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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833501

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Radiation is known to induce autophagy in malignant glioma cells whether it is cytocidal or cytoprotective.Dexamethasone is frequently used to reduce tumor-associated brain edema, especially during radiation therapy. The purpose of the study was to determine whether and how dexamethasone affects autophagy in irradiated malignant glioma cells and to identify possible intervening molecular pathways. @*Methods@#: We prepared p53 mutant U373 and LN229 glioma cell lines, which varied by phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) mutational status and were used to make U373 stable transfected cells expressing GFP-LC3 protein. After performing cell survival assay after irradiation, the IC50 radiation dose was determined. Dexamethasone dose (10 µM) was determined from the literature and added to the glioma cells 24 hours before the irradiation. The effect of adding dexamethasone was evaluated by cell survival assay or clonogenic assay and cell cycle analysis. Measurement of autophagy was visualized by western blot of LC3-I/LC3-II and quantified by the GFP-LC3 punctuated pattern under fluorescence microscopy and acridine orange staining for acidic vesicle organelles by flow cytometry. @*Results@#: Dexamethasone increased cell survival in both U373 and LN229 cells after irradiation. It interfered with autophagy after irradiation differently depending on the PTEN mutational status : the autophagy decreased in U373 (PTEN-mutated) cells but increased in LN229 (PTEN wild-type) cells. Inhibition of protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation after irradiation by LY294002 reversed the dexamethasone-induced decrease of autophagy and cell death in U373 cells but provoked no effect on both autophagy and cell survival in LN229 cells. After ATG5 knockdown, radiation-induced autophagy decreased and the effect of dexamethasone also diminished in both cell lines. The diminished autophagy resulted in a partial reversal of dexamethasone protection from cell death after irradiation in U373 cells; however, no significant change was observed in surviving fraction LN229 cells. @*Conclusion@#: Dexamethasone increased cell survival in p53 mutated malignant glioma cells and increased autophagy in PTENmutant malignant glioma cell but not in PTEN-wildtype cell. The difference of autophagy response could be mediated though the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831031

ABSTRACT

Background@#As the application of radiotherapy to brain metastasis (BM) increases, the incidence of radiation necrosis (RN) as a late toxicity of radiotherapy also increases. However, no specific treatment for RN is indicated except long-term steroids. Here, we summarize the clinical results of bevacizumab (BEV) for RN. @*Methods@#Ten patients with RN who were treated with BEV monotherapy (7 mg/kg) were retrospectively reviewed. RN diagnosis was made using MRI with or without perfusion MRI. Radiological response was based on Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology criteria for BM. The initial response was observed after 2 cycles every 2 weeks, and maintenance observed after 3 cycles every 3-6 weeks of increasing length intervals. @*Results@#The initial response of gadolinium (Gd) enhancement diameter maintained stable disease (SD) in 9 patients, and 1 patient showed partial response (PR). The initial fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) response showed PR in 4 patients and SD in 6 patients. The best radiological response was observed in 9 patients. Gd enhancement response was 6 PR and 3 SD between 15-43 weeks. Reduction of FLAIR showed PR in 5 patients and SD in 4 patients. Clinical improvement was observed in all but 1 patient. Five patients were maintained on protocol with durable response up to 23 cycles. However, 2 patients stopped treatment due to primary cancer progression, 1 patient received surgical removal from tumor recurrence, and 1 patient changed to systemic chemotherapy for new BM. Grade 3 intractable hypertension occurred in 1 patient who had already received antihypertensive medication. @*Conclusion@#BEV treatment for RN from BM radiotherapy resulted in favorable radiological (60%) and clinical responses (90%). Side effects were expectable and controllable. We anticipate prospective clinical trials to verify the effect of BEV monotherapy for RN.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831026

