatment phase (3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks; n = 1,086), and every 3 months during the continuation treatment phase (6, 9, and 12 months; n = 884). In cases showing an insufficient response or intolerable side effects, patients were asked to choose whether to remain at the current step or enter the next treatment step, with alternative strategies including switching, augmentation, combination, and a mixture of these approaches. Remission was defined as a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score of ≤ 7. @*Results@#The remission group had significantly higher baseline serum serotonin levels among patients who received Step 1 monotherapy in both acute and continuation treatment phases. These associations remained significant after adjustment for relevant covariates. No associations were found with any other treatment steps. @*Conclusion@#Baseline serum serotonin levels may be used as a biomarker for predicting short- and long-term treatment outcomes in antidepressant monotherapy-treated patients with depressive disorders in a real-world clinical setting.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891041

ABSTRACT

Biotin (vitamin B7) is a water-soluble vitamin used as a co-enzyme for carboxylases essential for human metabolism. The high affinity to streptavidin makes biotin an important substance in immunoassays. Excessive biotin intake due to over-the counter supplements has become problematic because of the effects on laboratory test results. There have been no reports of biotin-induced thyroid immunoassay interference in Korea. We report three patients with papillary thyroid cancer who showed false thyrotoxicosis on follow-up laboratory examinations with a literature review. The patients’ medical history should be thoroughly questioned and patients should be informed to curtail consuming biotin before laboratory tests to avoid assay interference. Non-biotinylated assays can be considered if it is impossible to withhold the supplements. These methods will prevent physicians from making incorrect decisions that could result in an inappropriate treatment for their patients.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890522

ABSTRACT

Background@#Programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) has an important role in regulating immune reactions by binding to programmed death 1 (PD-1) on immune cells, which could prevent the exacerbation of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of PD-L1 polymorphism with AITD, including Graves’ disease (GD) and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT). @*Methods@#A total of 189 GD patients, 234 HT patients, and 846 healthy age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in this study. We analyzed PD-L1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs822339) and investigated the associations with clinical disease course and outcome. @*Results@#Genotype frequency at the PD-L1 marker RS822339 in GD (P=0.219) and HT (P=0.764) patients did not differ from that among healthy controls. In patients with GD, the A/G or G/G genotype group demonstrated higher TBII titer (20.6±20.5 vs. 28.0± 25.8, P=0.044) and longer treatment duration (39.0±40.4 months vs. 62.4±65.0 months, P=0.003) compared to the A/A genotype group. Among patients in whom anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody was measured after treatment of GD, post-treatment antiTPO positivity was higher in the A/G or G/G genotype group compared to the A/A genotype group (48.1% vs. 69.9%, P=0.045). Among patients with HT, there was no significant difference of anti-TPO antibody positivity (79.4% vs. 68.6%, P=0.121), anti-thyroglobulin antibody positivity (80.9% vs. 84.7%, P=0.661), or development to overt hypothyroidism (68.0% vs. 71.1%, P=0.632) between the A/A genotype group and the A/G or G/G genotype group. @*Conclusion@#The genotype frequency of PD-L1 (rs822339) is not different in patients with AITD compared with healthy controls. The intact PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in GD and HT might be important to maintain chronicity of AITD by protecting immune tolerance. However, the PD-L1 SNP could be associated with difficulty in achieving remission in patients with GD, which may be helpful to predict the possibility of longer treatment. Further studies are required to investigate the complex immune tolerance system in patients with AITD.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890479

ABSTRACT

Background@#A Korean Multicenter Prospective cohort study of Active Surveillance or Surgery (KoMPASS) for papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMCs) has been initiated. The aim is to compare clinical outcomes between active surveillance (AS) and an immediate lobectomy for low-risk PTMCs. We here outline the detailed protocol for this study. @*Methods@#Adult patients with a cytopathologically confirmed PTMC sized 6.0 to 10.0 mm by ultrasound (US) will be included. Patients will be excluded if they have a suspicious extra-thyroidal extension or metastasis of a PTMC or multiple thyroid nodules or other thyroid diseases which require a total thyroidectomy. Printed material describing the prognosis of PTMCs, and the pros and cons of each management option, will be provided to eligible patients to select their preferred intervention. For the AS group, thyroid US, thyroid function, and quality of life (QoL) parameters will be monitored every 6 months during the first year, and then annually thereafter. Disease progression will be defined as a ≥3 mm increase in maximal diameter of a PTMC, or the development of new thyroid cancers or metastases. If progression is detected, patients should undergo appropriate surgery. For the lobectomy group, a lobectomy with prophylactic central neck dissection will be done within 6 months. After initial surgery, thyroid US, thyroid function, serum thyroglobulin (Tg), anti-Tg antibody, and QoL parameters will be monitored every 6 months during the first year and annually thereafter. Disease progression will be defined in these cases as the development of new thyroid cancers or metastases. @*Conclusion@#KoMPASS findings will help to confirm the role of AS, and develop individualized management strategies, for low-risk PTMCs.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890467