ABSTRACT

Background@#: The Guideline Working Group of the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO)conducted a nationwide questionnaire survey for diverse queries faced in the treatment of brain tumors.As part I of the survey, the aim of this study is to evaluate national patterns of clinical practiceabout antiepileptic drug (AED) and steroid usage for management of brain tumors. @*Methods@#: A web-based survey was sent to all members of the KSNO by email. The survey included9 questions of AED usage and 5 questions of steroid usage for brain tumor patients. All questionswere developed by consensus of the Guideline Working Group. @*Results@#: The overall response rate was 12.8% (54/423). Regarding AED usage, the majority ofrespondents (95.2%) routinely prescribed prophylactic AEDs for patients with seizure at the peri/postoperativeperiod. However, as many as 72.8% of respondents prescribed AED routinely for seizure-naïvepatients, and others prescribed AED as the case may be. The duration of AED prophylaxis showedwide variance according to the epilepsy status and the location of tumor. Levetiracetam (82.9%) wasthe most preferred AED for epilepsy prophylaxis. Regarding steroid usage, 90.5% of respondents usesteroids in perioperative period, including 34.2% of them as a routine manner. Presence of peritumoraledema (90.9%) was considered as the most important factor determining steroid usage followed bydegree of clinical symptoms (60.6%). More than half of respondents (51.2%) replied to discontinue thesteroids within a week after surgery if there are no specific medical conditions, while 7.3% preferredslow tapering up to a month after surgery. @*Conclusion@#: The survey demonstrated the prevailing practice patterns on AED and steroid usagein neuro-oncologic field among members of the KSNO. This information provides a point of referencefor establishing a practical guideline in the management of brain tumor patients.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831025

ABSTRACT

Background@#: The Guideline Working Group of the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO)conducted a nationwide questionnaire survey for diverse queries faced in the treatment of brain tumors.As part II of the survey, the aim of this study is to evaluate the national patterns of clinical practicefor patients with diffuse midline glioma and meningioma. @*Methods@#: A web-based survey was sent to all members of the KSNO by email. The survey included4 questions of diffuse midline glioma and 6 questions of meningioma (including 2 case scenarios).All questions were developed by consensus of the Guideline Working Group. @*Results@#: In the survey about diffuse midline glioma, 76% respondents performed histologicconfirmation to identify H3K27M mutation on immunohistochemical staining or sequencing methods.For treatment of diffuse midline glioma, respondents preferred concurrent chemoradiotherapy withtemozolomide (TMZ) and adjuvant TMZ (63.8%) than radiotherapy alone (34.0%). In the surveyabout meningioma, respondents prefer wait-and-see policy for the asymptomatic small meningiomawithout peritumoral edema. However, a greater number of respondents had chosen surgical resectionas the first choice for all large size meningiomas without exception, and small size meningiomaswith either peritumoral edema or eloquent location. There was no single opinion with major consensuson long-term follow-up plans for asymptomatic meningioma with observation policy. As many as68.1% of respondents answered that they would not add any adjuvant therapies for World Health Organizationgrade II meningiomas if the tumor was totally resected including dura. @*Conclusion@#: The survey demonstrates the prevailing clinical practice patterns for patients with diffusemidline glioma and meningioma among members of the KSNO. This information provides a pointof reference for establishing a practical guideline in the management of diffuse midline glioma andmeningioma.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831024

ABSTRACT

Background@#: The Guideline Working Group of the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO)conducted the nationwide questionnaire survey for diverse queries facing to treat patients with braintumor. As part III of the survey, the aim of this study is to evaluate the national patterns of clinical practicefor patients with brain metastasis and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). @*Methods@#: A web-based survey was sent to all members of the KSNO by email. The survey included7 questions of brain metastasis and 5 questions of PCNSL, focused on the management strategiesin specific situations. All questions were developed by consensus of the Guideline WorkingGroup. @*Results@#" In the survey about brain metastasis, respondents preferred surgical resection withadjuvant treatment for patients with a surgically accessible single brain metastatic lesion less than 3cm in size without extracranial systemic lesions. However, most respondents considered radiosurgeryfor surgically inaccessible lesions. As the preferred treatment of multiple brain metastases according tothe number of brain lesions, respondents tended to choose radiotherapy with increasing number of lesions.Radiosurgery was mostly chosen for the brain metastases of less than or equal to 4. In the surveyabout PCNSL, a half of respondents choose high-dose methotrexate-based polychemotherapy asthe first-line induction therapy for PCNSL. The consolidation and salvage therapy showed a little variationamong respondents. For PCNSL patients with cerebrospinal fluid dissemination, intrathecal chemotherapywas most preferred. @*Conclusion@#: The survey demonstrates the prevailing clinical practice patterns for patients withbrain metastasis and PCNSL among members of the KSNO. This information provides a point of referencefor establishing a practical guideline in the management of brain metastasis and PCNSL.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739665

ABSTRACT

Choroid plexus tumors are uncommon brain tumors that primarily occur in children. Most of these tumors originate from the intraventricular area, and the most common clinicalpresentation is increased intracranial pressure. Dissemination through the cerebrospinal fluid space is the inevitable natural course of the disease. Here, we present 2 rare cases of adult choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC), each with distinct clinical presentation and progression. The first case was a 40-year-old male who presented with multiple intraventricular masses. After surgical biopsy, radiation and intrathecal chemotherapy failed to elicit any response. The patient progressed with spinal cord dissemination and expired 1 year later. The second case presented with visual disturbance, and brain MRI revealed a large ovoid juxtaventricular mass with peritumoral edema. This 49-year-old female patient underwent craniotomy for what was thought to be a high-grade glioma; however, the mass was connected to the choroid plexus at the operative field. Her pathology specimen was diagnosed as CPC, and adjuvant systemic chemotherapy was administered. She has now been free of recurrence for 10 months. The description of the presentation and progression of these rare adult-onset CPC provides insight for the diagnosis and treatment of other rare instances of choroid plexus tumors.


Subject(s)
Adult , Biopsy , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Child , Choroid Plexus Neoplasms , Choroid Plexus , Choroid , Craniotomy , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Edema , Female , Fourth Ventricle , Glioma , Humans , Intracranial Pressure , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pathology , Recurrence , Spinal Cord
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy of modified ventriculolumbar perfusion (VLP) chemotherapy with methotrexate on leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in terms of symptomatic response and side effects. METHODS: Previous infusion rate of 20 mL/h was reduced to 15 mL/h for the purpose of decreasing constitutional side effects of VLP such as nausea/vomiting, insomnia and confusion. The primary outcome was the response rate of increased intracranial pressure (ICP), and the secondary outcome was the occurrence of side effects compared to previous 20 mL/h trial. This interim analysis to validate the reduced infusion rate is not to affect the original effect of VLP chemotherapy. RESULTS: All forty-seven patients were enrolled including 22 patients with increased ICP. Thirteen patients out of these (59%) got normalized ICP after VLP chemotherapy. Moderate to severe (grade 2–3) confusion was observed in 3 patients (6%) and it was significantly reduced compared to those (23%) in the VLP 20 mL/h (p=0.017). Grade 2–3 nausea/vomiting was also reduced from 64% to 45% but failed to reach statistical significance (p=0.08). Median overall survival (OS) was 5.3 months (95% confidence interval, 3.55–7.05) and patients OS, who received maintenance VLP was significantly prolonged compared to patients who underwent induction VLP only (5.8 vs. 3.4 months, p=0.025). CONCLUSION: VLP of reduced perfusion rate (15 mL/h) showed compatible control rate of increased ICP at this interim analysis. Decreased moderate to severe side effects and prolonged OS in patients received maintenance VLP encourage us to evaluate the effectiveness of this trial further.


Subject(s)
Drug Therapy , Humans , Infusions, Intraventricular , Intracranial Pressure , Meningeal Carcinomatosis , Methotrexate , Perfusion , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763103

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations between non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and corresponding brain metastases (BMs) in Korea society. METHODS: From 2011 to 2016, a total of 74 patients underwent surgical resection of a metastatic brain tumor from NSCLC. Among them, we performed retrospective analysis for 46 patients who underwent EGFR sequencing of primary NSCLC tissues. RESULTS: Among these 46 cases, 18 (39.1%) cases showed EGFR mutation in primary lung cancer. Detected mutation sites were exon 19 (8 cases), exon 21 (6 cases), exon 18 (1 cases), and multiple mutations (3 cases). In 18 cases of BM, EGFR mutation studies were done. Among them, 8 (25.6%) cases showed mutation on exon 19 (5 cases) or exon 21 (3 cases). To compare EGFR mutation status between primary lung cancer and BM, 18 paired tissues from both NSCLC and matched BM were collected. Four (22.5%) patients were discordant for the status of EGFR between primary and metastatic sites. CONCLUSION: EGFR mutations were significantly discordant between primary tumors and corresponding metastases in a significant portion of NSCLC. In treatment of BM of EGFR mutant metastatic NSCLC, due to possibility of discordance, pathologic confirming through brain biopsy is recommended.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Brain Neoplasms , Brain , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Epidermal Growth Factor , Exons , Humans , Korea , Lung Neoplasms , Neoplasm Metastasis , ErbB Receptors , Retrospective Studies
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763102