ABSTRACT

Background@#Thyroid immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) have been reported in patients treated with programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death protein-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors. We investigated the incidence and clinical course of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor-induced thyroid IRAEs, and identified predictable clinical risk factors of thyroid IRAEs, in particular, overt hypothyroidism (OH). @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 325 cancer patients receiving PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor in a tertiary referral center. @*Results@#A total of 50.5% (164/325) of patients experienced at least one abnormal thyroid function following PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor. Eighty-four patients (51.2%) of them recovered to normal thyroid function during follow-up. In overall population, 25 patients (7.7%) required thyroid hormone replacement therapy due to PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor-induced OH. Patients who progressed to OH showed significantly higher baseline thyroid stimulating hormone level and longer duration of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor therapy than those without thyroid dysfunction or OH (both P<0.001). Median time interval to the development of OH was 3 months after the therapy. OH was significantly associated with positive anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody at baseline and anti-thyroglobulin antibody during the therapy than those without thyroid dysfunction or OH (P=0.015 and P=0.005, respectively). We observed no patients with OH who were able to stop levothyroxine replacement after the cessation of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor therapy. @*Conclusion@#PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor-induced thyroid dysfunctions are considerably reversible; however, OH is irreversible requiring levothyroxine replacement even after stopping the therapy. Positive thyroid autoantibodies may predict the progression to OH.

10.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 211-218, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889803

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of once-weekly dulaglutide therapy as add-on to oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) and basal insulin in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in real-world clinical practice. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 112 patients who received dulaglutide in a tertiary referral center. The primary efficacy endpoint was a change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) between baseline and 6 months. The secondary endpoints were the percentage of patients achieving HbA1c <7.0% or ≤6.5% and the change of body weight at 6 months. At baseline, the mean HbA1c was 8.7 % (8.8% in the OAD combination and 8.5% in the basal insulin combination group). The mean adjusted HbA1c at 6 months decreased by −1.13% in all patients (p<0.001), and by −1.36 and −0.74% in the OAD combination and basal insulin combination group, respectively. A significant reduction of −2.9 kg in body weight was observed in all patients at 6 months (p<0.001). Approximately 34.8% and 23.2% of patients achieved HbA1c <7.0% and ≤6.5%, respectively. Higher baseline HbA1c and no previous insulin therapy were associated with positive responses to dulaglutide on multivariate analysis. Mild gastrointestinal issues (23.2%) were the most frequently observed adverse events. Dulaglutide is an effective and durable treatment option as OAD and basal insulin combination therapy in Korean patients with T2DM.

11.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1078-1085, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914253

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC), a type of thyroid carcinoma, is rare in South Korea, and few studies have investigated its prognosis. @*Methods@#This long-term multicenter retrospective cohort study evaluated the clinicopathological features and clinical outcomes in patients with HCC who underwent thyroid surgery between 1996 and 2009. @*Results@#The mean age of the 97 patients included in the study was 50.3 years, and 26.8% were male. The mean size of the primary tumor was 3.2±1.8 cm, and three (3.1%) patients had distant metastasis at initial diagnosis. Ultrasonographic findings were available for 73 patients; the number of nodules with low-, intermediate-, and high suspicion was 28 (38.4%), 27 (37.0%), and 18 (24.7%), respectively, based on the Korean-Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System. Preoperatively, follicular neoplasm (FN) or suspicion for FN accounted for 65.2% of the cases according to the Bethesda category, and 13% had malignancy or suspicious for malignancy. During a median follow-up of 8.5 years, eight (8.2%) patients had persistent/recurrent disease, and none died of HCC. Older age, gross extrathyroidal extension (ETE), and widely invasive types of tumors were significantly associated with distant metastasis (all P<0.01). Gross ETE (hazard ratio [HR], 27.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2 to 346.4; P=0.01) and widely invasive classification (HR, 6.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 39.4; P=0.04) were independent risk factors for poor disease-free survival (DFS). @*Conclusion@#The long-term prognosis of HCC is relatively favorable in South Korea from this study, although this is not a nation-wide data, and gross ETE and widely invasive cancer are significant prognostic factors for DFS. The diagnosis of HCC by ultrasonography and cytopathology remains challenging.