ABSTRACT

A 74-year-old woman presented with a month-long nausea and vomiting, then she could not take a meal. She had found an asymptomatic 4th ventricular mass 6 year ago as a preoperative work-up for ovarian cancer. And during the yearly follow-up, the mass had grown continuously over 6 years, and caused symptoms in the seventh year. MRI revealed a large ovoid extra-axial mass in the fourth ventricle compressing adjacent medulla and cerebellum. Surgery achieved near total resection since the tumor tightly adhered to the brain stem of 4th ventricle floor. The histological diagnosis was ependymoma (WHO grade II). She transferred rehabilitation facility for mild gait disturbance, hoarseness and swallowing difficulty. Fourth ventricle ependymoma in the elderly is extremely rare and the growth rate has not been reported. Here, we present a rare care of 4th ventricle ependymoma found asymptomatic at elderly but continuously grow to cause local pressure symptoms.


Subject(s)
Aged , Brain Stem , Cerebellum , Deglutition , Diagnosis , Ependymoma , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Fourth Ventricle , Gait , Hoarseness , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Meals , Nausea , Ovarian Neoplasms , Rehabilitation , Vomiting
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The early and accurate diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) has become important because of introduction of new therapeutic strategies for LM and increasing incidence of LM along with longer survival of cancer patients. We aimed to evaluate the role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CYFRA 21-1 as a diagnostic indicator for LM in patients with cancer. METHODS: CSF CYFRA 21-1 level was analyzed using electro-chemiluminescent immunoassay. The difference in concentration of CSF CYFRA 21-1 between 91 patients with LM and 339 control groups (patients with other neurological disease or healthy controls) was investigated. The cut-off value of CSF CYFRA 21-1 as a diagnostic indicator for LM and its diagnostic performance were evaluated. RESULTS: The CSF CYFRA 21-1 was significantly higher in LM patients than control groups (p<0.001). A cut-off value of diagnosis for LM in patients with cancer was 1.59 ng/mL. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of CSF CYFRA 21-1 were 80.2%, 96.2%, 92.8%, 84.9%, 94.8% for diagnosis of LM. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that CSF CYFRA 21-1 can be an additional diagnostic indicator for cancer patients with LM.


Subject(s)
Cerebrospinal Fluid , Diagnosis , Humans , Immunoassay , Incidence , Neoplasm Metastasis , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788713

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the safety and function of the newly developed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reservoir called the V-Port.METHODS: The newly developed V-Port consists of a non-collapsible reservoir outlined with a titanium cage and a connector for the ventricular catheter to be assembled. It is designed to be better palpated and more durable to multiple punctures than the Ommaya reservoir. A total of nine patients diagnosed with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis were selected for V-Port insertion. Each patient was followed up for evaluation for a month after the operation.RESULTS: The average operation time for V-Port insertion was 42 minutes and the average incision size was 6.6 cm. The surgical technique of V-Port insertion was found to be intuitive by all neurosurgeons who participated in the pilot study. There was no obstruction or leakage of the V-Port during intrathecal chemotherapy or CSF drainage. Also, there were no complications including post-operative intracerebral hemorrhage, infection and skin problems related to the V-Port.CONCLUSION: V-Port is a safe and an easy to use implantable CSF reservoir that addresses problems of other implantable CSF reservoirs. Further multicenter clinical trial is needed to prove the safety and the function of the V-Port.


Subject(s)
Catheters , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Drainage , Drug Therapy , Humans , Intracranial Pressure , Meningeal Carcinomatosis , Neurosurgeons , Pilot Projects , Punctures , Skin , Titanium
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765283

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the safety and function of the newly developed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reservoir called the V-Port. METHODS: The newly developed V-Port consists of a non-collapsible reservoir outlined with a titanium cage and a connector for the ventricular catheter to be assembled. It is designed to be better palpated and more durable to multiple punctures than the Ommaya reservoir. A total of nine patients diagnosed with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis were selected for V-Port insertion. Each patient was followed up for evaluation for a month after the operation. RESULTS: The average operation time for V-Port insertion was 42 minutes and the average incision size was 6.6 cm. The surgical technique of V-Port insertion was found to be intuitive by all neurosurgeons who participated in the pilot study. There was no obstruction or leakage of the V-Port during intrathecal chemotherapy or CSF drainage. Also, there were no complications including post-operative intracerebral hemorrhage, infection and skin problems related to the V-Port. CONCLUSION: V-Port is a safe and an easy to use implantable CSF reservoir that addresses problems of other implantable CSF reservoirs. Further multicenter clinical trial is needed to prove the safety and the function of the V-Port.


Subject(s)
Catheters , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Drainage , Drug Therapy , Humans , Intracranial Pressure , Meningeal Carcinomatosis , Neurosurgeons , Pilot Projects , Punctures , Skin , Titanium
13.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 182-191, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741954

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical outcome of proton therapy (PT) in patients with chordoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with chordoma treated with PT between June 2007 and December 2015 at the National Cancer Center, Korea, were retrospectively analyzed. The median total dose was 69.6 cobalt gray equivalent (CGE; range, 64.8 to 79.2 CGE). Local progression-free survival (LPFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), overall survival (OS), and diseasespecific survival (DSS) rates were calculated by the Kaplan–Meier method. RESULTS: With the median follow-up of 42.8 months (range, 4 to 174 months), the 5-year LPFS, DMFS, OS, and DSS rates were 87.9%, 86.7%, 88.3%, and 92.9%, respectively. The tumor location was associated with the patterns of failure: the LPFS rates were lower for cervical tumors (57.1%) than for non-cervical tumors (93.1%) (p = 0.02), and the DMFS rates were lower for sacral tumors (53.5%) than for non-sacral tumors (100%) (p = 0.001). The total dose was associated with both the LPFS rate and DMFS rate. The initial tumor size was associated with the DMFS rate, but was not associated with the LPFS rate. Three patients had grade 3 late toxicity with none ≥grade 4. CONCLUSION: PT is an effective and safe treatment in patients with chordomas. The tumor location was associated with the patterns of failure: local failure was common in cervical tumors, and distant failure was common in sacral tumors. Further refinement of PT, such as the utilization of intensity modulated PT for cervical tumors, is warranted to improve the outcome.


Subject(s)
Chordoma , Cobalt , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Korea , Methods , Proton Therapy , Protons , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713833

ABSTRACT

Surgery, anticoagulation therapy, pregnancy, and hormone treatments, such as bromocriptine, are well-characterized precipitating factors for pituitary apoplexy. However, whether cytotoxic chemotherapy for systemic cancer could cause pituitary apoplexy has not been investigated. Here, we present a case of a 41-year-old woman who developed a severe headache with decreased visual acuity after intravenous cytotoxic chemotherapy to treat metastatic breast cancer. Preoperative neuroimaging revealed pituitary adenoma with necrosis. Operative findings and pathologic examination concluded extensive necrosis with a small intratumoral hemorrhage in a pre-existing pituitary adenoma. We reviewed two additional previously published cases of pituitary apoplexy after systemic chemotherapy and suggest that cytotoxic chemotherapy may induce pituitary apoplexy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Bromocriptine , Drug Therapy , Female , Headache , Hemorrhage , Humans , Necrosis , Neuroimaging , Pituitary Apoplexy , Pituitary Neoplasms , Precipitating Factors , Pregnancy , Visual Acuity
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-176896

ABSTRACT

The incidence of leptomeningeal dissemination (LMD) of anaplastic glioma has been increasing. LMD can be observed at the time of initial presentation or the time of recurrence. As a result of both rarity and unusual presentation, a standard therapy has not yet been suggested. In contrast to leptomeningeal carcinomatosis for systemic solid cancers, a relatively prolonged survival is observed in some patients with LMD of anaplastic gliomas. Treatment modalities include whole craniospinal irradiation, intra-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) chemotherapy, and systemic chemotherapy. In some cases, response to temozolomide (TMZ), with or without combined radiation has been reported. Here, we report two cases of LMD of an anaplastic glioma. In one case LMD presented at the time of diagnosis, and in the other at the time of recurrence after radiation. CSF cytology was positive in both cases, and persisted in spite of intrathecal methotrexate chemotherapy. Later, TMZ was prescribed for progressing brain parenchymal lesions, and both radiological and cytological responses were obtained after oral TMZ treatment.