12.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1268-1276, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914249

ABSTRACT

Background@#The association between Graves’ disease (GD) and co-existing thyroid cancer is still controversial and most of the previously reported data have been based on surgically treated GD patients. This study investigated the clinicopathological findings and prognosis of concomitant thyroid cancer in GD patients in the era of widespread application of ultrasonography. @*Methods@#Data of GD patients who underwent thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer between 2010 and 2019 in three tertiary hospitals in South Korea (Asan Medical Center, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, and Pusan National University Hospital) were collected and analyzed retrospectively. In the subgroup analysis, aggressiveness and clinical outcomes of thyroid cancer were compared nodular GD and non-nodular GD groups according to the presence or absence of the thyroid nodules other than thyroid cancer (index nodules). @*Results@#Of the 15,159 GD patients treated at the hospitals during the study period, 262 (1.7%) underwent thyroidectomy for coexisting thyroid cancer. Eleven patients (4.2%) were diagnosed with occult thyroid cancer and 182 patients (69.5%) had microcarcinomas. No differences in thyroid cancer aggressiveness, ultrasonographic findings, or prognosis were observed between the nodular GD and non-nodular GD groups except the cancer subtype. In the multivariate analysis, only lymph node (LN) metastasis was an independent prognostic factor for recurrent/persistent disease of thyroid cancer arising in GD (P=0.020). @*Conclusion@#The prevalence of concomitant thyroid cancer in GD patients was considerably lower than in previous reports. The clinical outcomes of thyroid cancer in GD patients were also excellent but, more cautious follow-up is necessary for patients with LN metastasis in the same way as for thyroid cancer in non-GD patients.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898745

ABSTRACT

Biotin (vitamin B7) is a water-soluble vitamin used as a co-enzyme for carboxylases essential for human metabolism. The high affinity to streptavidin makes biotin an important substance in immunoassays. Excessive biotin intake due to over-the counter supplements has become problematic because of the effects on laboratory test results. There have been no reports of biotin-induced thyroid immunoassay interference in Korea. We report three patients with papillary thyroid cancer who showed false thyrotoxicosis on follow-up laboratory examinations with a literature review. The patients’ medical history should be thoroughly questioned and patients should be informed to curtail consuming biotin before laboratory tests to avoid assay interference. Non-biotinylated assays can be considered if it is impossible to withhold the supplements. These methods will prevent physicians from making incorrect decisions that could result in an inappropriate treatment for their patients.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898226

ABSTRACT

Background@#Programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) has an important role in regulating immune reactions by binding to programmed death 1 (PD-1) on immune cells, which could prevent the exacerbation of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of PD-L1 polymorphism with AITD, including Graves’ disease (GD) and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT). @*Methods@#A total of 189 GD patients, 234 HT patients, and 846 healthy age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in this study. We analyzed PD-L1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs822339) and investigated the associations with clinical disease course and outcome. @*Results@#Genotype frequency at the PD-L1 marker RS822339 in GD (P=0.219) and HT (P=0.764) patients did not differ from that among healthy controls. In patients with GD, the A/G or G/G genotype group demonstrated higher TBII titer (20.6±20.5 vs. 28.0± 25.8, P=0.044) and longer treatment duration (39.0±40.4 months vs. 62.4±65.0 months, P=0.003) compared to the A/A genotype group. Among patients in whom anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody was measured after treatment of GD, post-treatment antiTPO positivity was higher in the A/G or G/G genotype group compared to the A/A genotype group (48.1% vs. 69.9%, P=0.045). Among patients with HT, there was no significant difference of anti-TPO antibody positivity (79.4% vs. 68.6%, P=0.121), anti-thyroglobulin antibody positivity (80.9% vs. 84.7%, P=0.661), or development to overt hypothyroidism (68.0% vs. 71.1%, P=0.632) between the A/A genotype group and the A/G or G/G genotype group. @*Conclusion@#The genotype frequency of PD-L1 (rs822339) is not different in patients with AITD compared with healthy controls. The intact PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in GD and HT might be important to maintain chronicity of AITD by protecting immune tolerance. However, the PD-L1 SNP could be associated with difficulty in achieving remission in patients with GD, which may be helpful to predict the possibility of longer treatment. Further studies are required to investigate the complex immune tolerance system in patients with AITD.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898183