Subject(s)
Brain , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Craniospinal Irradiation , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Glioma , Humans , Incidence , Meningeal Carcinomatosis , Methotrexate , Recurrence
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129238

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In this retrospective study, we compared the incidence of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis or dural metastasis (LMCDM) in patients who received whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT), partial radiotherapy (PRT), or no radiotherapy (RT) following resection of brain metastases from breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients with breast cancer underwent surgical resection for newly diagnosed brain metastases in two institutions between March 2001 and March 2015. Among these, 34 received postoperative WBRT (n=24) or PRT (n=10) and 17 did not. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 12.4 months (range, 2.3 to 83.6 months), 22/51 patients developed LMCDM at a median of 8.6 months (range, 4.8 to 51.2 months) after surgery. The 18-months LMCDM-free survival (LMCDM-FS) rates were 77.5%, 30.0%, and 13.6%, in the WBRT, PRT, and no RT groups, respectively (p=0.013). The presence of a tumor adjacent to cerebrospinal fluid flow and no systemic treatment after treatment for brain metastases were also associated with poor LMCDM-FS rate. Multivariate analysis showed that WBRT compared to PRT (p=0.009) and systemic treatment (p < 0.001) were independently associated with reduced incidence of LMCDM. CONCLUSION: WBRT improved LMCDM-FS rate after resection of brain metastases compared to PRT in breast cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Brain , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Meningeal Carcinomatosis , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129223

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In this retrospective study, we compared the incidence of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis or dural metastasis (LMCDM) in patients who received whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT), partial radiotherapy (PRT), or no radiotherapy (RT) following resection of brain metastases from breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients with breast cancer underwent surgical resection for newly diagnosed brain metastases in two institutions between March 2001 and March 2015. Among these, 34 received postoperative WBRT (n=24) or PRT (n=10) and 17 did not. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 12.4 months (range, 2.3 to 83.6 months), 22/51 patients developed LMCDM at a median of 8.6 months (range, 4.8 to 51.2 months) after surgery. The 18-months LMCDM-free survival (LMCDM-FS) rates were 77.5%, 30.0%, and 13.6%, in the WBRT, PRT, and no RT groups, respectively (p=0.013). The presence of a tumor adjacent to cerebrospinal fluid flow and no systemic treatment after treatment for brain metastases were also associated with poor LMCDM-FS rate. Multivariate analysis showed that WBRT compared to PRT (p=0.009) and systemic treatment (p < 0.001) were independently associated with reduced incidence of LMCDM. CONCLUSION: WBRT improved LMCDM-FS rate after resection of brain metastases compared to PRT in breast cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Brain , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Meningeal Carcinomatosis , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-6981

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and survival benefits of combined treatment with radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) in a Korean sample. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 750 Korean patients with histologically confirmed glioblastoma multiforme, who received concurrent chemoradiotherapy with TMZ (CCRT) and adjuvant TMZ from January 2006 until June 2011, were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: After the first operation, a gross total resection (GTR), subtotal resection (STR), partial resection (PR), biopsy alone were achieved in 388 (51.7%), 159 (21.2%), 96 (12.8%), and 107 (14.3%) patients, respectively. The methylation status of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) was reviewed retrospectively in 217 patients. The median follow-up period was 16.3 months and the median overall survival (OS) was 17.5 months. The actuarial survival rates at the 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS were 72.1%, 21.0%, and 9.0%, respectively. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 10.1 months, and the actuarial PFS at 1-, 3-, and 5-year PFS were 42.2%, 13.0%, and 7.8%, respectively. The patients who received GTR showed a significantly longer OS and PFS than those who received STR, PR, or biopsy alone, regardless of the methylation status of the MGMT promoter. Patients with a methylated MGMT promoter also showed a significantly longer OS and PFS than those with an unmethylated MGMT promoter. Patients who received more than six cycles of adjuvant TMZ had a longer OS and PFS than those who received six or fewer cycles. Hematologic toxicity of grade 3 or 4 was observed in 8.4% of patients during the CCRT period and in 10.2% during the adjuvant TMZ period. CONCLUSION: Patients treated with CCRT followed by adjuvant TMZ had more favorable survival rates and tolerable toxicity than those who did not undergo this treatment.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Glioblastoma , Humans , Korea , Methylation , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-159664