ABSTRACT

Background@#A Korean Multicenter Prospective cohort study of Active Surveillance or Surgery (KoMPASS) for papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMCs) has been initiated. The aim is to compare clinical outcomes between active surveillance (AS) and an immediate lobectomy for low-risk PTMCs. We here outline the detailed protocol for this study. @*Methods@#Adult patients with a cytopathologically confirmed PTMC sized 6.0 to 10.0 mm by ultrasound (US) will be included. Patients will be excluded if they have a suspicious extra-thyroidal extension or metastasis of a PTMC or multiple thyroid nodules or other thyroid diseases which require a total thyroidectomy. Printed material describing the prognosis of PTMCs, and the pros and cons of each management option, will be provided to eligible patients to select their preferred intervention. For the AS group, thyroid US, thyroid function, and quality of life (QoL) parameters will be monitored every 6 months during the first year, and then annually thereafter. Disease progression will be defined as a ≥3 mm increase in maximal diameter of a PTMC, or the development of new thyroid cancers or metastases. If progression is detected, patients should undergo appropriate surgery. For the lobectomy group, a lobectomy with prophylactic central neck dissection will be done within 6 months. After initial surgery, thyroid US, thyroid function, serum thyroglobulin (Tg), anti-Tg antibody, and QoL parameters will be monitored every 6 months during the first year and annually thereafter. Disease progression will be defined in these cases as the development of new thyroid cancers or metastases. @*Conclusion@#KoMPASS findings will help to confirm the role of AS, and develop individualized management strategies, for low-risk PTMCs.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898171

ABSTRACT

Background@#Thyroid immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) have been reported in patients treated with programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death protein-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors. We investigated the incidence and clinical course of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor-induced thyroid IRAEs, and identified predictable clinical risk factors of thyroid IRAEs, in particular, overt hypothyroidism (OH). @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 325 cancer patients receiving PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor in a tertiary referral center. @*Results@#A total of 50.5% (164/325) of patients experienced at least one abnormal thyroid function following PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor. Eighty-four patients (51.2%) of them recovered to normal thyroid function during follow-up. In overall population, 25 patients (7.7%) required thyroid hormone replacement therapy due to PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor-induced OH. Patients who progressed to OH showed significantly higher baseline thyroid stimulating hormone level and longer duration of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor therapy than those without thyroid dysfunction or OH (both P<0.001). Median time interval to the development of OH was 3 months after the therapy. OH was significantly associated with positive anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody at baseline and anti-thyroglobulin antibody during the therapy than those without thyroid dysfunction or OH (P=0.015 and P=0.005, respectively). We observed no patients with OH who were able to stop levothyroxine replacement after the cessation of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor therapy. @*Conclusion@#PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor-induced thyroid dysfunctions are considerably reversible; however, OH is irreversible requiring levothyroxine replacement even after stopping the therapy. Positive thyroid autoantibodies may predict the progression to OH.

17.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 211-218, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897507