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Elevated cell counts and protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) result from disease activity in patients with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC). Previous studies evaluated the use of CSF profiles to monitor a treatment response or predict prognosis. CSF profiles vary, however, according to the sampling site and the patient's systemic condition. We compared lumbar and ventricular CSF profiles collected before intraventricular chemotherapy for LMC and evaluated the association of these profiles with patients' systemic factors and LMC disease activity. METHODS: CSF profiles were retrospectively collected from 228 patients who underwent Ommaya reservoir insertion for intraventricular chemotherapy after a diagnosis of LMC. Lumbar samples taken via lumbar puncture were used for the diagnosis, and ventricular samples were obtained later at the time of Ommaya reservoir insertion. LMC disease activity was defined as the presence of LMC-related symptoms such as increased intracranial pressure, hydrocephalus, cranial neuropathy, and cauda equina syndrome. RESULTS: Cell counts (median : 8 vs. 1 cells/mL) and protein levels (median : 68 vs. 17 mg/dL) significantly higher in lumbar CSF than in ventricular CSF (p<0.001). Among the evaluated systemic factors, concomitant brain metastasis and previous radiation were significantly correlated with higher protein levels in the lumbar CSF (p=0.01 and <0.001, respectively). Among the LMC disease activity, patients presenting with hydrocephalus or cauda equina syndrome showed higher lumbar CSF protein level compared with that in patients without those symptoms (p=0.049 and p<0.001, respectively). The lumbar CSF cell count was significantly lower in patients with cranial neuropathy (p=0.046). The ventricular CSF cell counts and protein levels showed no correlation with LMC symptoms. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), which was measured from ventricular CSF after the diagnosis in 109 patients, showed a significant association with the presence of hydrocephalus (p=0.01). CONCLUSION: The protein level in lumbar CSF indicated the localized disease activity of hydrocephalus and cauda equina syndrome. In the ventricular CSF, only the CEA level reflected the presence of hydrocephalus. We suggest using more specific biomarkers for the evaluation of ventricular CSF to monitor disease activity and treatment response.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Brain , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Cell Count , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Cranial Nerve Diseases , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Intracranial Pressure , Meningeal Carcinomatosis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Polyradiculopathy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Puncture
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83161

ABSTRACT

Treatment of Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) from solid cancers has not advanced noticeably since the introduction of intra-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) chemotherapy in the 1970's. The marginal survival benefit and difficulty of intrathecal chemotherapy injection has hindered its wide spread use. Even after the introduction of intraventricular chemotherapy with Ommaya reservoir, frequent development of CSF flow disturbance, manifested as increased intracranial pressure (ICP), made injected drug to be distributed unevenly and thus, the therapy became ineffective. Systemic chemotherapy for LMC has been limited as effective CSF concentration can hardly be achieved except high dose methotrexate (MTX) intravenous administration. However, the introduction of small molecular weight target inhibitors for primary cancer treatment has changed the old concept of 'blood-brain barrier' as the ultimate barrier to systemically administered drugs. Conventional oral administration achieves an effective concentration at the nanomolar level. Furthermore, many studies report that a combined treatment of target inhibitor and intra-CSF chemotherapy significantly prolongs patient survival. Ventriculolumbar perfusion (VLP) chemotherapy has sought to increase drug delivery to the subarachnoid CSF space even in patients with disturbed CSF flow. Recently authors performed phase 1 and 2 clinical trial of VLP chemotherapy with MTX, and 3/4th of patients with increased ICP got controlled ICP and the survival was prolonged. Further trials are required with newly available drugs for CSF chemotherapy. Additionally, new LMC biologic/pharmacodynamic markers for early diagnosis and monitoring of the treatment response are to be identified with the help of advanced molecular biology techniques.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravenous , Administration, Oral , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Drug Therapy , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Intracranial Pressure , Meningeal Carcinomatosis , Methotrexate , Molecular Biology , Molecular Weight , Perfusion
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