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of once-weekly dulaglutide therapy as add-on to oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) and basal insulin in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in real-world clinical practice. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 112 patients who received dulaglutide in a tertiary referral center. The primary efficacy endpoint was a change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) between baseline and 6 months. The secondary endpoints were the percentage of patients achieving HbA1c <7.0% or ≤6.5% and the change of body weight at 6 months. At baseline, the mean HbA1c was 8.7 % (8.8% in the OAD combination and 8.5% in the basal insulin combination group). The mean adjusted HbA1c at 6 months decreased by −1.13% in all patients (p<0.001), and by −1.36 and −0.74% in the OAD combination and basal insulin combination group, respectively. A significant reduction of −2.9 kg in body weight was observed in all patients at 6 months (p<0.001). Approximately 34.8% and 23.2% of patients achieved HbA1c <7.0% and ≤6.5%, respectively. Higher baseline HbA1c and no previous insulin therapy were associated with positive responses to dulaglutide on multivariate analysis. Mild gastrointestinal issues (23.2%) were the most frequently observed adverse events. Dulaglutide is an effective and durable treatment option as OAD and basal insulin combination therapy in Korean patients with T2DM.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk remains increased despite optimal low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level induced by intensive statin therapy. Therefore, recent guidelines recommend non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) as a secondary target for preventing cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of omega-3 fatty acids (OM3-FAs) in combination with atorvastatin compared to atorvastatin alone in patients with mixed dyslipidemia.METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, and phase III multicenter study included adults with fasting triglyceride (TG) levels ≥200 and <500 mg/dL and LDL-C levels <110 mg/dL. Eligible subjects were randomized to ATOMEGA (OM3-FAs 4,000 mg plus atorvastatin calcium 20 mg) or atorvastatin 20 mg plus placebo groups. The primary efficacy endpoints were the percent changes in TG and non-HDL-C levels from baseline at the end of treatment.RESULTS: After 8 weeks of treatment, the percent changes from baseline in TG (−29.8% vs. 3.6%, P<0.001) and non-HDL-C (−10.1% vs. 4.9%, P<0.001) levels were significantly greater in the ATOMEGA group (n=97) than in the atorvastatin group (n=103). Moreover, the proportion of total subjects reaching TG target of <200 mg/dL in the ATOMEGA group was significantly higher than that in the atorvastatin group (62.9% vs. 22.3%, P<0.001). The incidence of adverse events did not differ between the two groups.CONCLUSION: The addition of OM3-FAs to atorvastatin improved TG and non-HDL-C levels to a significant extent compared to atorvastatin alone in subjects with residual hypertriglyceridemia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Atorvastatin , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, LDL , Dyslipidemias , Fasting , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hypertriglyceridemia , Incidence , Lipoproteins , Triglycerides
19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834526

ABSTRACT

Ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) has been increasingly used for the pre-operative diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Since the Korean Society of the Thyroid Radiology published the ‘Consensus Statement and Recommendations for Thyroid CNB’ in 2017 and the Korean Endocrine Pathology Thyroid CNB Study Group published ‘Pathology Reporting of Thyroid Core Needle Biopsy’ in 2015, advances have occurred rapidly not only in the management guidelines for thyroid nodules but also in the diagnostic terminology and classification schemes. The Clinical Practice Guidelines Development Committee of the Korean Thyroid Association (KTA) reviewed publications on thyroid CNB from 1995 to September 2019 and updated the recommendations and statements for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules using CNB. Recommendations for the resolution of clinical controversies regarding the use of CNB were based on expert opinion. These practical guidelines include recommendations and statements regarding indications for CNB, patient preparation, CNB technique, biopsy-related complications, biopsy specimen preparation and processing, and pathology interpretation and reporting of thyroid CNB.

20.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832420

ABSTRACT

Background@#Vandetanib is the most widely used tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of patients with advanced medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). However, only limited data regarding its use outside clinical trials are available. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vandetanib in patients with advanced MTC in routine clinical practice. @*Methods@#In this multicenter retrospective study, 12 patients with locally advanced or metastatic MTC treated with vandetanib at four tertiary hospitals were included. The primary outcome was the objective response rate (ORR) based on the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. The progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicities were also evaluated. @*Results@#Eleven patients (92%) had distant metastasis and 10 (83%) had disease progression at enrollment. Partial response was observed in five patients (ORR, 42%) and stable disease lasting ≥24 weeks was reported in an additional five patients (83%). During the median 31.7 months of follow-up, disease progression was seen in five patients (42%); of these, two died due to disease progression. The median PFS was 25.9 months, while the median OS was not reached. All patients experienced adverse events (AEs) which were generally consistent with the known safety profile of vandetanib. Vandetanib was discontinued in two patients due to skin toxicity. @*Conclusion@#Consistent with the phase III trial, this study confirmed the efficacy of vandetanib for advanced MTC in terms of both ORR and PFS in the real-world setting. Vandetanib was well tolerated in the majority of patients, and there were no fatal AEs.

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